Virtual School Meanderings

June 20, 2021

EBSCO Alerts

Filed under: virtual school — Michael K. Barbour @ 8:07 am
Tags: , , , , ,

ebscoFirst, I received the alert for virtual schools, but there were no relevant items.

Next, I did not receive the alert for cyber schools.

Finally, I also did not receive the alert for K-12 online learning.

So nothing to report this week.

June 13, 2021

EBSCO Alerts

Filed under: virtual school — Michael K. Barbour @ 8:04 am
Tags: , , , , ,

ebscoFirst, I received the alert for virtual schools, but there were no relevant items.

Next, I did not receive the alert for cyber schools.

Finally, I also did not receive the alert for K-12 online learning.

So nothing to report this week.

June 6, 2021

EBSCO Alerts

Filed under: virtual school — Michael K. Barbour @ 8:02 am
Tags: , , , , ,

ebscoFirst, the alert for virtual schools.

1. TI- Moving on Up? A Virtual School, Student Mobility, and Achievement. EdWorkingPaper No. 20-309
AU- Paul, James D.
AU- Wolf, Patrick J.
AU- Annenberg Institute for School Reform at Brown University
SO- Annenberg Institute for School Reform at Brown University
DT- 20201221
YR- 2020
PG- 34
PT- Report
SU- Virtual Schools; Student Mobility; Charter Schools; Academic Achievement; School Effectiveness; Reading Achievement; Mathematics Achievement; Scores; Elementary School Students; Middle School Students
SU- Elementary Education; Junior High Schools; Middle Schools; Secondary Education
AB- Virtual charter schools provide full-time, tuition-free K-12 education through internet-based instruction. Although virtual schools offer a personalized learning experience, most research suggests these schools are negatively associated with achievement. Few studies account for differential rates of student mobility, which may produce biased estimates if mobility is jointly associated with virtual school enrollment and subsequent test scores. We evaluate the effects of a single, large, anonymous virtual charter school on student achievement using a hybrid of exact and nearest-neighbor propensity score matching. Relative to their matched peers, we estimate that virtual students produce marginally worse ELA scores and significantly worse math scores after one year. When controlling for student mobility during the outcome year, estimates of virtual schooling are slightly less negative. These findings may be more reliable indicators of the independent effect of virtual schooling if matching on mobility proxies for otherwise unobservable negative selection factors.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED610303
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2021

2. TI- Uncovering the Challenges and Leadership Practices of Virtual School Principals
AU- Gustafson, David C.
AU- Haque, MD
SO- Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, v23 n4 Win 2020
VI- 23
IP- 4
DT- 20200101
YR- 2020
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Principals; Virtual Schools; Leadership; Public Schools; Private Schools; Charter Schools; Administrator Characteristics; Skills; Elementary Secondary Education
GE- California
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Virtual schools are one of the fastest growing educational options for students in the United States. In spite of the increase in virtual program options and enrollment, limited research has been conducted on how virtual school principals lead their organizations. This qualitative case study explores the challenges facing virtual school principals and how these leaders navigate these challenges. Data were collected through semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with 20 public, private, and charter virtual school principals from across California. The findings from this study identified the essential skills and ways in which virtual principals overcome leadership challenges. These factors included: Being open to new ideas, taking positive risks, staying flexible, empowering staff, communicating effectively, and serving stakeholders. The findings from this study can offer insight to many traditional brick and mortar school leadership that are holding fully online classes due to COVID-19.
LA- English
IS- 1556-3847
AN- EJ1279156
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2021
RV- Y

3. TI- Bricks and Mortar vs. Computers and Modems: The Impacts of Enrollment in K-12 Virtual Schools. EdWorkingPaper No. 20-250
AU- Bueno, Carycruz
AU- Annenberg Institute for School Reform at Brown University
SO- Annenberg Institute for School Reform at Brown University
DT- 20200701
YR- 2020
PG- 50
PT- Report
SP- National Science Foundation (NSF)
SU- COVID-19; Pandemics; School Closing; Online Courses; Electronic Learning; Elementary Secondary Education; School Choice; Educational Policy; Cognitive Development; Student Behavior; Public Schools; Academic Achievement; Elementary School Students; Middle School Students; High School Students; Probability; Graduation; Outcomes of Education; Virtual Schools; Tests; Scores
GE- Georgia
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Elementary Education; Junior High Schools; Middle Schools; Secondary Education; High Schools
AB- The COVID-19 pandemic has put virtual schooling at the forefront of policy concerns, as millions of children worldwide shift to virtual schooling with hopes of “slowing the spread”. Given the emergency shift to online education coupled with the large increase in demand for virtual education over the last decade it is imperative to explore the impacts of virtual education on student outcomes. This paper estimates the causal effect of full-time virtual school attendance on student outcomes with important implications for school choice, online education, and education policy. Despite the increasing demand for K-12 virtual schools over the past decade little is known about the impact of full-time virtual schools on students’ cognitive and behavioral outcomes. The existing evidence on the impact of online education on students’ outcomes is mixed. I use a longitudinal data set composed of individual-level information on all public-school students and teachers throughout Georgia from 2007 to 2016 to investigate how attending virtual schools influences student outcomes. I implement a variety of econometric specifications to account for the issue of potential self-selection into full-time virtual schools. I find that attending a virtual school leads to a reduction of 0.1 to 0.4 standard deviations in English Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies achievement test scores for students in elementary and middle school. I also find that ever attending a virtual school is associated with a 10-percentage point reduction in the probability of ever graduating from high school. This is early evidence that full-time virtual schools as a type of school choice could be harmful to students’ learning and future economic opportunities, as well as a sub-optimal use of taxpayer money. [Additional funding for this report was provided by the American Economic Association (AEA) Mentoring Program.]
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED610273
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2021

