Virtual School Meanderings

March 4, 2017

Virtual Schooling In The News

InTheNewsBeginning with the ASCD SmartBrief.

Tips to make online teaching, learning social

Tips to make online teaching, learning social
(Pixabay)
Online learning, while convenient, sometimes can lead to feelings of social isolation, asserts Robyn Scott, an online English tutor. She shares five ways to help combat loneliness, including adding field trips and practical activities into the curriculum.
KQED.org (2/28)

Next, the SmartBrief for EdTech.

MOOC gives tips for building blended courses

MOOC gives tips for building blended courses
(Pixabay)
A free, five-week massive open online course offers assistance to help design blended-learning courses. The course, which is to begin today, will discuss common challenges and provide steps for creating design documents, content pages and other learning resources.
CampusTechnology.com (2/24)

Similarly, the SmartBrief for the Higher Ed Leader

Survey reveals online-learning trends

Survey reveals online-learning trends
(Pixabay)
A survey of more than 2.5 million students and teachers in 160 countries reveals online-learning trends among high-school and college students. The GoConqr survey found, among other things, that online learning tends to be done alone.
eCampus News (free registration) (2/23)

 

Robots personalize distance learning

Robots personalize distance learning
(Oli Scarff/Getty Images)
Sick and homebound students in a Maryland school district are using telepresence robots so they can continue learning even though they are physically unable to go to school. The robots provide a more personalized distance-learning experience, district officials say.
eSchool News (free registration) (3/3)

 

 

Also, the MiddleWeb SmartBrief.

Teachers in 2 Pa. district adopt hybrid model

Two Pennsylvania school districts are implementing hybrid-learning techniques in middle- and high-school grades. Educators can adapt this model by having two to four groups of students working on a digital curriculum or other tasks, so teachers can have more individual instruction time with students, principal John Horton said.
The York Dispatch (Pa.) (2/28)

Back to the regular Google News alert for virtual school.

@FGCU_WTEN Falls in Another Tough Road Test at #38 FIU

The clincher came in the #6 position as Nerma Caluk defeated Sofia Perez (Costa Rica/Florida Virtual School) in back-to-back frames. After falling 6-2 …

Georgia Cyber Academy Now Accepting Enrollment for 2017-18 School Year

“Although GCA may be a virtual school, the real accomplishments of our students, graduates, and nearly 600 teachers and staff continue to amaze.

DeVos praises virtual schools, but new research points to problems

It was the best of times and the worst of times for virtual schools, which allow students to go to school without ever stepping into a school building.

GOP-led panel approves bill to increase virtual schools

A GOP-led legislative subcommittee has approved a bill that would allow an unlimited number of students in Iowa to enroll in for-profit virtual schools …

Syracuse home to international virtual language school

PEC has built a tremendous foundation in Syracuse so their virtual school runs flawlessly. The primary data center, with battery and generator backup, …

Study: Virtual schools tend to attract and harm lowest-performing students

The Hechinger Report writes the study, which tracked student performance in Ohio, also found high-performing students do worse in virtual schools, …

GOP-led panel OKs bill to increase online schools in Iowa

DES MOINES, Iowa — An unlimited number of students in Iowa will be able to enroll in for-profit virtual schools that receive public education funding …

GOP-led panel OKs bill to increase online schools in Iowa

DES MOINES, Iowa (AP) — An unlimited number of students in Iowa will be able to enroll in for-profit virtual schools that receive public education …

Virtual Schools Market 2020: Key Players, Industry Overview, Driving Factors, Industry Analysis …

The Global Virtual Schools report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the Virtual Schools for 2020. To calculate the market size, …

Op-Ed: Using Local Tax Dollars for Charter Schools a Bad Idea

Furthermore, the bill makes it possible for the dollars to be spent towards a “virtual school” that could be located in a completely different region of the …

Bill To Allow Okla. Charter Students To Play Sports Dead In Committee

9, also pointed out the students at a virtual school would be taking the place of brick and mortar student athletes on the field or on the court; a move …

Jeb Bush encourages virtual and charter schools during Capitol visit

Jeb Bush answers questions about charter school programs at a press conference Thursday at the Missouri Capitol building in Jefferson City.

