Virtual School Meanderings

June 20, 2022

Article Notice – An Overnight Educational Transformation: How did the Pandemic Turn Early Childhood Education Upside Down?

This article was included in the Online Learning – Vol. 26, No. 2 (2022) notice that appeared earlier today that I wanted to specifically highlight as potentially being of particular interest to readers of this space.

Sinem Aslan, Qi Li, Curtis J. Bonk, Lama Nachman


Since the spring of 2020, many early childhood education programs (pre-K, K, 1st, and 2nd grades) had to close as governments around the world took serious measures to slow down the transmission of COVID-19. As a result, the pandemic forced many early childhood teachers to start teaching online and continue supporting their students remotely. Unfortunately, there were few lessons that these teachers could learn from experience to cope with this change since online learning in early childhood settings had been scarce until the outbreak of the pandemic. In response, the goal of this interview study was to investigate how early childhood teachers in public and private schools implemented online learning during the pandemic, the challenges they encountered when teaching online, and their suggestions to address these challenges. The results showed that the teachers did not sit still and patiently wait for the re-opening of the schools. Instead, they took assorted initiatives to support their students’ learning and development remotely. They faced several challenges on the way but also suggested various methods to address these challenges through developmentally appropriate technology use. The results of this study have implications for teachers when early childhood programs return to normal. The study creates opportunities for future research to gain greater understanding of the design and implementation of online learning activities with young learners.


Early childhood education, technology integration, online learning, COVID-19 pandemic, distance education

Online Learning – Vol. 26, No. 2 (2022)

Just wanted to post this table of contents alert.  Click on the link at the top to go to the website and access any of these open access articles.

VOL 26, NO 2 (2022)

Table of Contents


Peter Shea

Faculty, Professional Development, and Online Teaching

Improving Retention Factors and Student Success Online Utilizing the Community of Inquiry Framework’s Instructor Presence Model
Michelle L Rosser-Majors, Sandra Rebeor, Christine McMahon, Andrea Wilson, Stephanie L Stubbs, Yolanda Harper, Laura Sliwinski
Online Presentations with PowerPoint Present Live Real-Time Automated Captions and Subtitles: Perceptions of Faculty and Administrators
Anymir Orellana, Georgina Arguello, Elda Kanzki-Veloso

Empirical Studies

An Overnight Educational Transformation: How did the Pandemic Turn Early Childhood Education Upside Down?
Sinem Aslan, Qi Li, Curtis J. Bonk, Lama Nachman
Facilitating Cognitive Presence Online: Perception and Design
Julie McCarroll, Peggy Hartwick
A Comparison of Three Assessment Types on Student Engagement and Content Knowledge in Online Instruction
Lynda Randall, Jessica Jaynes
Academic Performance in Distance Education: Quizzes as a Moderator Variable and Students’ Perception and Expectation through Linguistic Analysis
Laura Parte, Lucía Mellado
Predicting social presence in videoconference-supported LMS courses: Mediation through L2 writing and speaking strategies
Daniel Bailey, Norah Almusharraf, Asma Almusharraf
From Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) to Sustained Remote Teaching (SRT): A comparative semester analysis of exchange students’ experiences and perceptions of learning online during COVID-19
William H. Stewart, Youngkyun Baek, Patrick R. Lowenthal
Relationships Between Online Student Engagement Practices and GPA Among RN-to-BSN Students
Kathryn E. Rioch, Jennifer L. Tharp
The Effects of Nudges on Students’ Use of the Diagnostic Assessment and Achievement of College Skills
David W Franklin Jr, Jason Bryer, Angela M Lui, Heidi L Andrade, Diana Akhmedjanova
Face-to-face vs. Online Asynchronous Teaching in a Conservation Biology Course
Carrie Wells, Michelle Pass, Jane Walsh
The Impact of Attitudes, Beliefs, and Cognitive Reflection on the Development of Critical Thinking Skills in Online Students
Boban Simonovic, Katia Vione, Dean Fido, Edward Stupple, James Martin, Richard Clarke
Effect of Feedback with Video-based Peer Modeling on Learning and Self-efficacy
Wadi Eghterafi, Mary C. Tucker, Icy (Yunyi) Zhang, Ji Yun Son

Qualitative Perspectives

Understanding the Lived Experience of Online Learners: Towards a Framework for Phenomenological Research on Distance Education
Jonathan Becker, Michael Schad
A Case Study Approach to Exploring Resilient Pedagogy During Times of Crisis
Katie Clum, Elizabeth Ebersole, David Wicks, Munyi Shea

Book Review

Book Review: Leading the eLearning Transformation of Higher Education: Leadership Strategies for the New Generation, 2nd ed. Gary E. Miller and Kathleen S. Ives (Eds.)
Don Olcott, Jr.

