Virtual School Meanderings

April 24, 2022

AERA 2022 – Middle School Students’ Remote Interactions and Their Influence on Academic Motivation During the COVID-19 Pandemic

The twenty-third of the K-12 Online Learning sessions from the 2022 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association that I am blogging is:

Middle School Students’ Remote Interactions and Their Influence on Academic Motivation During the COVID-19 Pandemic (Poster 7)

  • In Event: AERA Poster Session 10
    In Poster Session: Motivation in Education SIG Poster Session: Contextual Factors, Teacher Motivation, and Motivational Interventions (San Diego)

Sun, April 24, 2:30 to 4:00pm PDT (2:30 to 4:00pm PDT), San Diego Convention Center, Floor: Upper Level, Sails Pavillion

Abstract

Over the past few decades, researchers demonstrated that peers are viewed as powerful
socialization agents for the development of children’s achievement motivation (Kindermann,
2007; Ladd et al., 2009; Ryan, 2001). However, children’s interactions in schools have changed
drastically in many countries with the pandemic. National and local quarantines and school
closures have severely limited children’s daily face-to-face interaction with their peers (Cameron
& Tenenbaum, 2021). Also, Duckworth et al. (2021) found that high school students who
attended remote education have lower social, emotional, and academic well-being than those
who attended in-person. Therefore, this study examines the remote interactions of middle school
students and their influences on their motivation (expectancies for success and intrinsic value).

Authors

  • Utku Caybas, University of Kentucky
  • Deniz Seyda Tarim, Ustun Dokmen Academy
  • Yesim Capa Aydin, Middle East Technical University

Which was part of this larger session:

Motivation in Education SIG Poster Session: Contextual Factors, Teacher Motivation, and Motivational Interventions (San Diego)

  • In Event: AERA Poster Session 10

Sun, April 24, 2:30 to 4:00pm PDT (2:30 to 4:00pm PDT), San Diego Convention Center, Floor: Upper Level, Sails PavillionSession Type: Poster Session

Sub Unit

  • SIG-Motivation in Education

Papers

  • 3. Broadening the Understanding of Teachers’ Individual, Class-Directed, and Differentiated Autonomy Support With Bayesian Multilevel Analyses (Poster 3) – Barbara Flunger, Utrecht University; Anouk VerdonschotSteffen ZitzmannLisette Hornstra, University of Amsterdam; Tamara van Gog, Utrecht University
  • 4. Examining Marginalized Students’ Expectancies and Values While on Academic Probation (Poster 4) – Temitope F. Adeoye, Purdue University; Toni Kempler Rogat, Purdue University
  • 5. “I Feel It’s a Mutiny”: Teachers’ Beliefs About Their Students’ Agentic Engagement in Urban High School Science Classrooms (Poster 5) – Jeanette Zambrano, University of Southern California; Erika Alisha Patall, University of Southern California; Alana Aiko Uilani Kennedy, University of Southern California; Crystal Aguilera, University of Southern California; Nicole Marissa Yates, University of Southern California
  • 6. Improving Motivation and Achievement in Community College Math: The Efficacy of a Utility-Value Intervention (Poster 6) – Michelle Francis, University of Virginia; Delaram A. Totonchi, University of Virginia; Megan Moran, University of Virginia; Joshua Davis, University of Virginia; Yoi Tibbetts, University of Virginia; Kenn E. Barron, James Madison University; Chris S. Hulleman, University of Virginia
  • 7. Middle School Students’ Remote Interactions and Their Influence on Academic Motivation During the COVID-19 Pandemic (Poster 7) – Utku Caybas, University of Kentucky; Deniz Seyda Tarim, Ustun Dokmen Academy; Yesim Capa Aydin, Middle East Technical University
  • 8. More Cost, but Better Performance? Unexpected Effects of a Cost-Focused Intervention in College Biology (Poster 8) – Emily Quinn Rosenzweig, University of Georgia; Yuchen Song, University of Georgia – Athens; Shannon Clark, University of Georgia
  • 9. Profiles of Teachers’ Value Beliefs and Costs (Poster 9) – Rachel Part, University of Nevada – Las Vegas; Harsha Perera, University of Nevada – Las Vegas; Brenda Anne Pearson, University of Nevada – Las Vegas; Fae Ung, University of Nevada – Las Vegas; Colleen Priya Narayan, University of Nevada – Las Vegas
  • 10. Quality of Relationships at Work and Psychological Need Satisfaction and Thwarting: Evidence From Three Studies (Poster 10) – Alice Levasseur, Université Laval; Louise Clément, Université Laval; Caterina Mamprin, Université de Moncton
  • 11. Student Responsiveness to Relevance Interventions in Math: Antecedents and Consequences (Poster 11) – Hanna Gaspard, TU Dortmund University; Cora Parrisius, Hector Research Institute of Education Sciences and Psychology, University of Tübingen; Ulrich Trautwein, University of Tubingen; Benjamin Nagengast, University of Tübingen
  • 12. The Emotional Experiences of Preservice Social Studies Teachers Facilitating Discussions on Complex Social Topics (Poster 12) – Joseph Eisman, Temple University; Andrew del Calvo, University of Pennsylvania; Timothy Patterson, Temple University; Avi Kaplan, Temple University; Abby Reisman, University of Pennsylvania
  • 13. University Faculty Motivation for Teaching and Research: A Systematic Literature Review (Poster 13) – Robert H. Stupnisky, University of North Dakota; Chialin Chang, University of North Dakota; Makinde Omojiba, University of North Dakota; Ademola Amida, North Dakota State University; Virginia Clinton-Lisell, University of North Dakota; Michael James Herbert, University of North Dakota; Jordan Jaeger, University of North Dakota; Mojdeh J Mardani, University of North Dakota