New Title Reveals How to Maximize Student Growth Using Readily Available Digital Tools

William Gordon, COO of Florida Virtual School in Orlando, also highly recommended the title, stating, “The authors provide an excellent framework …

Finally, the Google News alert for cyber school.

Would it be a violation of probation to be signed out of high school at 16?

If you are failing, you may want to talk to your counselor about an Individualized Education Plan (IEP) or an alternative school or cyber school. Stay in …

Educators debate Snyder’s proposed cyber school cuts

LANSING — Gov. Rick Snyder’s proposed budget pledged more state money to education, but that doesn’t apply to all schools. Under Snyder’s ..

PA Cyber Charter School

MIDLAND — Educating children in kindergarten through 12th grade, the Pennsylvania Cyber Charter School, better known as PA Cyber, is one of the …

School budget: more for at-risk, less for cyber/private kids

LANSING, Mich. (AP) — Faced with discouraging test scores, Gov. Rick Snyder is proposing a shift so much more state money is spent on …

LETTER: ‘Extremely happy’ with education at Pennsylvania Cyber

Our child currently attends Pennsylvania Cyber Charter School and I can say, without reservation, that we are extremely happy with the education, …

School Budget: More For At-Risk, Less For Cyber/Private Students

From the Associated Press — Faced with discouraging test scores, Governor Rick Snyder is proposing a shift so much more state money is spent on …

Michigan cyber schools fight Snyder’s proposed aid cut

For the Michigan Great Lakes Virtual Academy, a Manistee-based cyber school that serves about 2,700 K-12 students across the state, Snyder’s …

 

February 26, 2017

EBSCO Alerts

ebscoFirst, the alert for virtual school this week.

1. TI- Online Schooling in the United States: A Response to Saultz and Fusarelli.
AU- Beck, Dennis1
AU- LaFrance, Jason2
JN- Journal of School Choice
PD- Jan-Mar2017, Vol. 11 Issue 1, p42-59
PG- 18p
DT- 20170101
PT- Article
AB- In this paper, we discuss some concerns and recommendations of Saultz and Fusarelli (2017), offering nuanced and detailed views of online schooling from a different perspective. This includes addressing challenges regarding online learning such as fluctuating enrollments, financial concerns, quality assurance, and accountability. In addition, we propose recommendations related to funding, better quality data, and oversight and monitoring. We conclude with a short discussion of the need for differentiated research for specific online learning contexts. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
AB- Copyright of Journal of School Choice is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material or the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
DE- DISTANCE education
DE- EDUCATIONAL accountability
DE- QUALITY assurance
DE- CHARTER schools
DE- LEARNING
DE- EDUCATION — Aims & objectives
DE- VIRTUAL schools
KW- accountability
KW- cyber charter school
KW- online learning
KW- quality assurance
KW- virtual school
IC- 611699 All Other Miscellaneous Schools and Instruction
IC- 923110 Administration of Education Programs
AD- 1Curriculum and Instruction, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas, USA
AD- 2School of Education, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida, USA
IS- 15582159
DI- 10.1080/15582159.2016.1272937
AN- 121307156

Next, the alert for cyber school.

1. TI- Growing cyber charter school moving to bigger digs.
AU- O’connor, David  davido@cpbj.com
JN- Central Penn Business Journal
PD- 2/10/2017, Vol. 33 Issue 7, p3-9
PG- 3p
DT- 20170210
PT- Article
AB- The article discusses the working and future plans of Commonwealth Charter Academy located in Harrisburg along with comments from its former administration teacher Maurice Flurie and COO Thomas Longenecker. Details regarding the cyber charter school’s teachers and students, teaching methods and meeting student’s needs are also discussed. Particular focus is on future growth plans of the school including moving of its two offices into one site and building a family service center.
DE- Schools
DE- Expansion (Business)
SU- Pennsylvania Cyber Charter School (Midland, Pa.)
SU- Teaching methods
SU- Students
IC- 611110 Elementary and Secondary Schools
IC- 611699 All Other Miscellaneous Schools and Instruction
IS- 10583599
AN- 121246463

