The seventeenth session, which begins day three of blogging, at the 2015 annual conference of the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education related to K-12 online learning that I am blogging is:
The Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in An Virtual School World Language Courses: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach<Presentation: Paper #44442>
Conga A Thursday, Mar 05 2015 10:15AM-11:15AM
Yu-Li Chen: Conga A, 2015-03-05 10:15:00-2015-03-05 11:15:00
Among all the potential factors that affect the success of K-12 online learning, self-regulation learning is an essential one. This study compares the unique contributions of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to online learning strategies and online learning success. The subjects consisted of 469 middle- and high-school students enrolled in online world language courses in a Midwestern virtual school. Structural equation modeling was employed to explore the relations between motivation, learning strategies, and learning success (i.e., satisfaction and perceived progress). Intrinsic motivation was found to predict satisfaction and perceived progress both directly and indirectly through online learning strategies, whereas extrinsic motivation only predicted the outcome variables indirectly.
Yining began his session with the usual statistics about the growth of K-12 online learning and then described the various ways in which students could engage in K-12 online learning.
The basis of this study came from Cavanaugh (2001) and Oliver, Kellogg & Patel (2012), both of which found negative effects for K-12 students learning a foreign language online. And Yining spent some time providing an overview or review of self-regulated learning and the two main components (i.e., motivation and learning strategies).
The actual study looked at how motivation and online learning strategies impact student outcomes in foreign language online learning (defined as student satisfaction and perceived progress) , with a specific focus on the distinctions between intrinsic and extrinsic. The study included almost 1600 students enrolled in a variety of foreign language courses at a supplemental online program in the Mid-West. The instrument was a 67-item survey, which 466 students responded to (about a third of the possible population). About two third of the respondents were female – 60% of the respondents were taking the course as an elective, almost 40% were doing a required course, and only 3% were taking their foreign language course due to credit recovery.
After Yining took us through the study design, in some detail, he eventually got to the results.
- intrinsic motivation was predictive of learning strategy, learning strategy was predictive of online learning success, and intrinsic motivation was also directly related to online learning success
- extrinsic motivation was predictive of learning strategy, learning strategy was predictive of online learning success, and extrinsic motivation was not directly related to online learning success
- instrinic motivation contributed unique and additional power in explaining satisfaction, however, extrinsic motivation failed to do so
The bottom line was that intrinsic motivation was key in student success in foreign language learning. Extrinsic motivation has an indirect impact, and not a negative impact.
I’ll be honest and say that this shouldn’t surprise anyone – not just when it comes to foreign language learning online, or learning online, or even learning. Students that have an internal sense of motivation to learn will have success – plain and simple. I guess we now have data to confirm this, at least within an online foreign language environment.