Virtual School Meanderings

September 27, 2019

Report Notice – Commonsense Cyber Charter School Funding Reform Will Eliminate Wasteful Spending And Save $290 Million In Taxpayer Money

This report came to my attention in the past couple of days.

Commonsense Cyber Charter School Funding Reform Will
Eliminate Wasteful Spending and Save $290 Million in Taxpayer Money

Education Voters of PA

Executive Summary

$ Charter schools are primarily funded by local tax dollars paid to them as tuition by school districts.

$ Tuition rates are not based on what it costs a charter school to educate its students, but on the per student expenditure of the school district from which the students come. Charter school tuition for regular (non-special) education ranges from about $7,800 per student to over $18,500 per student. Charter school tuition for special education ranges from about $15,000 to over $40,000 per student.

$ In cyber charter schools – where the costs are less than $5,000 per student, far less than the cost in traditional public schools or brick and mortar charter schools – this wastes over $290 million in tax money each year, statewide.

$ When a student and his or her tuition go to a cyber charter school, not all the student’s cost leaves the public school. This has an adverse fiscal impact on school districts, often causing them to cut services and/or to raise tax rates.

$ Both problems – wasteful spending and adverse impact on remaining students – are being exacerbated by the rapid growth of cyber charter schools.

$ This wasteful spending could be curbed by setting a single, statewide tuition for both regular and special education students in cyber charter schools that is tied to the actual costs of cyber education.

$ By adopting this common sense funding reform, Pennsylvania school districts (and thus Pennsylvania taxpayers) can save more than $290 million each year.

Available online at

June 10, 2019

Press Release: CREDO At Stanford University Finds Little To No Progress In Charter School Impact In Pennsylvania Since Release of CREDO’s 2013 National Charter School Report

Over the next 90 minutes or so I’m going to be posting three press releases from Stanford University’s Center for Research on Education Outcomes (CREDO), a research body that utilizes their own virtual twin methodology that CREDO themselves developed.  As I have written in the past, there are a number of problems with this kind of comparison.

The first issue is the inability to control for the reasons why [virtual school] students enrolled in their virtual course. Many of these students chose virtual education because there were circumstances preventing them from being successful in that particular course in their brick-and-mortar school. Research has indicated a range of reasons for this decision, such as the course not being offered, a conflict in the student’s timetable, a conflict between the student and the face-to-face teacher, the student being bullied in school, specific learning disabilities or preferences, a lack of success in the past, or numerous other reasons or even a combination of several of those reasons.37 The issue arises when the report claims that improved educational outcomes are the result of the student being enrolled in a virtual environment, when they may simply be due to a lessening of the circumstances that caused the student to leave the traditional setting in the first place. For example, if a student being bullied in a brick-and-mortar school transfers to a cyber school, any improved performance may be completely divorced from the technology or delivery method, but rather could be attributable to the fact the student is no longer being bullied. While that is a benefit of virtual education, it wasn’t what the authors argued or were even researching.

Essentially, the control group and the treatment group are two non-randomly constituted groups, one of which is set to regress upward (i.e., from their poor motivation or attention or performance or whatever circumstance may have led them to select the virtual environment), and students in the control group, who are not on the same trajectory. In the language of experimental design, this source of internal invalidity is labeled a Regression-by-Selection Invalidity.38

37 Barbour, M. K., & Reeves, T. C. (2009). The reality of virtual schools: A review of the literature. Computers and Education, 52(2), 402–416.

Cavanaugh, C. (2013). Student achievement in elementary and high school. In M. G. Moore (Eds.), Handbook of distance education (3rd ed.) (pp. 170-184). New York: Routledge.

38 Campbell, D., & Stanley, J. (1963). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research. Chicago, IL: Rand-McNally.