2. TI- Online Schooling: A Cautionary Tale.
AU- Saultz, Andrew1
AU- Fusarelli, Lance D.2
JN- Journal of School Choice
PD- Jan-Mar2017, Vol. 11 Issue 1, p29-41
PG- 13p
DT- 20170101
PT- Article
AB- In this controversy piece, we portray online learning as growing too fast for existing regulatory structures to oversee and generally as having failed to live up to its potential. Operators, particularly for-profit operators, have generally not produced successful schools. We urge reforms of cyber schooling funding mechanisms, data systems, and oversight. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
AB- Copyright of Journal of School Choice is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
DE- DISTANCE education
DE- SCHOOL choice
DE- LEARNING
DE- CLASSROOM environment
DE- VIRTUAL schools
DE- CHARTER schools
KW- cyber schooling
KW- online schooling
KW- school choice
IC- 923110 Administration of Education Programs
IC- 611699 All Other Miscellaneous Schools and Instruction
AD- 1Educational Leadership, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, USA
AD- 2Department of Educational Leadership, Policy and Human Development, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA
IS- 15582159
DI- 10.1080/15582159.2016.1272928
AN- 121307155

3. TI- Online Schooling in the United States: A Response to Saultz and Fusarelli.
AU- Beck, Dennis1
AU- LaFrance, Jason2
JN- Journal of School Choice
PD- Jan-Mar2017, Vol. 11 Issue 1, p42-59
PG- 18p
DT- 20170101
PT- Article
AB- In this paper, we discuss some concerns and recommendations of Saultz and Fusarelli (2017), offering nuanced and detailed views of online schooling from a different perspective. This includes addressing challenges regarding online learning such as fluctuating enrollments, financial concerns, quality assurance, and accountability. In addition, we propose recommendations related to funding, better quality data, and oversight and monitoring. We conclude with a short discussion of the need for differentiated research for specific online learning contexts. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
AB- Copyright of Journal of School Choice is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
DE- DISTANCE education
DE- EDUCATIONAL accountability
DE- QUALITY assurance
DE- CHARTER schools
DE- LEARNING
DE- EDUCATION — Aims & objectives
DE- VIRTUAL schools
KW- accountability
KW- cyber charter school
KW- online learning
KW- quality assurance
KW- virtual school
IC- 611699 All Other Miscellaneous Schools and Instruction
IC- 923110 Administration of Education Programs
AD- 1Curriculum and Instruction, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas, USA
AD- 2School of Education, Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida, USA
IS- 15582159
DI- 10.1080/15582159.2016.1272937
AN- 121307156

Finally, once again I did not receive the alert for K-12 online learning.

February 25, 2017

Virtual Schooling In The News

InTheNewsBeginning with the ASCD SmartBrief.

4 ways to keep learning during snow days

4 ways to keep learning during snow days
(Pixabay)
Educators at a school that has had 10 snow days this school year have developed a protocol for digital learning days. In this blog post, educators Alyssa Tormala and Ellie Gilbert share the hallmarks of the program, including a digital learning platform, access to devices and learning objectives.
Edutopia.org (2/17)

R.I. sets personalized learning goals

R.I. takes steps to personalize learning
(iStock)
Officials in Rhode Island are developing a statewide vision for personalized learning in K-12 schools. A recently released document, called the Creating a Shared Understanding of Personalized Learning for Rhode Island, identifies how personalized learning can help each student.
Education Week (tiered subscription model) (2/22)

Survey reveals online-learning trends

A survey of more than 2.5 million students and teachers in 160 countries reveals online-learning trends among high-school and college students. The GoConqr survey found, among other things, that online learning tends to be done alone.
eCampus News (free registration) (2/23)

Similarly, the SmartBrief for EdTech.

Schools investing in digital curricula, survey finds

Eighty-six percent of K-12 schools and districts responding to a recent survey say they’ll be spending more on digital curricula this year. Schools can maximize the effectiveness of curricula by offering more professional development and training, experts suggest.
EdTech magazine online (2/22)Other News

Back to the regular Google News alert for virtual school.