Review of Literature

Community of Inquiry Framework: Research Trends Between 2000-2020
Yusuf Ziya Olpak

May 3, 2022

[CJLT] New notification from Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology

Note this new issue alert.

You have a new notification from Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology:

An issue has been published.


CJLT Managing Editor

Unfortunately, unlike the one that I just finished promoting, this issue doesn’t have any real K-12 focused items (as evidenced by the table of contents below).

Vol. 47 No. 3 (2021): Fall

PUBLISHED: 2022-05-02


  • Editorial

    Lakhal Sawsen, Martha Cleveland-Innes


  • Making STEAM-Based Professional Learning: A Four-Year Design-Based Research Study

    Dr. Janette Hughes, Laura Morrison, Jennifer Robb
  • Shouting in the Kenyan Space: Can Spaceteam ESL Improve L2 Learners’ Oral Reading Fluency?

    Walcir Cardoso, David Waddington, Anne-Marie Sénécal, Enos Kiforo, Linah Anyango, Dickson K. Karanja
  • Effect of a Tutorial for Learning SQL on Learner Outcomes and Satisfaction

    Lynda Farza
  • Acceptance and Barriers of Open Educational Resources in the Context to Indian Higher Education

    Gopal Datt, Gagan Singh
  • Assessing Students’ Learning Attitude and Academic Performance Through m-Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Bamidele Aremu, Olufemi Adeoluwa


  • Creating Online Learning Experiences: A Brief Guide to Online Courses, from Small and Private to Massive and Open, 2018

    Alicia Cundell

Article Notice – From Physical to Virtual: A New Learning Norm in Music Education for Gifted Students

Yesterday I posted the notice of a New notification from The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning.  This is the fourth of four K-12 distance, online, and/or blended learning focused articles from that issue.

From Physical to Virtual: A New Learning Norm in Music Education for Gifted Students

  • Md Jais IsmailFaculty of Music, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Azu Farhana AnuarStudent Development, UniKL MICET, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Alor Gajah Campus, Melaka, Malaysia
  • Fung Chiat LooDepartment of Music, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Keywords: music education, distance learning, COVID-19, pre-experimental, two-way MANOVA, online learning


Music education is a subject that is generally thought to have much physical activity involved. However, virtual learning has been mandatary applied to most schools worldwide due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The landscape of music learning has had to be switched to online distance learning (ODL), where students learn music virtually using technological tools. Gifted students are among those affected by the implementation of music ODL throughout 2020. Thus, the purpose of this study is to identify the effectiveness of music ODL on gifted students’ motivation. The researchers framed this quantitative study by involving 81 secondary gifted students, aged 13 years, from 13 states in Malaysia. The sample was selected through random sampling, and a preexperimental design was applied to conduct the study. Respondents had been exposed to the music ODL intervention for a month. Data were collected through an adapted questionnaire, namely, the MUSIC Inventory, with a five-point scale. Data were further analysed by descriptive and inferential statistics, integrating two-way MANOVA, using SPSS Statistics version 23. Results reveal that an ODL approach to music classes is significantly effective to enhance gifted students’ motivation domains of empowerment, usefulness, success, interest, and caring. Yet, no significant difference was found in gifted students’ genders and locations on the four domains. Different approaches in music teaching could be further explored for music ODL to gifted students in future studies.

Article Notice – The Effects and Implications of Using Open Educational Resources in Secondary Schools

Yesterday I posted the notice of a New notification from The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning.  This is the thrd of four K-12 distance, online, and/or blended learning focused articles from that issue.

The Effects and Implications of Using Open Educational Resources in Secondary Schools

  • Paul HarveySeattle Pacific University
  • John BondSeattle Pacific University
Keywords: open educational resources, secondary schools, mathematics, state testing


Open educational resources (OER) constitute a curriculum innovation that is considered revolutionary and has the potential to change the landscape of curriculum at all levels and content areas. OER have gained attention and widespread acceptance by educators and policy makers since 2002.  The promise of OER is that they provide cost savings, promote collaboration, and are adaptable to the needs of teachers and students while providing a legitimate alternative to commercially produced print textbooks. Determining the relevance and viability of the movement to embrace OER requires an examination of theoretical foundations and empirical research to illuminate the effect of using OER as core curricula. While advocates promote the use of OER as a financially liberating model of curriculum and as a source of constructivist learning materials, more research is needed. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between OER and student learning. The study critically analyzed previous studies on OER and applied empirical analyses to the use of OER by a sample of middle schools. Twenty-eight middle schools from Washington State served as the subjects for the study. The study followed an ex post facto causal comparative model. Three research questions provided the focus for the study to investigate the effects of OER curriculum, duration of curriculum use, and other factors on student achievement in middle school mathematics. The results of the study found non-significant effects for OER use in relationship to school performance in mathematics, and significant effects on math scores for the variables of student poverty, curriculum duration, and cohort size.

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