Virtual School Meanderings

March 7, 2019

SITE 2019: K-12 Online And/Or Blended Learning Sessions

So as I look through the program for SITE 2019 in a few weeks, here is what I’ve come up with as sessions focused on K-12 distance, online, and/or blended learning.

Tuesday, March 19th

Wednesday, March 20th

Friday, March 22nd

March 5, 2019

Publication Notice: Handbook of Research on Emerging Practices and Methods for K-12 Online and Blended Learning

This came across my electronic desk last week.

Handbook of Research on Emerging Practices and Methods for K-12 Online and Blended Learning

Handbook of Research on Emerging Practices and Methods for K-12 Online and Blended Learning

Tina Lane Heafner (University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA), Richard Hartshorne (University of Central Florida, USA) and Richard Thripp (University of Central Florida, USA)
Release Date: January, 2019|Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 608
ISBN13: 9781522580096|ISBN10: 1522580093|EISBN13: 9781522580102|DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-8009-6


National efforts have been made to encourage technology integration in teacher preparation with expectations for frequent and successful applications with K-12 learners. While online learning has become pervasive in many fields in education, it has been somewhat slow to catch on in K-12 settings.

The Handbook of Research on Emerging Practices and Methods for K-12 Online and Blended Learning is a collection of innovative research on the applications of technology in online and blended learning environments in order to develop quality courses, explore how content is delivered across disciplines and settings, and support the formation of relationships and enrichment opportunities. While highlighting topics including learning initiatives, institutional policies, and program structures, this book is ideally designed for teachers, principals, early childhood development centers, university faculty, administrators, policymakers, researchers, and practitioners.

Topics Covered

The many academic areas covered in this publication include, but are not limited to:

  • Collaborative Learning
  • Cultural Aspects
  • Evaluation
  • Institutional Policies
  • Instructional Models
  • K-12 Education
  • Learning Initiatives
  • Learning Theory
  • Online Learning
  • Program Structures
  • Student Achievement
  • Student Learning Outcomes
  • Teacher Roles
  • Technology Applications