4. TI- Communication in Online Learning — How Important Is It?
AU- Ashe, Sherry Janine
AU- Lopez, Robert Molina
SO- Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, v94 n1 p15-30 2021
VI- 94
IP- 1
DT- 20210101
YR- 2021
SP- 15
EP- 30
PG- 16
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
PT- Tests/Questionnaires
SU- Computer Mediated Communication; Electronic Learning; Online Courses; Teaching Experience; Secondary School Teachers; Virtual Schools; Teacher Student Relationship; Teacher Attitudes; Technology Integration; Technology Uses in Education; Teacher Participation
GE- Alabama
SU- Secondary Education
AB- The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to describe teacher experiences of teacher-to-student technology-mediated communication (TMC) in secondary virtual school (VS) environments in Alabama. The central research question for this study was: How do virtual school teachers in Alabama describe their experiences of teacher-to-student technology-mediated communication in secondary virtual school environments? Students educated in virtual environments use TMC, so teachers must know what kinds of TMC work best. The problem is that the teacher voice has been ignored in identifying teacher-to-student TMC that is effective in secondary VS environments. Using purposeful sampling of 12 VS teachers in Alabama, this research utilized semi-structured interviews, artifacts, and an asynchronous online focus group to uncover teacher experiences of teacher-to-student interactions in VS environments. In seeking meaning from their experiences, the predominant theme of whatever is best for the students became evident. Four themes developed pertaining to the participants’ experiences: Teacher mindset, teacher presence, integration of technology into instruction, and technology issues.
LA- English
IS- 0009-8655
AN- EJ1279615
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2021
RV- Y

5. TI- Exploring Teachers’ Influence on Student Success in an Online Biology Course. REL 2021-056
AU- Hughes, John
AU- Kisa, Zahid
AU- Sharp, Diana
AU- National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance (ED)
AU- Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast (ED)
AU- Florida State University
SO- Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast
DT- 20210101
YR- 2021
PG- 9
PT- Report
SU- Online Courses; Biology; Secondary School Science; High School Students; Teacher Influence; Success; Electronic Learning; Educational Technology; Academic Persistence; Science Tests; Scores; Time; Student Characteristics; Teaching Methods; Virtual Schools; High School Teachers; Science Teachers GE- Florida
SU- Secondary Education; High Schools
AB- Instruction plays a critical role in student success. However, most studies of teachers’ effects on student learning focus on face-to-face settings. Some aspects of online courses, such as the choice of synchronous or asynchronous instruction and the course structure, might reduce teachers’ influence on their students. This study of an online high school biology course offered by Florida Virtual School examined the variation in students’ course segment (similar to semester) completion rates, end-of-segment exam scores, and time to segment completion that is attributable to the influence of teachers. Students’ scores on the end-of-segment exam varied only slightly across teachers, while completion rates and time to completion varied more. [For the appendixes, see ED609865; for the study snapshot; see ED609866.]
LA- English
CN- EDIES17C0011
FT- Y
AN- ED609863
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2021
RV- Y
FF- Yes

6. TI- Professional Experiences of Online Teachers in Wisconsin: Results from a Survey about Training and Challenges. Stated Briefly. REL 2016-127
AU- Zweig, Jacqueline
AU- Stafford, Erin
AU- Clements, Margaret
AU- Pazzaglia, Angela M.
AU- Regional Educational Laboratory Midwest (ED), Midwest Virtual Education Research Alliance
AU- Regional Educational Laboratory Midwest (ED)
AU- American Institutes for Research (AIR)
AU- National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance (ED)
SO- Regional Educational Laboratory Midwest
DT- 20160201
YR- 2016
PG- 9
PT- Report
SU- Teaching Experience; Teacher Surveys; Training; Teacher Competencies; Barriers; Teacher Education; Faculty Development; Student Behavior; Educational Methods; Elementary School Teachers; Secondary School Teachers; Technology Uses in Education; Academic Persistence; Student Responsibility; Virtual Schools
GE- Wisconsin
SU- Elementary Education; Secondary Education
AB- Wisconsin Virtual School, a state online learning program that offers supplemental online courses to partner districts in Wisconsin, administered a survey to its teachers in fall 2014 to learn more about their training experiences and challenges. More Wisconsin Virtual School teachers reported participating in training or professional development related to online instruction while teaching online than before teaching online or during preservice education. The most frequently reported professional challenges concerned student engagement with and perseverance in online courses. Wisconsin Virtual School teachers indicated that they preferred unstructured professional development to structured professional development for addressing challenges related to students’ perseverance and engagement. [For the full report, see ED561235.]
LA- English
CN- EDIES12C0004
FT- Y
AN- ED611592
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2021
RV- Y
FF- Yes