Taken from: Barbour, M. K. (2014). Review of “Virtual schooling and student learning.” Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center. Retrieved from

I mention the methodology up front because it is a procedure that CREDO developed on their own, and in the vast majority of cases by using their own methodology they have been able to find in favour of almost all forms of neo-liberal-style educational reform initiatives (e.g., charter schools, vouchers, etc.).  However, importantly, they still have consistently found that online charter schools perform poorly – a result that confirms findings in a report released in the past two weeks by the National Education Policy Center (of which I am a co-author).

Anyway, the press release that was posted read:

CREDO at Stanford University Finds Little To No Progress In Charter School Impact In Pennsylvania Since Release of CREDO’s 2013 National Charter School Report

CREDO releases a new report examining the impact of Pennsylvania Charter Schools from 2013-2017

STANFORD, California, June 4, 2019–STANFORD, Calif. – Stanford University’s Center for Research on Education Outcomes (CREDO) found over four years of study that the typical charter school student in Pennsylvania makes similar progress in reading and weaker growth in math compared to their traditional public school peer (TPS).

“Our recent analysis mirrors our last investigation in 2013, which yielded similar findings. With nearly one-quarter of [charter] schools posting student results that lag in reading and one third doing so in math, the collective impact on students’ academic careers and later life outcomes remains of deep concern. We will continue to study the impacts of this sector as we know that the Pennsylvania Department of Education has focused on strengthening the accountability of the online sector over the past year,” said Margaret Raymond, Director of CREDO at Stanford University. “We continue to be grateful for our long-term partnership with the Pennsylvania Department of Education in our shared commitment to student success.”


  • This report provides evidence for charter students’ performance in Pennsylvania over four years, beginning with the 2013-2014 school year and ending in 2016-2017. The study examines the progress students make from one year to the next, comparing charter school students to matched peers in traditional public schools in the same communities.
  • In Pennsylvania, there are both online and brick-and-mortar charters. Our investigation revealed remarkably weaker growth in both reading and math among online charter students relative to the average TPS students or brick-and-mortar charter students. In fact, as CREDO has found in other states, it is the poor performance of online charter schools that drags down the overall charter impact on student academic growth.
  • Greater academic progress in reading is found for charter students attending urban brick and mortar schools. Additionally, greater academic progress for Hispanic students attending brick and mortar schools in reading was found, but not among other subgroups.
  • Thirteen percent of charter schools included in the study exhibited high achievement and high academic growth in English language arts; fewer than 10 percent of charters met this standard in math.

To download a copy of the full report, visit

About CREDO at Stanford University – CREDO at Stanford University was established to improve empirical evidence about education reform and student performance at the primary and secondary levels. CREDO at Stanford University supports education organizations and policymakers in using reliable research and program evaluation to assess the performance of education initiatives. CREDO’s valuable insight helps educators and policymakers strengthen their focus on the results from innovative programs, curricula, policies or accountability practices.

Note the portions I have highlighted in red that would be of interest to readers of this space.

The direct link to the report is available at:

December 27, 2018

Article Notice – Cyber Charter Schools And Growing Resource Inequality Among Public Districts: Geospatial Patterns And Consequences Of A Statewide Choice Policy In Pennsylvania, 2002–2014

This item in the “Articles First” online section of the American Journal of Education came across my electronic desk shortly before Christmas.

An analysis from 2002 to 2014, aligning media reporting of the effectiveness of the fully online K–12 cyber charter school model with data on enrollment flows to cyber charter schools and expenditure and demographic indicators across all 500 residential public school districts in Pennsylvania, finds a three-part geospatial-social process. Initial high-tech cachet surrounding the option stimulated statewide spread in enrollments, but over time growth in student flows became more pronounced among disadvantaged, lower tax-base public school districts. As mass media coverage shifted to a research-substantiated narrative of the model’s academic ineffectiveness, cyber charter enrollments declined first in districts with higher parent educational attainment and then intensified. With the large movement of students, the mean amount of public funds transferred from residential districts in 2014 was about $800,000 (standard deviation about $3,100,000). With dubious academic benefits, districts with the lowest tax base lost significant revenue to cyber charter providers.