Students logging into more virtual options

Through a new partnership with Michigan Virtual School, St. Clair County RESA is hoping to up the number of virtual courses taken in the county while …

@FGCU_MTen Outlasts Charlotte 4-3

Florida Virtual School/Texas Christian University) and Ezequiel Cerrini (Sunny Isles Beach, Fla./Homeschool) had to fight off a Charlotte rally.

New Principal Named at West Forsyth High School

He’s been a math teacher and curriculum developer at Georgia Virtual School and, before that, worked as a math teacher for Fulton County schools.

Virtual school choice must come with accountability

Online education may not be new, but for the Blue Water Area, competition among virtual schools is a novelty. Competition is good, but it is reasonable …

@FGCU_MTen Suffers Emotional Defeat to Tennessee Tech

Florida Virtual School/Texas Christian University) held serve through six games but fell behind 5-3 to Eduardo Mena and Alberto Esteban shortly after.

Iowa families foregoing classroom for virtual school

The two schools that operate here, Iowa Virtual School and Iowa Connections Academy, are considered public schools. They meet the same …

Missouri lawmakers weigh changes to state-run virtual education program

A 2016 virtual schools report from the National Education Policy Center raised some red flags, finding that virtual school outcomes lag significantly …

Iowa families foregoing classroom for virtual school

In 2013, Iowa students first enrolled in virtual schools run by for-profit companies … The two schools that operate here, Iowa Virtual School and Iowa …

Researchers: Don’t expand virtual schools as is

New research released Thursday suggests that efforts to quickly ramp up online “virtual” public schools nationwide could have a downside: lower …

Florida Virtual School Boosts CTE

The Florida Virtual School (FLVS), a statewide online public school, has developed two new courses to round out its career and technical education …

Trump’s New Education Secretary Wants More ‘Virtual Schools’ and Her Agency To Be Destroyed

How so? By gutting the agency she leads, introducing more “virtual schools,” and overseeing the rise of schools that “haven’t even been invented yet.”.

Florida Virtual School model shows online learning can be engaging

The eSchool Media and Xirrus Innovate to Educate awards program has identified the Florida Virtual School as a community winner for its strategy …

Missouri lawmakers weigh changes to state-run virtual education program

“Over half of Missouri school districts do not offer a single Advanced … A 2016 virtual schools report from the National Education Policy Center raised …

students logging into more virtual options

Unable to go to a traditional high school for health reasons while also … While there are a number of online cyber schools that are completely virtual, …

London talks virtual learning at Smethport school board meeting

SMETHPORT — Smethport Area School District Superintendent David London presented a report Mondayto the school board about two virtual …

Online classes to launch at St. Clair County high schools

St. Clair County’s seven school districts are collaborating with St. Clair … “LearnON is partnering with Michigan Virtual School to give our students a …

Syracuse home to international virtual language school

PEC has built a tremendous foundation in Syracuse so their virtual school runs flawlessly. The primary data center, with battery and generator backup, …

Town Crier: Tuesday’s Highlights

Students living in Natrona County who are receiving their full-time education online through a virtual school or Natrona County homeschool students …

Virtual Schools Market 2020: Key Players, Industry Overview, Driving Factors, Industry Analysis …

A Virtual School operates on an online learning platform and offers courses pertaining to various fields. These schools have a core curriculum and …

DeVos praises virtual schools, but new research points to problems

High-performing students fare better, but they still do worse than they would have done if they had not enrolled in a virtual school, according to the …

Brent Cooper: Using local taxes for charter schools is a bad idea, especially for Northern Kentucky

Furthermore, the bill makes it possible for the dollars to be spent toward a “virtual school” that could be located a completely different region of the …

Meet Jaidyn Conner, CSUB freshman at 13

So they recommended I go to virtual school so that I could go at my own pace and go faster than the others.” Conner agreed with her teachers and was …

Finally, the Google News alert for cyber school.