Unfortunately, I’m on my way to the airport when this poster is being presented.  However, the presenters did upload a copy to the iPresentation system, so I have taken screens shots of it below.

AERA 2022 – Special Educators’ Experiences Pivoting From Face-to-Face to Virtual During COVID-19: A Phenomenological Study

The twenty-second of the K-12 Online Learning sessions from the 2022 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association that I am blogging is:

Special Educators’ Experiences Pivoting From Face-to-Face to Virtual During COVID-19: A Phenomenological Study

  • In Event: AERA Roundtable Session 12
    In Roundtable Session: Perspectives on COVID-19 and Special and Inclusive Education (Table 25)

Sun, April 24, 8:00 to 9:30am PDT (8:00 to 9:30am PDT), San Diego Convention Center, Exhibit Hall B

Abstract

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain an understanding of the lived experiences of special educators in the pivot from face-to-face to virtual learning during COVID-19. A national sample of 46 participants volunteered to join the study. Individual, recorded interviews and two focus groups were conducted by the research team. Data analysis included coding, cross coding, triangulation, and member checking as a means of deeply understanding the essence of participant experience. Study findings can be used to inform educational stakeholders and policy makers of the challenges found within special education, the unique strengths that special educators bring to the system, and how, through collaboration, we might initiate systemic change in support of special education teachers.

Authors

  • Jennifer Courduff, Azusa Pacific University
  • Peter A. Hessling, North Carolina State University
  • Jean Kiekel, University of St. Thomas

Which was part of this larger session:

Perspectives on COVID-19 and Special and Inclusive Education (Table 25)

  • In Event: AERA Roundtable Session 12

Sun, April 24, 8:00 to 9:30am PDT (8:00 to 9:30am PDT), San Diego Convention Center, Exhibit Hall BSession Type: Roundtable Session

Sub Unit

  • SIG-Special and Inclusive Education Research

Chair

  • Gabriela Walker, National University

Papers

  • Experiences of Students With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Before and During COVID-19: A National Survey – Esther Lindström, Lehigh University; Jenny Root, Florida State University; Deidre Paige Gilley, Florida State University; rui chen, Lehigh University
  • Special Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic – Sarah Hurwitz, Indiana University – Bloomington; Blaine Garman-McClaine, Indiana University – Bloomington; Kane Carlock, Indiana University – Bloomington
  • Special Educators’ Experiences Pivoting From Face-to-Face to Virtual During COVID-19: A Phenomenological Study – Jennifer Courduff, Azusa Pacific University; Peter A. Hessling, North Carolina State University; Jean Kiekel, University of St. Thomas
  • “We Missed Teaching Inclusion”: The Perceived Impact of COVID-19 on Inclusive Extracurricular Activities – Margaret Mackin, University of Massachusetts – Boston; Staci Ballard, University of Massachusetts – Boston; Holly Jacobs, University of Massachusetts – Boston; Afrina Rohani, University of Massachusetts – Boston; Key Duckworth, University of Massachusetts – Boston
  • What Have We Learned? Assistive Technology/Augmentative and Alternative Communication Implementation During COVID-19 – Jennifer Courduff, Azusa Pacific University; Amanda J Rockinson-Szapkiw, University of Memphis; HeeKap Lee, Azusa Pacific University; Jessica Herring Watson, University of Central Arkansas