July 21, 2016

PA Ed Policy Roundup July 18: According To Agora Cyber Charter’s 2013 IRS Filing, It Paid $69.5 Million That Year To K12, Inc.

This was forwarded to me by a colleague…

You are receiving this email because you previously expressed interest in public education policy and advocacy efforts.  If any of your colleagues would like to be added to the list please have them send their name, title and affiliation.

Daily postings from the Keystone State Education Coalition now reach more than 3900 Pennsylvania education policymakers – school directors, administrators, legislators, legislative and congressional staffers, Governor’s staff, current/former PA Secretaries of Education, Wolf education transition team members, Superintendents, PTO/PTA officers, parent advocates, teacher leaders, business leaders, faith-based organizations, labor organizations, education professors, members of the press and a broad array of P-16 regulatory agencies, professional associations and education advocacy organizations via emails, website, Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn

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Keystone State Education Coalition

PA Ed Policy Roundup July 18, 2016:

According to Agora Cyber Charter’s 2013 IRS filing, it paid $69.5 million that year to K12, Inc.

Apply Now for EPLC’s 2016-2017 PA Education Policy Fellowship Program!

Districts’ only link to cyber charters: Money

Each one pays its own per-pupil charter rate, but oversight of the online schools is solely Pennsylvania’s responsibility.

The notebook by Melanie Bavaria June 7, 2016 — 10:45am

Only a small percentage of U.S. children attend school completely online, but the population that online schools serve has increased dramatically over the last few years and it is projected to continue to climb. In some states, the online charter school industry has seen exponential growth in recent years.  Nationally, about 200 cyber charter schools serve 200,000 students, according to a series of reports published in October by the Center for Research on Education Outcomes, Mathematica Policy Research, and the Center for Reinventing Public Education.  As the state with the second-highest cyber charter enrollment, Pennsylvania has 17 percent of the national cyber charter school population, or 35,000 students.

Dismal academic records

However, most of Pennsylvania’s cyber schools have shown consistently dismal academic records. According to the state’s School Performance Profile website, only three — 21st Century, PA Cyber, and PA Virtual — had an SPP score above 60. The state considers 60 and below to be substandard.  None scored higher than 70, which is the state’s minimum goal for all schools, and some scored in the 30s.  A national report on graduation-rate trends in both virtual and brick-and-mortar high schools showed that although overall rates are increasing, 87 percent of virtual schools nationwide have an adjusted cohort graduation rate of below 67 percent, the federal cutoff point for a “low graduation rate high school.”

In fact, the average graduation rate for virtual schools is 40 percent.

Blogger note: this is a great collection of articles on various aspects of Pennsylvania school funding.

Pennsylvania’s School Funding Crisis

 The notebook July 5, 2016 — 4:55pm

This edition’s reporting on Pennsylvania’s education funding was published as part of a collaboration between WHYY Newsworks’ Keystone Crossroads statewide public media project and the Philadelphia Public School Notebook. The collaboration is supported by a generous grant from the William Penn Foundation.

Pennsylvania school district consolidation study eyes savings

Intelligencer By Gary Weckselblatt, staff writer Posted: Sunday, July 17, 2016 6:00 am

As co-chairman of the bipartisan commission that helped implement a new education funding formula, state Rep. Mike Vereb believes there’s a way to save money that flows into education.

It has to do with cutting down on the number of school districts and their “financial inefficiencies and duplication of services.”  Specifically, that involves slicing the number of school districts from 500 to 67 and saving on administrative costs.  “I want to look at the top,” said Vereb, R-150, a Montgomery County lawmaker who represents the Collegeville area. “We spend so much time focusing on the teacher, and I’m all for that, but there’s got to be a look at the administrators. You’ve got a superintendent, an assistant superintendent, an assistant to the assistant superintendent. I think we need to be fair and look at all levels of public education.”

Did you catch our weekend postings?