An open letter on behalf of the cyber school community in Pennsylvania: PennLive letters

As we work toward increasing general education funding, it is important that this does not come at the expense of cyber charter schools. With the …

PA Cyber Charter School founder Trombetta seeks to hold prosecutors in contempt

Pennsylvania Cyber Charter School founder Nick Trombetta and his legal team, who have been sparring with the government for weeks following his …

School budget: more for at-risk, less for cyber/private kids

FILE – In a Feb. 8, 2017 file photo, Michgian Gov. Rick Snyder, center, flanked by Budget Director Al Pscholka, left, and Lt. Gov Brian Calley, presents …

School budget: more for at-risk, less for cyber/private kids

It is largely being embraced by traditional school interests. But Republicans who control the Legislature andschool-choice advocates oppose some …

State school board president resigns over chimpanzee tweet

After the Pennsylvania Coalition of Public Charter Schools accused Miller of suggesting that cyber students were monkeys, he apologized for the tweet …

Norwin School Board may raise property taxes to cover $2.2M projected deficit

An increase in pension, health care and cyber school costs coupled with only a slight increase in state aid may push the Norwin School Board to raise …

CenturyLink, City of Monroe and local school partner to invest in STEM education initiative

CenturyLink, City of Monroe and local school partner to invest in STEM … City School System, the Ouachita Parish School System and the Cyber …

Snyder unveils funding proposal

n Gov. Rick Snyder is proposing that the state allocate more funds per student and rethink how it funds at-risk student, cyber-school programs.

LETTER: ‘Extremely happy’ with education at Pennsylvania Cyber

You are left to believe that a cyber school student’s education is behind that of traditional schools. After reading these articles I would like to ask …

Educators debate Snyder’s proposed cyber school cuts

LANSING — Gov. Rick Snyder’s proposed budget pledged more state money to education, but that doesn’t apply to all schools. Under Snyder’s …

February 19, 2017

EBSCO Alerts

ebscoFirst, I did not receive the alert for virtual school this week.

Next, the alert for cyber school yielded this item, but there were no relevant items.

Finally, once again I did not receive the alert for K-12 online learning.

So nothing to report this week.

February 18, 2017

Virtual Schooling In The News

InTheNewsBeginning with the eSchool News Today.

TODAY’S TOP NEWS

When virtual class time is innovative, student engagement soars

innovate to educate

Innovation doesn’t simply involve throwing technology into a classroom. It requires unconventional ideas, foresight, thoughtfulness, and dedication to student learning. And as the world becomes more connected, schools are making every attempt to help students develop the skills they’ll need to be a part of that interconnected world. In the…

Next, the semi-regular ASCD SmartBrief.

How will you mark Digital Learning Day?

How will you mark Digital Learning Day?
(Pixabay)
Digital Learning Day is Feb. 23. The instructional technology team for an Illinois school district is working to engage educators and students in the event through hashtags, a districtwide Digital Learning campaign and a Connected Classroom website.
T.H.E. Journal (2/16),  Patch.com (2/15)

iNACOL report highlights personalized learning

iNACOL report highlights personalized learning
(Pixabay)
Educators are personalizing learning to help students excel and thrive, says Susan Patrick, president and CEO of iNACOL, which recently released a report on the topic. The report highlights five schools’ approaches to personalized learning.

eSchool News (free registration) (2/16)

 

Other News

Similarly, the SmartBrief for EdTech.

Survey: Online students pay more for classes

Survey: Online students pay more for classes
(Pixabay)
Students taking online college courses are paying more than students who take the courses on-campus, according to a survey from the WICHE Cooperative for Educational Technologies. Some administrators of distance-education programs say some costs are higher to produce online courses and those costs are passed on to students in the form of fees or increased tuition.
InsideHigherEd.com (2/17)

 

 Why some students struggle in virtual charter schools

Virtual charter schools tend to draw students who struggle with performance, according to a study from New York University and the Rand Corp. Researchers say part of this struggle is due to poor support and suggest a federal study aimed at rethinking the framework for these schools.

USA Today (2/16)

Back to the regular Google News alert for virtual school.