Table of Contents and List of Contributors

List of Reviewers
Table of Contents
Detailed Table of Contents
Kathryn Kennedy
Tina L. Heafner, Richard Hartshorne
Chapter 1
Marius Boboc
This chapter provides updated background information related to K-12 online education, ranging from definitions to benefits and challenges, based on… Sample PDF
Chapter 2
Vassiliki I. Zygouris-Coe
Demand for online learning is increasing in US colleges and universities. Learning does not occur in a vacuum; students learn independently and… Sample PDF
Chapter 3
Jean S. Larson, Leanna Archambault
This chapter, updated for the second edition of this volume, reviews the current research specific to the characteristics and preparation of those… Sample PDF
Chapter 4
Dixie D. Massey
The subject of students’ reading abilities and achievement are the focus national and international comparisons. Such a broad audience makes… Sample PDF
Chapter 5
Amy Valentine, Butch Gemin, Lauren Vashaw, John Watson, Christopher Harrington, Elizabeth LeBlanc
Discussions of rural America often summon images of pastoral farmland, country roads, and close-knit communities; this vision offers a sharp… Sample PDF
Chapter 6
Tina Lane Heafner
Using a widely accepted measure of teacher candidates’ performance, edTPA, this chapter examines the role of formative supports in supporting… Sample PDF
Chapter 7
Elizabeth A. Anderson
Student engagement has been shown to be essential to improving academic achievement, increasing high school graduation rates, lower dropout rates… Sample PDF
Chapter 8
Kristin Kipp, Kerry L. Rice
Engagement refers to a learner’s interest in their own learning. Engaged students care about what they are learning and spend the time necessary… Sample PDF
Chapter 9
Jean Kiekel, Serena Flores, Nicole McZeal Walters
Online learning for K-12 is the fastest growing segment of education. Advantages include access to courses for college and career readiness; world… Sample PDF
Chapter 10
Steve Joordens, Aakriti Kapoor, Bob Hofman
Online learning allows one to escape traditional constraints and to create learning experiences that allow interactions, and support learning, that… Sample PDF
Chapter 11
Elizabeth A. Anderson
The measurement of online latent constructs, such as student engagement, have mimicked the measurement of these constructs in traditional… Sample PDF
Chapter 12
Aimee L. Whiteside, Amy Garrett Dikkers, Fredrick W. Baker III
Through 15 years of research on social presence examining the level of connectedness among students and instructors, the authors uncovered a… Sample PDF
Chapter 13
Drew Polly, Amanda R. Casto
The term blended learning continues to gain momentum in K-12 classrooms around the United States. While the idea of implementing blended learning… Sample PDF
Chapter 14
Jayme Nixon Linton, Wayne Journell
Although K–12 online education is becoming more common in the United States, there is still much we do not know about how K–12 online teachers are… Sample PDF
Chapter 15
Christina M. Tschida, Jennifer L. Gallagher, Kimberly L. Anderson, Caitlin L. Ryan, Joy N. Stapleton, Karen D. Jones
In this chapter, the authors share the history of a video capture and annotation technology (VCAT) implementation and provide summaries of research… Sample PDF
Chapter 16
Elizabeth Bellows, Aftynne E. Cheek, Morgan Blanton
Three teacher educators partnered with a local high school to pilot an e-coaching model with secondary social studies pre-service teachers. Findings… Sample PDF
Chapter 17
Laura Corbin Frazier, Barbara Martin Palmer
This chapter provides a description of five models for professional development (PD) for online instruction and analyzes each model according to… Sample PDF
Chapter 18
Amani Abdullah Bin Jwair
This chapter explores the quality of learning found when using the flipped learning (FL) approach in K-12 education to promote academic achievement… Sample PDF
Chapter 19
Christina M. Nash
This chapter examines the best practices for creating inclusive online courses, focused at the K–12 level. It presents a theoretical framework that… Sample PDF
Chapter 20
Mary V. Mawn, Kathleen S. Davis
Online professional development courses and programs provide science teachers with ongoing and relevant professional development opportunities that… Sample PDF
Chapter 21
Scott M. Waring
It is undeniable that students today are fundamentally different than those of previous generations and that many students of this generation do not… Sample PDF
Chapter 22
Lauren Lunsford, Bonnie Smith-Whitehouse, Jason F. Lovvorn
The purpose of this chapter is to provide pre-service and practicing teachers a constructivist lens for viewing how they use technology… Sample PDF
Chapter 23
Wayne Journell, David Schouweiler
Online learning is part of the future of K-12 education. However, few online K-12 instructors have been formally trained in online pedagogy. This… Sample PDF
Chapter 24
Gina Tovine, April Fleetwood, Andrew Shepherd, Colton J. Tapoler, Richard Hartshorne, Raquel Pesce
While the growth of blended learning environments in higher education and non-educational settings has continued to increase in recent years, this… Sample PDF
About the Contributors

Author(s)/Editor(s) Biography

Tina L. Heafner earned her Ph.D. in Curriculum and Instruction from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro is a Professor at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte.Tina is the 2018-2019 President-Elect of the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS). Tina’s teaching and research focus on effective practices in social studies education with particular emphasis in online learning, technological integration, and disciplinary literacy. Her research also examines curriculum and policy issues in social studies education. Tina’s publications include seven co-authored books and five edited books including titles such as Beginning inquiry: Short texts for inexperienced readers in U.S. History, Seeds of inquiry: Using short texts to enhance students’ understanding of world history, and Exploring the Effectiveness of Online Education in K-12 Environments. She has published numerous articles in peer reviewed journals such as Teacher’s College RecordEducational Researcher, Kappa Delta Phi, Journal of Technology and Teacher EducationTeacher Education and Practice, and Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education. Her scholarship has appeared in all of the prominent social studies journals including: Theory and Research in Social EducationJournal of Social Studies ResearchInternational Journal of Social Studies EducationSocial Studies Research and PracticeThe Social StudiesSocial EducationSocial Studies and the Young LearnerMiddle Level Learner, and Social Studies Journal.