PA Ed Policy Weekend Roundup July 17, 2016:

120 American Charter Schools and One Secretive Turkish Cleric

Once again, Pa. settles for quick-fix budget | Editorial

Editorial By Express-Times opinion staff  on July 17, 2016 at 6:00 AM

Pennsylvania’s budget drama was a relatively painless two-act play this year — an on-time adoption by June 30, followed by Wednesday’s action to close a $1.4 billion deficit in the spending plan. After last year’s nine-month standoff, 13 days of post-deadline debate in July seems like … a functional government.  To the extent that Democratic Gov. Tom Wolf and Republican legislative leadersrealized the limits of irreconcilable strategies, this budget is a winning proposition, helped along by the encroachment of November elections. After Wolf retreated from his insistence on raising the state income tax or sales tax to boost funding for schools and address a structural budget deficit, he allowed the budget to become law without his signature. Then he left it to House and Senate leaders to assemble a stocking of deficit-fillers.

The result is a one-year, stop-gap plan at best. The centerpiece is a $1-a-pack increase in the state cigarette tax (boosting it to $2.60), along with a 55-cent per-ounce tax on smokeless tobacco and a 40 percent wholesale tax on electronic cigarettes. (Once again, the state’s cigar lobby dodged a bullet.)

Report: Area school district reserves often too low

Times Leader By Mark Guydish – Click for more information on Mark – @TLMarkGuydish – 570-991-6112 JULY 17TH, 2016 – 4:27 PM – UPDATED: JULY 17TH, 2016 – 5:30 PM.

A new report argues that school districts statewide may appear to have healthy fund balances, but that a closer look shows most — including eight of 11 in Luzerne County — have reserves below what most experts recommend as a minimum level.  Released by the Center on Regional Politics at Temple University, the report used state data to distinguish between district reserves that are restricted and those that are “unassigned.” While some district may have healthy-looking reserves, much of the money is often set aside for things like construction costs.  The analysis, done by David Davare of the Pennsylvania Economy League noted, that during the nine-month budget battle in Harrisburg from July of last year into March of this year, critics contended Pennsylvania’s 500 school districts were collectively sitting on about $4.7 billion in reserves even as many insisted they would have to close without state money.

Here’s the report referenced above…

PA School Districts’ Fund Balances: An Update

Center on Regional Politics at Temple University July 6, 2016

A policy brief published by the Center on Regional Politics in July 2016 provides data on the status of fund balances for Pennsylvania’s 500 school districts at the close of fiscal year 2014-15. The data shows that total reserve funds for districts, charter schools and technical schools have increased by about $400 million since 2012-2013, from $4.3 billion to $4.7 billion. But only six of the 500 school districts have unassigned fund balances equal to or larger than their state subsidy.

“Over the last five years, the number of school-age children in the Lehigh Valley has shrunk by 4.6 percent, but the number of Hispanic children in that population has increased by 15.6 percent. School districts will need to find ways to connect with the Latino population as their numbers grow.”

As Latino population grows, school districts search for new ways to help student succeed

Sarah M. Wojcik  Contact Reporter Of The Morning Call July 17, 2016

Lehigh Valley school districts searching for ways to help growing Hispanic population succeed

There’s one common thread among the immigrant parents that math teacher Christa Wolak has met with during her five years at Allentown’s Newcomer Academy: They care — a lot.  The vast majority of students at the special Allentown School District facility, a school dedicated to preparing non-English speaking students for public education, are Latino. And Wolak said the school’s staff has learned that engaging the entire family is an essential part of helping each student succeed.  From movie nights to sprawling holiday feasts, the east Allentown school, serving students from seventh to 12th grades, has taken an already unique program to the next level by going beyond the classroom.  “Of the families I meet with at Newcomer, rarely do I find the parents don’t care,” she said. “I see families pleased and grateful and thankful that their children are getting a good education.”  It’s an educational philosophy that could prove essential for more and more districts as an increasing number of Latino children fill classrooms across the Lehigh Valley.