7. TI- E-Learning at the K-12 Level: An Overview of the Relevant Literature
AU- Saqlain, Nadeem
AU- Mulcahy, Dennis
AU- Barbour, Michael K.
SO- Journal on School Educational Technology, v16 n2 p39-51 Sep-Nov 2020
VI- 16
IP- 2
DT- 20200101
YR- 2020
SP- 39
EP- 51
PG- 13
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Information Analyses
SU- Electronic Learning; Elementary Secondary Education; Literature Reviews; Technology Uses in Education; Distance Education; Virtual Classrooms; Educational Research; Teacher Role; School Holding Power
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- This paper presents an overview of the relevant literature in the field of the K-12 e-Learning. The literature suggests that eLearning at the K-12 level has been growing exponentially. The main focus of this paper is to describe some foundational concepts such as what is K-12 e-learning, how has it grown, how is the technology employed, and what is the role of an e-teacher. Researchers in the field agree that K-12 e-learning is a form of distance education in which teacher and learners are separated in time or space, and occur through an organization, which offers formal instruction via the internet. The types of e-Learning have been identified. The growth and rationale for e-Learning have been described. Some other relevant aspects of K-12 e-Learning such as virtual school management and student support have been discussed. The challenges of K-12 online learning are also a part of this paper. The necessary attributes for successful online learning environments.
LA- English
IS- 0973-2217
AN- EJ1279258
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2021
RV- Y

8. TI- We’re All Teachers Now: Remote Learning during COVID-19
AU- Carpenter, Dick
AU- Dunn, Joshua
SO- Journal of School Choice, v14 n4 p567-594 2020
VI- 14
IP- 4
DT- 20200101
YR- 2020
SP- 567
EP- 594
PG- 28
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- COVID-19; Pandemics; School Closing; Online Courses; Distance Education; Electronic Learning; Parent Role; Parents as Teachers; Public Schools; Private Schools; Charter Schools; Parent Attitudes; Home Schooling; Virtual Schools; Disease Control
AB- This study examined educational experiences of families under COVID and their schooling decisions in the 2021 school year. Results from a survey of 1743 parents indicate most schools provided educational resources ranging from hardcopy packets to live online instruction. Parents were generally positive about the experience. Parents in private and charter schools reported a more positive experience than those in traditional public schools. Only a small percentage of respondents said they were going to homeschool in fall 2020, but more than a third planned to send their child to a virtual school out of concern about their child’s health.
LA- English
IS- 1558-2159
AN- EJ1285611
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2021
RV- Y

Next, I received the alert for cyber schools, but there were no relevant items.

Finally, the alert for K-12 online learning.

1. TI- E-Learning at the K-12 Level: An Overview of the Relevant Literature
AU- Saqlain, Nadeem
AU- Mulcahy, Dennis
AU- Barbour, Michael K.
SO- Journal on School Educational Technology, v16 n2 p39-51 Sep-Nov 2020
VI- 16
IP- 2
DT- 20200101
YR- 2020
SP- 39
EP- 51
PG- 13
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Information Analyses
SU- Electronic Learning; Elementary Secondary Education; Literature Reviews; Technology Uses in Education; Distance Education; Virtual Classrooms; Educational Research; Teacher Role; School Holding Power
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- This paper presents an overview of the relevant literature in the field of the K-12 e-Learning. The literature suggests that eLearning at the K-12 level has been growing exponentially. The main focus of this paper is to describe some foundational concepts such as what is K-12 e-learning, how has it grown, how is the technology employed, and what is the role of an e-teacher. Researchers in the field agree that K-12 e-learning is a form of distance education in which teacher and learners are separated in time or space, and occur through an organization, which offers formal instruction via the internet. The types of e-Learning have been identified. The growth and rationale for e-Learning have been described. Some other relevant aspects of K-12 e-Learning such as virtual school management and student support have been discussed. The challenges of K-12 online learning are also a part of this paper. The necessary attributes for successful online learning environments.
LA- English
IS- 0973-2217
AN- EJ1279258
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2021
RV- Y

May 30, 2021

EBSCO Alerts

Filed under: virtual school — Michael K. Barbour @ 8:02 am
Tags: , , , , ,

ebscoFirst, I received the alert for virtual schools.

TI- Families Live in Fear as Long-Haul Covid Afflicts More Children.
AU- Welch, David
JN- Bloomberg.com
PD- 5/19/2021, pN.PAG-N.PAG
PG- 1p
DT- 20210519
PT- Article
AN- 150388782

Next, I did not receive the alert for cyber schools.

Finally, I also did not receive the alert for K-12 online learning.

May 23, 2021

EBSCO Alerts

Filed under: virtual school — Michael K. Barbour @ 8:03 am
Tags: , , , , ,

ebscoFirst, I received the alert for virtual schools, but there were no relevant items.

Next, I did not receive the alert for cyber schools.

Finally, I also did not receive the alert for K-12 online learning.

So nothing to report this week.

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