Unfortunately I wasn’t able to catch this session because I was at the one I previously blogged about.  While the AERA app had this session listed as the fourth one, the presenters at the roundtable appear to have presented in a different order – potentially the one from above which comes from the All Academic website that AERA also uses (the same thing happened with the last session, which I only caught by luck).  This is a good example of another one of the problems here at AERA.  I’ve mentioned the issues with the wifi, which are completely unacceptable for a hybrid conference.  But they have four different schedules.

While I haven’t searched on the program information/overview page or the PDF version, but I can tell you that they released the All Academic program first (which I set up my personal schedule based on).  Then several weeks later they released the app – which has really been promoted as the main option by AERA.  However, the app doesn’t speak with All Academic – so that schedule I created in All Academic did not populate into the app.

The bottom line is that the next set of presenters were already a third of the way through their session when I arrived.  One of the presenters gave me a copy of her personal notes and I’ll scan those in and add them below when I get back home.

AERA 2022 – Examining STEM Classrooms Through a Virtual Classroom Observation Protocol During COVID-19

The twenty-first of the K-12 Online Learning sessions from the 2022 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association that I am blogging is:

Examining STEM Classrooms Through a Virtual Classroom Observation Protocol During COVID-19

  • In Event: AERA Roundtable Session 12
    In Roundtable Session: Innovative Classroom Observational Studies in Grades K–6 (Table 8)

Sun, April 24, 8:00 to 9:30am PDT (8:00 to 9:30am PDT), San Diego Convention Center, Exhibit Hall B

Abstract

Classroom observations are an important component of teacher effectiveness. As part of a 5-year cluster randomized controlled trial involving all K-5 campuses in a large charter system in the southern U.S., this study examined the effectiveness of an adapted virtual observation instrument to assess teacher effectiveness in implementing inquiry practices in STEM hybrid classrooms during COVID-19. Interrater reliability was used to validate the instrument, with moderate to high reliability findings. Observations of participants from the control (n=16) and treatment (n=12) groups in the randomly selected 11 schools revealed significant findings between groups on Student Inquiry and by school SES classification and Instructional Framework. Discussion regarding the benefits of the instruments and suggestions for improvement will be given.

Authors

  • Karen McIntush, Texas A&M University – College Station
  • Kim Boddie Wright, Texas A&M University – College Station
  • Hersh C. Waxman, Texas A&M University – College Station

Which was part of this larger session:

Innovative Classroom Observational Studies in Grades K–6 (Table 8)

  • In Event: AERA Roundtable Session 12

Sun, April 24, 8:00 to 9:30am PDT (8:00 to 9:30am PDT), San Diego Convention Center, Exhibit Hall BSession Type: Roundtable Session

Sub Unit

  • SIG-Classroom Observation

Chair

  • Jennifer D. Moss, Emporia State University

Papers

  • Examining STEM Classrooms Through a Virtual Classroom Observation Protocol During COVID-19 – Karen McIntush, Texas A&M University – College Station; Kim Boddie Wright, Texas A&M University – College Station; Hersh C. Waxman, Texas A&M University – College Station
  • Exploring Writing Instructional Practices, Teacher Beliefs, and Student Writing Outcomes: A Classroom Observation Study – Katherine Landau Wright, Boise State University; Sherry Dismuke, Boise State University; Jadelyn A Abbott, Boise State University; Tracey S. Hodges, University of Alabama; Peter Boedeker, Boise State University
  • “To Act or Not to Act”: A Qualitative Case Study in an Elementary Classroom – Olga Gould, Eastern New Mexico University

The presenters began with a detailed discussion of their normal classroom observation process, as this had been a long-time study that just needed to change the medium during COVID.  The crux of it was they needed to be able to undertake a virtual observation of the teacher – and due to the instrument a selection of the students.  The classes that were used were basically set up where the teacher was in the classroom with some students in the room logged into Zoom individually and then some students at home (so a fairly typical hybrid environment when you had one-to-one devices in the classroom).  The study was designed as a randomized control trial – with randomizing the schools who received the treatment.

