Virtual School Meanderings

April 19, 2019

LearnTechLib Table Of Contents Alert: JCMST 38:2

I don’t believe that there are any K-12 distance, online, and/or blended learning items specific to this issue.  But several articles that may be of interest to readers of this space.

LearnTechLib - The Learning & Technology Library

LearnTechLib Table of Contents Alert: JCMST 38:2

Dear Michael Barbour,

The latest issue of Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching is now available on LearnTechLib, the Learning & Technology Library.

Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching

Vol. 38 , No. 2 (April 2019)

Table of Contents

  1. Perceptions of Pre-service Elementary Mathematics Teachers on Their Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Regarding Geometry

    Aykut Bulut , Middle East Technical University, ; Mine Işıksal , Middle East Technical University,


  2. Piloting Innovative Learning Experiences: Outcomes of Digital Fabrication Activities across Five Classrooms

    Curby Alexander , Texas Christian University, ; Gerald Knezek , University of North Texas, ; Rhonda Christensen , University of North Texas, ; Tandra Tyler-Wood , University of North Texas,


  3. How Viewers Orient Toward Student Dialogue in Online Math Videos

    Joanne Lobato , San Diego State University, ; Carren Walker , San Diego State University,


  4. Impact of using Autograph Software as a tool in Teaching and Learning of Quadratic Functions on Gender Performance

    Peter Kwamina Awortwe , Edinaman Senior High School, Mathematics Department, ; Maxwell Kwesi Nyatsikor , University for Development Studies, Faculty of Education, ; Dorcas Osei Sarfo , The Laboratory of Mathematics Paradise,


  5. Table of contents for this issue:

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April 12, 2019

These New Articles For Distance Education Are Available Online

Both of these items are focused on higher education, but may also be relevant to readers of this space.

Taylor & Francis Online - The new journals and reference work platform for Taylor & Francis
The online platform for Taylor & Francis Online content

New for Distance Education and online now on Taylor & Francis Online:

ArticlesTowards another kind of borderlessness: online students with disabilities
Yasuhiro Kotera, Vicky Cockerill, Pauline Green, Lucy Hutchinson, Paula Shaw & Nicholas Bowskill
Pages: 1-17 | DOI: 10.1080/01587919.2019.1600369

Modeling collective attention in online and flexible learning environments
J. Zhang, X. Lou, H. Zhang & J. Zhang
Pages: 1-24 | DOI: 10.1080/01587919.2019.1600368

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March 25, 2019

Article Notice – Surveying The National Landscape Of Online Teacher Training In K–12 Teacher Preparation Programs

This article is a bit dated (last year sometime), and I think I may have posted a notice of this article in the past, but it did come across my electronic desk this past week.


Online teaching and learning and the need for qualified online teachers are on the rise across the United States. Currently, the majority of teacher preparation programs do not formally prepare teacher candidates to teach online. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the ways teacher preparation programs are responding to the increasing need for K–12 teachers to be proficient in online teaching. A Web-based, national survey gathered data from 215 participants, mainly deans and associate deans. Participants recognized the need for online teaching, but reported there are too many state requirements from their traditional teacher preparation programs, leaving limited or no room to incorporate new curriculum on online and blended teaching methods. While undergraduate teacher preparation programs have limited or no room for other courses or initiatives, deans of graduate programs were generally more likely to support the inclusion of graduate degrees, optional courses, and/or certificates that prepare teacher candidates to teach online. Implications for teacher education are discussed. (Keywords: online teaching, online teaching methods, teacher candidates, teacher preparation, teacher preparation program deans)

I should also note that this journal is home to this article from seven years ago:

Few online high schools report requiring online education for their teachers, and few programs exist to prepare teachers to teach online (Smith, Clark, & Blomeyer, 2005). Professional development for online teachers continues to be a concern, and evaluative research that examines the effectiveness of various types of professional development is needed (Archambault & Crippen, 2009). The purpose of this exploratory study was to compare differences in online teachers’ self-reported frequency and confidence in performing online teaching tasks between teachers who had completed a comprehensive preparation program and teachers who participated in a one-day face-to-face workshop. Results found no differences between the groups and challenge conventions related to the nature and role of teacher preparation in online teaching.

Keywords: teacher educationonline teachingprofessional developmentonline learningteacher preparation

March 18, 2019

Article Notice: Cases of Quality: Case Studies Of The Approval And Evaluation Of K-12 Online And Blended Providers

Note that I am one of the authors of this article.

Cases of Quality: Case Studies of the Approval and Evaluation of K-12 Online and Blended Providers

Michael K. Barbour
Touro University California

Tom Clark
Clark Consulting

Jason Siko
Madonna University

Kristen DeBruler
Michigan Virtual Learning Research Institute

Justin Bruno
Michigan Virtual Learning Research Institute


State-level departments of education vary in their mechanisms for monitoring online courses and programs. This study reviewed various state models for initial and ongoing evaluation of online courses. Five constructs were identified through this review, and examples from Georgia, Maryland, California, Washington, and Colorado were detailed. The report concludes with potential models and key guidelines for states to consider when developing policy to ensure quality online education for K-12 students.


Barbour, M. K., Clark, T., Siko, J. P., DeBruler, K., & Bruno, J. A. (2019). Evaluation and approval constructs for online and blended courses and providers: Examining individual cases. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 22(1). Retrieved from

March 13, 2019

Article Notice: Online Self-Paced High-School Class Size And Student Achievement

While the authors posted this piece on their ResearchGate page back in July, it was officially published recently.

Educational Technology Research and Development

Volume 67, Issue 2pp 317–336

  • Chin-Hsi Lin
  • Jemma Bae Kwon
  • Yining Zhang
Research Article


In the traditional brick-and-mortar classroom, small classes are generally perceived as desirable, but the benefits associated with particular class sizes in online education have not yet received much scholarly attention. Using a dataset of 10,648 enrollment records generated during the 2013–2014 school year at a state virtual school in the Midwestern U.S., this study examined the relationship between class size and student learning outcomes. The results of hierarchical linear modeling with fractional polynomial analysis suggest a reverse-U-shaped relationship, in which increasing online class sizes had a positive impact on achievement until the number of students reached 45, but a negative one if numbers increased beyond that level. At the subject level, similar reverse-U-shaped patterns were observed in math, social science, and other subjects, but not in English, foreign languages, or science.


Online learning Class size Student achievement Virtual school 

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