Virtual School Meanderings

March 18, 2019

Article Notice: Cases of Quality: Case Studies Of The Approval And Evaluation Of K-12 Online And Blended Providers

Note that I am one of the authors of this article.

Cases of Quality: Case Studies of the Approval and Evaluation of K-12 Online and Blended Providers

Michael K. Barbour
Touro University California

Tom Clark
Clark Consulting

Jason Siko
Madonna University

Kristen DeBruler
Michigan Virtual Learning Research Institute

Justin Bruno
Michigan Virtual Learning Research Institute


State-level departments of education vary in their mechanisms for monitoring online courses and programs. This study reviewed various state models for initial and ongoing evaluation of online courses. Five constructs were identified through this review, and examples from Georgia, Maryland, California, Washington, and Colorado were detailed. The report concludes with potential models and key guidelines for states to consider when developing policy to ensure quality online education for K-12 students.


Barbour, M. K., Clark, T., Siko, J. P., DeBruler, K., & Bruno, J. A. (2019). Evaluation and approval constructs for online and blended courses and providers: Examining individual cases. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 22(1). Retrieved from

October 29, 2013

Article – Approaching K-12 Online Education In Pennsylvania

The article came through  I’m a little surprised it was even published, as this is a VERY poor piece of research!

Approaching K-12 Online Education in Pennsylvania

Kathryn Vadell
Drexel University


The purpose of this study is to determine how K-12 schools are addressing the need to accommodate online learners in Pennsylvania. It is built upon a review of literature focusing on educational legislation, the personalization of online learning and online learning solutions. The study posed 21 questions utilizing a mixed methods approach to district decision-makers from across the state. There were 28 respondents. The data indicate that the driving force for developing online learning alternatives is student interest and while many district decision-makers are outsourcing the development of online education, most feel neutrally about the level of satisfaction with said efforts.

Simply put, this article fails to include most of the relevant literature on the topic. It also is based upon survey data from only 28 respondents – when there was a possible sample size of literally hundreds (possibly more than a thousand). Finally, it is basically a descriptive piece that doesn’t tell us anything that we didn’t know 10-15 years ago!

October 17, 2013

Article Notice: The Difficulties Of Online Learning For Indigenous Australian Students Living In Remote Communities – It’s An Issue Of Access

I came across this article via

The difficulties of Online Learning for Indigenous Australian Students Living in Remote Communities – it’s an Issue of Access

Sarah G. Anthony
Batchelor Institute of Indigenous Tertiary Education, Northern Territory, Australia

Michael S. Keating
Batchelor Institute of Indigenous Tertiary Education, Northern Territory, Australia


Online learning and new technologies are driving a trend in worldwide education that is not only gaining momentum, it is becoming a juggernaut. While the positives for online learning are clear and are often being touted by Universities and Vocational Education and Training providers as a panacea for educational access, what is not clear is the potential negatives for those who cannot reasonably be expected to engage with online learning. Through a review of current literature and research findings, this paper discusses the difficulties of online learning for Indigenous Australian students living in remote communities who do not have adequate access to online learning technologies. This paper proposes the idea that this seemingly reasonable trend towards increased online learning will in fact be hugely detrimental to this section of Australian society and will see the potential for a widening of the gap in education.

Keywords: Indigenous, Distance Education, Online, Australia

I wonder what this would read like if written from a K-12 perspective…

June 17, 2010

OJDLA Summer 2010 Edition Available Online

ojdlaIt must be the week that everyone releases their Spring or Summer editions.  I’d ask you to note the article entitled “Interaction in Online Courses: More is NOT Always Better”, which is focused on an online dual enrollment program for high schoolers.  Also, the article related to strategic planning may be of use to some virtual school administrators.

We are pleased to announce:

The Summer 2010 edition of the Online Journal of Distance Learning
Administration is available at:

Titles include:

  • Assuring Quality in Large-Scale Online Course Development
  • How Strategic Planning Keeps You Sane When Delivering Distance Programs
  • Closing the Loop on a Continuous Program Improvement Process
  • Variables Related to Undergraduate Students Preference for Distance Education Classes
  • Considerations for Supporting Faculty in Transitioning a Course to Online Format
  • University Instructors’ Perceptions of Factors in Distance Education Transactions
  • Advanced Mathematics Online: Assessing Particularities in the Online Delivery of a Second Linear Algebra Course
  • Interaction in Online Courses: More is NOT Always Better
  • Perceptions of Students Towards Use of Distance Learning: The Case of an Executive Masters Business Program in Ghana

Best Regards,

Dawn R. Senfeld
OJDLA Managing Editor
University of West Georgia

March 13, 2010

OJDLA Spring 2010 Edition Available Online

ojdlaOnce again no K-12 online learning articles in this issue, but some general issues that may be of interest to my readers (I’m thinking in particular the article on online cheating for example)…

We are pleased to announce:

The Spring 2010 edition of the Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration is available at:

Titles include:

  • Effective Leadership of Online Adjunct Faculty
  • Examining the Relationship Between Institutional Mission and Faculty Reward for Teaching Via Distance
  • Cheating in the Digital Age: Do Students Cheat More in Online Courses?
  • Quality and Growth Implications of Incremental Costing Models for Distance Education Units
  • Perpetual Enrollment Online Courses: Advantages, Administration, and Caveats
  • Distance Education and the Digital Divide: An Academic Perspective

Best Regards,

Dawn R. Senfeld
OJDLA Managing Editor
DLA Conference Manager
UWG eCore Advisor
University of West Georgia
Phone: 678-839-5489

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