Interestingly, using this tool there was inter-rater reliability on almost all measures.  The only ones that didn’t – and these were because there wasn’t enough data or instances to achieve this – were “math/science content,” “student inquiry,” and “formative assessment.”  The only significant difference between the control and treatment group was with the student inquiry group (which was one of the areas that didn’t have inter-rater reliability).

The presenters did a good job at looking at the potential of this kind of process – being able to conduct teacher observations without geographic boundaries.  They also did an exceptional job at looking at the potential issues that still need to be overcome, which included things like

  • how to you measure engagement when the cameras are off
  • even when the cameras are on, with all of the distractions in the background, how do you measure engagement in the lesson
  • what does and does not constitute use of technology
    • does the Zoom classroom or the LMS count – as those are the mediums
    • do you measure how many of the bells and whistles that the teacher actually uses in Zoom
  • what counts as instructor presence in a virtual or hybrid environment

All good issues when you consider the process of how we observe teachers in the online environment.

The handout that was provided by the presenters is below.

AERA 2022 – At-Risk Student Self-Beliefs, Learning Behaviors, and Mathematics Achievement in an Online Charter High School

The twentieth of the K-12 Online Learning sessions from the 2022 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association that I am blogging is:

At-Risk Student Self-Beliefs, Learning Behaviors, and Mathematics Achievement in an Online Charter High School

  • In Event: AERA Roundtable Session 12
    In Roundtable Session: Engaging Online Learners (Table 3)

Sun, April 24, 8:00 to 9:30am PDT (8:00 to 9:30am PDT), San Diego Convention Center, Exhibit Hall B

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between student at-risk factors and mathematics achievement in one online charter high school. Further, the study examined how student personal characteristics, which are often amenable to change and intervention, impact the relationship between risk and mathematics achievement. According to the results, mathematics self-efficacy contributed most to course grade among the hypothesized moderators. Additionally, the impact of family socioeconomic status (SES) on course grade was conditioned on level of one’s self-efficacy or time management. In general, more adaptive levels of either of the moderators lessened the impact of SES. For virtual schools moving forward, teachers and administrators should consider ways to strengthen students’ self-efficacy and time management strategies.

Authors

  • Nathan Andrew Hawk, Texas A&M University – College Station
  • Kui Xie, The Ohio State University

Which was part of this larger session:

Engaging Online Learners (Table 3)

  • In Event: AERA Roundtable Session 12

Sun, April 24, 8:00 to 9:30am PDT (8:00 to 9:30am PDT), San Diego Convention Center, Exhibit Hall BSession Type: Roundtable Session

Abstract

The papers in this session will explore important issue of what helps learners want to put in effort to learn material and work with peers online.

Sub Unit

  • SIG-Online Teaching and Learning

Chair

  • Patrick R. Lowenthal, Boise State University

Papers

  • At-Risk Student Self-Beliefs, Learning Behaviors, and Mathematics Achievement in an Online Charter High School – Nathan Andrew Hawk, Texas A&M University – College Station; Kui Xie, The Ohio State University
  • Classroom Community and Time: Comparing Student Perceptions in Traditional Versus Accelerated Online Courses – Patrick R. Lowenthal, Boise State University; Jesus Trespalacios, Boise State University
  • Researching Online Learning Interaction Using Social Learning Analytics: A Conceptual Framework – Daniela Castellanos-Reyes, Purdue University; Jennifer C. Richardson, Purdue University; Shivani Ramoutar, Purdue University
  • Students’ Perceptions and Expectations About Engagement Strategies in Online Courses: A Mixed-Methods Study – Murat Turk, The University of Oklahoma; Sinem Toraman, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center; Ali Ceyhun Muftuoglu, University of Oklahoma; Ozlem Karakaya, Iowa State University; Kadir Karakaya, Iowa State University
  • Clustering Online Learners’ Epistemic Beliefs Based on Different Types of Online Learning – Min Lan, Zhejiang Normal University; Cathy Huang, University of Hong Kong

The presenter began by telling us that online charter schools typically serve a more non-traditional population than traditional brick-and-mortar schools (which is actually the opposite of what the research has told us).  His background was as a online charter school teacher prior to his doctoral studies and academic career.  He did point out that online charters tend to have a wider, and more disparate, performance than traditional public schools and brick-and-mortar charter schools.  He focused his markers of at-risk less on the individual student factors, but more on the external factors such as SES, parental involvement, etc..