Lawsuit brewing over refugee education in Lancaster


About 17,000 school-aged refugees move to the U.S. in an average year, an estimate that’s a few years old and likely growing along with overall resettlement activity.  But no one is tracking how young refugees fare in school here.  Georgetown University released a study earlier this year looking at education access by students with limited English proficiency.  It focused on undocumented immigrants.  But researcher Zenandeh Booi says some trends apply to refugees; specifically, schools discouraging or denying enrollment, particularly to older children, and failing to provide translation when communicating with families.  “It could be, in some cases, a lack of resources to adequately accommodate these kids. And in some other instances, it’s, essentially, they don’t want these kids in their schools,” Booi says. “So, to a large extent, districts are dealing with a lot in trying to accommodate these kids. But at the same time, it can’t be used for a reason why you completely exclude a child from being able to access education.”  Actually, federal law prohibits it. But it’s happening anyway, as documented by the Georgetown study and lawsuits in multiple states.  Several school districts in New York settled related lawsuits this spring, just before another was filed in Florida.  And one Pennsylvania district is next.

The ACLU of Pennsylvania’s filing a lawsuit this week against the public school district in the city of Lancaster, long known as a hub for refugee resettlement.

Pages on Pedals offers a vital service to children in Lancaster city

Lancaster Online The LNP Editorial Board July 18, 2016

THE ISSUE: In June, The Mix at Arbor Place collaborated with The Common Wheel to organize Pages on Pedals, a program in which volunteers brought books via bicycles to local children. The program reached 100 kids in Lancaster city, and will return next year.

For some kids, getting a new book during the summer is similar to getting a present under the tree in December.  Just ask 9-year-old Jaqaya Smith.  Jaqaya would set an alarm to greet Pages on Pedals volunteers who brought books once a week to her Lancaster city home, her mother said.  The girl unlocked the screen door so she could hear them knocking on the front door.

After a few knocks, Smith and her brother greeted the bicyclists on their porch, both itching to find out which book they would receive.  It was Christmas in June. Minus the milk and cookies, Santa and snow.  The Mix at Arbor Place and The Common Wheel deserve much credit.  Studies show that kids, especially low-income students, are at great risk of falling into a “summer slide.”

Research from Johns Hopkins University shows that during the summer, low-income students often lose two to three months of learning, particularly in reading.

The Republican National Convention and Education: What to Watch For

Education Week Politics K12 Blog By Alyson Klein on July 17, 2016 4:45 PM

Cleveland – The Republican National Convention kicks off July 18 and culminates with the nomination of the party’s candidate on July 21. And both halves of Politics K-12 are in Cleveland. We will be blogging, tweeting, taking video, interviewing folks with a connection to K-12, and giving you breaking analysis of how education is playing out here.  So what should you be watching for this week?The list of speakers includes some folks with a background on K-12 policy, like Gov. Scott Walker of Wisconsin, and Gov. Chris Christie of New Jersey, and some not so much, like pro-golfer Natalie Gulbis or Tiffany Trump, the daughter of presumptive GOP nominee Donald Trump.  K-12 education has played fifth-fiddle to pretty much every issue this election cycle, and even long-time Washington hands are stumped as to where Trump might go on the issue.  But here are five speakers who might give us a sense of where the party’s heart is:

“Charter schools in the U.S. also have raised questions about possible ties to Gulen. A loosely affiliated group of Turkish educators organized about 100 publicly funded schools in 25 states with as many as 35,000 students, according to a 2010 investigation by USA TODAY. The schools have recruited thousands of teachers from Turkey.”

Turkish exile sparks questions about Congress travel, charter schools

 Bart Jansen, USA TODAY8:38 p.m. EDT July 17, 2016

WASHINGTON – The Muslim cleric who is accused of organizing the attempted coup in Turkey also has sparked questions about the motivation behind congressional travel and charter schools in the U.S.  Fethullah Gulen, 75, lives in exile in rural Pennsylvania. But Turkey’s President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan contends Gulen was behind the attempted coup Friday that left hundreds dead and 6,000 detained, and has demanded Gulen’s extradition.