Richard Hartshorne is an Associate Professor of Educational Technology at the University of Central Florida. He earned his Ph.D. in Curriculum and Instruction from the University of Florida. At the University of Central Florida, his teaching focuses on the integration of technology into the educational landscape, as well as instructional design and development. His research interests primarily involve the production and effective integration of instructional technology into the teaching and learning environment. The major areas of his research interest are rooted in online teaching and learning, technology and teacher education, and the integration of emerging technology into the K-Post-secondary curriculum. His articles have appeared in such publications as Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, Journal of Computing in Higher Education, Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, The Internet and Higher Education, The Journal of Educational Computing Research, and others. He has also authored numerous book chapters and serves in editorial capacities for a number of journals in the field of educational technology.

January 9, 2019

Just Released – Handbook of Distance Education: Second Edition, 4th Edition

I received a notice yesterday that the latest edition (i.e., the fourth edition) of the Handbook of Distance Education.  You can access information about it at:

December 13, 2018

These New Articles For Distance Education Are Available Online

Note the earlier access to this K-12 online learning article that will be coming out in the new year.  In the interest of full disclosure, I am one of the authors.

September 4, 2018

DDL Presentation Moved – AECT 2018 And K-12 Online Learning

I received this notice sometime last week.

Karen, Cecil, Rick, Michael, Joshua,

One of the DDL presentations has cancelled. In order to balance the number of DDL session at one time, I have moved your presentation to 4:55pm-5:20pm, Marriott, Jay McShann B.
Only need to hear from you if there is a problem.
Dalinda Bond
AECT Convention Scheduler

This means that the current schedule of K-12 distance, online, and/or blended learning sessions is as follow.

SMT-Differentiation practices of Virtual School Teachers

Wed, Oct 24, 3:35 to 4:00pm, Muehlebach, Hoover

Short Description

To understand how online teachers meet the needs of diverse learners, researchers conducted focus groups and interviews with teachers in four virtual schools. Participants were questioned on how differentiation is seen in their practice. Grounded theory and structural, analysis of the data should reveal the self-reported differentiation practices of online teachers. Further, it will begin to distinguish between the practices of expert online teachers and novice teachers. Future research and implications are discussed.


  • Contributor: Dennis Beck, University of Arkansas
  • Contributor: Jennifer Beasley, University of Arkansas

DDL-K-12 Online Learning Journal Articles: Trends from Two Decades of Scholarship

Wed, Oct 24, 4:55 to 5:20pm, Marriott, Jay McShann B

Short Description

This research reviewed 356 articles in K-12 online learning from 1994–2016. We analyzed authorship, journals, citations, keywords, abstracts, and research methodologies. We found the field of K-12 online learning to be growing and maturing. In the last few years there has been a rapid acceleration not only of new articles, but especially of new authors. This infusion of new scholarship will undoubtedly lead to new ideas and trends over the next decade.


  • Contributor: Karen T Arnesen, Brigham Young University
  • Contributor: Cecil R Short, Brigham Young University
  • Contributor: Rick West, Brigham Young University
  • Contributor: Michael Barbour, Touro University, California
  • Contributor: Joshua Hveem, Brigham Young University

RTD Roundtable-The Effect of Practicum Experiences on Preparing Teacher Candidates for Successful K-12 Online Teaching

  • In Event: RTD-Roundtable/Poster Session
    In Roundtable Session: RTD-Roundtable Session

Thu, Oct 25, 2:15 to 3:20pm, Muehlebach, Royal Exhibit Hall

Short Description

The study is to examine the effect of practicum experiences on preparing teacher candidates for successful K-12 online teaching. Each candidate needs to design, develop and deliver an online or hybrid 3-week module to his or her students. A mixed-method design will be used to collect data including a survey, online interviews and a systematic examination of summative evaluation reports and weekly teaching logs. The results and implications will be discussed in the presentation.