NC students increasingly turn to virtual schools, but issues remain

North Carolina was one of the first states to have a statewide virtual school. Advocates say online classes give students the opportunity to take courses …

Fayetteville virtual school adds 4 grades for 2018-19

Fayetteville Virtual Academy opened this school year and has about 60 students in fourth through eighth grades. The academy in 2017-18 will add …

Columbia Virtual School’s Request to Stay Open Denied

Columbia, SC (WLTX) – A state board has denied a request for a Columbia-based virtual charter school to remain open following the end of the current …

NC virtual charter schools report lower withdrawal rates after change in legislation

Raleigh, N.C. — North Carolina’s two virtual charter schools reported lower student withdrawal rates this year, due in part to recent legislation that …

Online charter gets new look, new plan

The state’s first virtual charter school is changing its name and structure. Louisiana Connections Academy will be known as University View Academy.

After state issues relaxed regulations, virtual charter dropouts plunge

The new data was presented to members of the Charter School Advisory Board … Top administrators for the state’s two virtual charter schools boasted …

School districts make pitch for open enrollment

Pelz noted some families have previously enrolled out to attend virtual school and the district is working to get them to enroll into Beloit’s virtual school …

Are home-school athletes flocking to play public-school sports? See AHSAA stats

The Alabama High School Athletic Association passed legislation in April 2016 to allow home-school students – as well as charter and virtual school …

Florida Virtual School Boosts CTE

The Florida Virtual School (FLVS), a statewide online public school, has developed two new courses to round out its career and technical education …

School board considers Department of Juvenile Justice facility

Mitchell said they plan to provide the education through virtual school with the possibility of an academic teacher, an ESE teacher and a career and …

Florida Virtual School model shows online learning can be engaging

The eSchool Media and Xirrus Innovate to Educate awards program has identified the Florida Virtual School as a community winner for its strategy …

Partnership delivers online high school courses

LearnON is a partnership between St. Clair County RESA and Michigan Virtual School, said Kevin Miller, the director of administrative services for the …

Finally, the Google News alert for cyber school.

Growing cyber charter school moving to bigger digs

Commonwealth Charter Academy COO Tom Longenecker, left, and CEO Maurice Flurie are spearheading the public cyber charter school’s move into …

School districts voice opposition to property tax elimination

“At Wissahickon, like other Montgomery County school districts represented here today, it is … Concerns about cyber charter schools were also raised.

Family Finds Online School to Be a Lifesaver

But having access to an online charter school has been a great help. … Cyber schools are independent entities that deliver most or all of their program …

Snyder: Cut funding for cyber charter schools

Cyber charter schools could see their funding cut under a budget proposal released today by Gov. Rick Snyder. The funding cut, if approved by the …

Area schools work to improve, maintain graduation rates

Ringgold High School student Montell Carlock does class work in the cyberschool lab. The district has a cyber program with a lab at school with …

Some Montgomery County school districts oppose property tax elimination

6 press conference at Souderton Area School District’s E. M. Crouthamel Elementary …. Concerns aboutcyber charter schools were also raised.

PA Cyber Charter School founder Trombetta seeks to hold prosecutors in contempt

… guilty to tax conspiracy in connection with siphoning off some $8 million from the cyber school he founded and related corporate entities he created.

Norwin School Board may raise property taxes to cover $2.2M projected deficit

An increase in pension, health care and cyber school costs coupled with only a slight increase in state aid may push the Norwin School Board to raise …

Dallas School Board address impacts of strike, snow days on school calendar

The school board is looking at options to help the seniors earn the necessary credit hours, such as utilizing cyber school programs as well as having …

State school board president resigns over chimpanzee tweet

… Superintendent William Harner’s remark in the Inquirer on Sunday that it costs more to educate a student at a cyber school than a traditional school.

Centennial’s Mark B. Miller resigns post with state association after tweet

He noted that Centennial provides an online cyber school that costs one-third to one-fifth of what the charter schools cost. Miller said he submitted his …

An open letter on behalf of the cyber school community in Pennsylvania: PennLive letters

Early last week in Governor Wolf’s budget address, he addressed the continual deficit in Pennsylvania, referencing previous cuts to education funding.

 

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