Fethullah Gulen: The Islamic scholar Turkey blames for the failed coup

Washington Post Answer Sheet Blog By Valerie Strauss July 16

The man that Turkey’s leaders have blamed for a failed coup attempt by a group of army officers is an Islamic scholar named Fethullah Gulen, who lives in self-imposed exile in Pennsylvania and who has inspired a network said to include more than 160 charter schools in the United States.

Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan says that the coup attempt Friday was the work of army officers who are followers of Gulen, who had once been an ally but whose movement has become critical of the increasingly authoritarian regime.  The Gulen movement denied involvement in the coup, but Secretary of State John F. Kerryon Saturday was quoted as saying the United States would support investigations to determine who instigated the attempted coup and where its support originates. He said he anticipates questions will be raised about Gulen.

PSBA 2016-17 Budget Update JUL 22, 201611:30 AM – 12:30 PM

Please join PSBA’s Assistant Executive Director of Public Policy and Chief Lobbyist John Callahan for an in-depth dive into Pennsylvania’s budget. In this complimentary member webinar, see what is behind the numbers, get the trends and analysis for the 2016-17 fiscal year. Find out what is in the school code and policy changes to come. Participate in a question and answer period.  Register online with PSBA’s webinar host GoToWebinar at

Apply Now for EPLC’s 2016-2017 PA Education Policy Fellowship Program!

Education Policy and Leadership Center

Applications are available now for the 2016-2017 Education Policy Fellowship Program (EPFP). The Education Policy Fellowship Program is sponsored in Pennsylvania by The Education Policy and Leadership Center (EPLC). Click here for the program calendar of sessions.  With nearly 500 graduates in its first seventeen years, this Program is a premier professional development opportunity for educators, state and local policymakers, advocates, and community leaders.  State Board of Accountancy (SBA) credits are available to certified public accountants.  Past participants include state policymakers, district superintendents and principals, school business officers, school board members, education deans/chairs, statewide association leaders, parent leaders, education advocates, and other education and community leaders. Fellows are typically sponsored by their employer or another organization.

The Fellowship Program begins with a two-day retreat on September 15-16, 2016 and continues to graduation in June 2017. Click here to read more about the Education Policy Fellowship Program, or here to see the 2016-2017 program calendar.

Applications are being accepted now.

Appointment of Voting Delegates for the October 15th PSBA Delegate Assembly Meeting

PSBA Website June 27, 2016

The governing body boards of all member school entities are entitled to appoint voting delegates to participate in the PSBA Delegate Assembly to be held on Saturday, Oct. 15, 2016. It is important that school boards act soon to appoint its delegate or delegates, and to notify PSBA of the appointment.

Voting members of the Delegate Assembly will:

  1. Consider and act upon proposed changes to the PSBA Bylaws.
  2. Receive reports from the PSBA president, executive director and treasurer.
  3. Receive the results of the election for officers and at-large representatives. (Voting upon candidates by school boards and electronic submission of each board’s votes will occur during the month of September 2016.)
  4. Consider proposals recommended by the PSBA Platform Committee and adopt the legislative platform for the coming year.
  5. Conduct other Association business as required or permitted in the Bylaws, policies or a duly adopted order of business.

The 2016 Delegate Assembly will meet on Saturday, Oct. 15, at the conclusion of the regularly scheduled events of the main PASA-PSBA School Leadership Conference.

2016 PA Educational Leadership Summit July 24-26 State College

Summit Sponsors: PA Principals Association – PA Association of School Administrators – PA Association of Middle Level Educators – PA Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development 

The 2016 Educational Leadership Summit, co-sponsored by four leading Pennsylvania education associations, provides an excellent opportunity for school district administrative teams and instructional leaders to learn, share and plan together at a quality venue in “Happy Valley.”