The general results that the presenter discussed included:

  • age was a significant factor in performance (i.e., older students tend to not do as well) – it is algebra I (which is normally taken in grade 9)
  • SES and parental involvement did not have an impact on achievement
  • mathematics efficacy was a predictive factor (about 25%)
  • technological efficacy and time management were not significant predictors
  • in looking at the modeling, there was significant interaction between mathematics efficacy, technological efficacy and time management
  • there was no interaction between SES and parental involvement
  • as students began more positive about their mathematical ability and technology skills the impact of SES became flat, but there was no impact on parental involvement

Student factors had a greater effect on achievement than external factors.  Basically, for students who had self-efficacy it negated external factors that impact achievement.  Domain specific self-efficacy had a greater effect than other forms of self-efficacy.

The hand-out that he provided that summarized the study was:

April 23, 2022

AERA 2022 – Students’ Perceived Support and Motivational Impact by the Transition to Online Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic

The nineteenth of the K-12 Online Learning sessions from the 2022 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association that I am blogging is:

Students’ Perceived Support and Motivational Impact by the Transition to Online Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic

  • In Event: Learning From COVID-19 About Remote Teaching and Beyond

Sat, April 23, 4:15 to 5:45pm PDT (4:15 to 5:45pm PDT), SIG Virtual Rooms, SIG-Online Teaching and Learning Virtual Roundtable Session Room

Abstract

This study explored the role of students’ perceived support in motivational impact from transition to online learning during the pandemic, and the mediating effect of connectedness with teachers and classmates. A questionnaire was conducted among 236 college students in U.S. Results suggest significant direct effects of perceived support in all three motivation outcomes: perceived impact on motivation to engage with course content, that with teachers, and that with classmates. Furthermore, communication with teachers was a strong mediator across three models, whereas the mediating role of communication with classmates limited to perceived impact on motivation to engage with classmates. Our findings point to the significance of connections with teachers and peers in predicting the motivational impact by transition to online learning.

Authors

  • Yingying Zhao, Texas A&M University – College Station
  • Annie Yixun Li, University of Maryland – College Park
  • Daniel Choi, Texas A&M University – College Station
  • Merlyn Joseph
  • Kathrin Dunlap

Which was part of this larger session:

Learning From COVID-19 About Remote Teaching and Beyond

Sat, April 23, 4:15 to 5:45pm PDT (4:15 to 5:45pm PDT), SIG Virtual Rooms, SIG-Online Teaching and Learning Virtual Roundtable Session RoomSession Type: Roundtable Session

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic brought new attention to emergency forms of online learning. The papers in this session are based on research on this topic.

Sub Unit

  • SIG-Online Teaching and Learning

Chair

  • Lei Chen, Shaanxi Normal University

Papers

  • Affordances and Constraints of Online Museum Experiences for Family Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic – Catherine Louise Dornfeld Tissenbaum, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; McKenna Lane, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  • Online Teaching and Learning During COVID-19: Findings From a Global Survey – Michał B. Paradowski, University of Warsaw; Magdalena Jelińska, University of Warsaw; Ekaterina Sudina, Northern Arizona University; Andrzej Jarynowski, Interdisciplinary Research Institute in Wrocław
  • Students’ Perceived Support and Motivational Impact by the Transition to Online Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic – Yingying Zhao, Texas A&M University – College Station; Annie Yixun Li, University of Maryland – College Park; Daniel Choi, Texas A&M University – College Station; Merlyn JosephKathrin Dunlap
  • “Suspending Classes Without Pausing for Learning”: What Do Chinese Secondary Teachers Think About Remote Learning Following the Pandemic? – Lei Chen, Shaanxi Normal University; Huijing Wen, Moravian University
  • Teaching Social Justice Online: College Teacher Experiences, Trends in Pedagogical Practices, and Recommendations – Alicen Morley, Iowa State University; Amanda R. Baker, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Erin Doran, Iowa State University

This was the last session for Saturday that I am blogging (and was my busiest blogging day at AERA).  This research study was looking at the interaction between student motivation, perceived support, and gender.  The specific research questions included:

  1. What is the influence of perceived support on changes in social and academic motivation during the transition to online classes due to COVID-19?
  2. How does gender serve as a moderator to influence the relationship between perceived support and changes in motivation?

The sample included:

The results indicated that…

Overall, the model produced an acceptable fit.  Basically, perceived support significantly predicted the motivation change due to the transition to online classes.  This was stronger for boys than girls.

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