  • Contributor: E-Ling Hsiao, Valdosta State University
  • Contributor: Xiaoxia Huang, Western Kentucky University

DDL-Does mileage traveled to testing sites impact online students test scores?

Thu, Oct 25, 2:55 to 3:20pm, Marriott, Julia Lee A

Short Description

Research shows that virtual school students don’t score as well as traditional students on state tests. Other research suggests that testing fatigue may harm achievement, and one source of fatigue may be the distance students travel to testing sites. Achievement data was collected from two virtual schools on whether driving distance is determinant of test scores, while controlling for demographic characteristics. Implications and future research are discussed.


  • Contributor: Dennis Beck, University of Arkansas
  • Contributor: Ian E Kingsbury, University of Arkansas
  • Contributor: Robert Maranto, University of Arkansas

SMT-Discovering Utilization Patterns in an Online K-12 Teacher Professional Development: Clustering and Data Visualization Methods

  • In Event: SMT-Roundtable/Poster Session
    In Poster Session: SMT-Poster Session

Thu, Oct 25, 3:35 to 4:40pm, Muehlebach, Royal Exhibit Hall

Short Description

This proposal reports on a completed study on utilization patterns of the content and site features of a K-12 online professional development platform by data mining web metrics records. Data mining, feature selection, simple K-means clustering and visualization methods were used to make sense of the massive volume of web metrics. The cross-industry standard process for data mining (CRISP-DM) was utilized with the clustering approach to form patterns among new and returning visitors seeking PD.


  • Contributor: Javier Leung, University of Missouri-Columbia
  • Contributor: Javier Leung, University of Missouri-Columbia

INTL-K-12 Online Supplementary Tutoring in China: Private Tutoring for Social Equity?

  • In Event: INTL & Affiliate-Roundtable/Poster Session
    In Poster Session: INTL-Poster Session

Thu, Oct 25, 4:55 to 6:00pm, Muehlebach, Royal Exhibit Hall

Short Description

The school education system in China has been criticized as a system that reinforcing social inequality in the past decades. The huge urban-rural disparities and the key school system – a state-sponsored hierarchical school system hinder equal access to quality educational resources. Will online education bring changes to the system? My research will examine the emerging K-12 online supplementary tutoring business to explore the the issue of online education, online tutoring business, and educational inequality in China.


  • Contributor: Yang Lai, Ohio University

ICEM Roundtable-Examining the Effects of Demographics in Online K-12 Education

  • In Event: INTL & Affiliate-Roundtable/Poster Session
    In Roundtable Session: ICEM-Roundtable Session

Thu, Oct 25, 4:55 to 6:00pm, Muehlebach, Royal Exhibit Hall

Short Description

The purpose of the study is to examine whether various demographic characteristics contribute to academic success as well as academic failure for high school students taking online classes. The presentation will provide insight if there is a correlation between specific demographic variables and academic success in K-12. This session will be beneficial to K-12 administration such as counselors, principals, and online teachers.


  • Contributor: Jerri Ward-Jackson, Mississippi Stae University
  • Contributor: Chien Yu, Mississippi State University

TED-Virtual schools’ recruitment practices: An analysis of virtual school commercials

  • In Event: TED-Roundtable/Poster Session
    In Poster Session: TED-Poster Session

Fri, Oct 26, 9:00 to 10:05am, Muehlebach, Royal Exhibit Hall

Short Description

Virtual schools (VS) are a growing phenomenon in K-12 education. Unfortunately, little is know about their recruitment and enrollment practices. To understand how VS have such different racial, socioeconomic and special education student representation than traditional public schools, we investigated the multiple messages and interpretations of virtual school advertisements, employing methods innate to the field of cultural studies. Preliminary results show that VS intend to recruit students of a particular type.


  • Contributor: Dennis Beck, University of Arkansas
  • Contributor: Christian Goering, University of Arkansas
  • Contributor: Jonathan Allred, University of Arkansas
  • Contributor: Seth French, University of Arkansas
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