Featuring Grant Lichtman, author of EdJourney: A Roadmap to the Future of Education, Secretary of Education Pedro Rivera (invited), and Dana Lightman, author of POWER Optimism: Enjoy the Life You Have… Create the Success You Want, keynote speakers, high quality breakout sessions, table talks on hot topics and district team planning and job alike sessions provides practical ideas that can be immediately reviewed and discussed at the summit before returning back to your district.   Register and pay by April 30, 2016 for the discounted “early bird” registration rate:

PA Supreme Court sets Sept. 13 argument date for fair education funding lawsuit in Philly

Thorough and Efficient Blog JUNE 16, 2016 BARBGRIMALDI LEAVE A COMMENT

Lawrence A. Feinberg
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December 28, 2015

Report – How Charter School Governance in Pennsylvania and Philadelphia Measures Up

Another item that may have gone under the radar screen over the holidays…

There are over two dozen references to virtual or cyber charters in the report.  Below is the top sheet information and the actual report can be found at:

charter schoolGetty Images / Klaus Vedfelt

Philadelphia has the nation’s third-largest charter school population.

Charter schools are tuition-free, taxpayer-supported institutions that are granted the right to operate without many of the rules that govern traditional public schools. Most hold classes in buildings, but some, known as cyber or virtual charters, operate online. Questions surrounding the way charters are authorized, regulated, renewed, and shut down are a major component of the debate about public education in Pennsylvania, particularly in the School District of Philadelphia. Over half of the state’s roughly 160 brick-and-mortar charters are located in the district, and the city’s charter school population—more than 60,000, accounting for about 30 percent of its public school students—is the nation’s third-largest, behind the districts serving Los Angeles and New York City. Only four large districts—New Orleans, Detroit, the District of Columbia, and Cleveland—have higher percentages of students in charters than does Philadelphia.

To gain perspective on charter school governance in the School District of Philadelphia and the state, The Pew Charitable Trusts compared the rules under which charters operate in Pennsylvania with those in 15 other states, all of which have at least one major urban school district with a substantial number or percentage of its students in charters. The states are California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Texas, and Wisconsin. Nationally, 43 states and the District of Columbia permit charters.

The comparison showed that although regulation varies among states, Pennsylvania’s approach is similar to what a number of other states are doing. But there are differences, too, including the low percentage of charters it has closed in recent years and the high percentage of noncertified teachers it allows charters to employ. Among the additional findings:

  • In Pennsylvania, the authority to create brick-and-mortar charter schools rests with the governing body of each local district, which in Philadelphia is the School Reform Commission. Similar authorization processes are in place in five of the other 15 states studied. In two states, the state education department has sole responsibility to create charters. The other eight have multiple entities that can authorize them, including local school boards, mayors, the state, and universities.
  • Oversight responsibility, which includes decisions about opening and closing charter schools, almost always rests with the authorizing body or bodies, as it does in Pennsylvania. The states’ accountability requirements for schools are similar.
  • Charters in most of the states, including Pennsylvania, are granted blanket waivers from the rules governing traditional public schools. Uncertified teachers are permitted to make up as much as 25 percent of a charter’s teaching staff in Pennsylvania, a higher percentage than is allowed in most of the other states.
  • In recent years, Pennsylvania has been among the states least likely to open or close charter schools. On average, it increased the number of charters in the state by 7.5 percent per year; the median for the states studied was 9.4 percent. Closings decreased the number of charters in Pennsylvania by 1.3 percent; the median was 3.4 percent. In most of the states examined, including Pennsylvania, charters were usually closed for financial mismanagement and, on occasion, suspected fraud, although poor academic performance also led to closures.
  • Relative to the other states studied, Pennsylvania has a high percentage of charter students enrolled in statebased cybercharters. Across the country, seven states bar charters of any kind, and 11 others do not allow cybercharters.
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