Virtual School Meanderings

April 22, 2018

EBSCO Alerts

ebscoFirst, the alert for virtual school.

1. TI- Self-Reflection and Math Performance in an Online Learning Environment
AU- Choi, Jinnie
AU- Walters, Alyssa
AU- Hoge, Pat
SO- Online Learning, v21 n4 p79-102 Dec 2017
VI- 21
IP- 4
DT- 20171201
YR- 2017
SP- 79
EP- 102
PG- 24
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Online Courses; Reflection; Virtual Classrooms; Educational Technology; Technology Uses in Education; Correlation; Mathematics Achievement; Elementary School Students; Middle School Students; High School Students; Self Evaluation (Individuals); Knowledge Level; Concept Formation; Student Attitudes; Age Differences; Mathematics Tests; Difficulty Level; Self Esteem; Grades (Scholastic); Algebra; Mathematics Skills; Probability
SU- Elementary Education
AB- According to recent reports, K-12 full-time virtual school students have shown lower performance in math than their counterparts in brick-and-mortar schools. However, research is lacking in what kind of programmatic interventions virtual schools might be particularly well-suited to provide to improve math performance. Engaging students in self-reflection is a potentially promising pedagogical approach for supporting math learning. Nonetheless, it is unclear how models for math learning in brick and mortar classrooms translate in an online learning environment. The purpose of this study was to (a) analyze assessment data from virtual schools to explore the association between self-reflection and math performance, (b) compare the patterns found in student self-reflection across elementary, middle, and high school levels, and (c) examine whether providing opportunities for self-reflection had positive impact on math performance in an online learning environment. In this study, the self-reflection assessments were developed and administered multiple times within several math courses during the 2014-15 school year. These assessments included 4- 7 questions that asked students to reflect on their understanding of the knowledge and skills they learned in the preceding lessons and units. Using these assessments, multiple constructs and indicators were measured, which included confidence about the topic knowledge/understanding, general feelings towards math, accuracy of self-judgment against actual test performance, and frequency of self-reflection. Through a series of three retrospective studies, data were collected from full-time virtual school students who took three math courses (one elementary, one middle, and one high school math course) in eight virtual schools in the United States during the 2013-14 and 2014-15 school years. The results showed that (a) participation in self-reflection varied by grade, unit test performance level, and course/topic difficulty; (b) more frequent participation in self-reflection and higher self-confidence level were associated with higher final course performance; and (c) self-reflection, as was implemented here, showed limited impact for more difficult topics, higher grade courses, and higher performing students. Implications for future research are provided.
LA- English
IS- 2472-5749
FT- Y
AN- EJ1163452
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2017
RV- Y

2. TI- The Impact of a Virtual Public Charter School Program on the Learning Outcomes of Students with Disabilities: A Quantitative Study
AU- Epps, Sucari
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, California Lutheran University
DT- 20170101
YR- 2017
PG- 165
PT- Dissertation
SU- Public Schools; Charter Schools; Outcomes of Education; Disabilities; Statistical Analysis; Comparative Analysis; English Instruction; Language Arts; Elementary Secondary Education
GE- California
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- This quantitative study investigated the learning outcomes of students with disabilities in comparison to their non-disabled peers in a TK-12th grade school that offers a sixth-twelfth grade virtual public charter school program that currently serves students in the state of California. No differences were found between groups indicating disability status does not pre-determine achievement or performance in a full scale virtual school program. However, the amount of time spent actively engaged in completing coursework is significantly associated with achievement in the English Language Arts (ELA) courses. Furthermore, students in lower grade levels appear to spend more time in their ELA courses than students in the upper grades. Continued research is needed to determine how grades across student groups can be increased and which best practices (i.e., universal design for learning or UDL) can further support student learning virtually. Future research recommendations are provided. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-0-355-22581-5
AN- ED579051
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2018

3. TI- Edmentum, Inc.
JN- Edmentum, Inc. MarketLine Company Profile
PD- 1/29/2016, p1-12
PG- 13p
DT- 20171101
PT- Company Report
AB- Edmentum is engaged in providing online learning solutions. The company’s products include Study Island, Plato Courseware, EducationCity, EdOptions Academy, Edmentum Reading Suite, Edmentum Assessments and Edmentum Adult + Higher Ed. Edmentum primarily operates in the US, where it is headquartered in Bloomington, Minnesota. As a privately-held entity, Edmentum is not obliged to publish its financial results. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
AB- Copyright of Edmentum, Inc. MarketLine Company Profile is the property of MarketLine, a Progressive Digital Media business and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
SU- Distance education
GE- United States
CO- Plato Learning Inc. DUNS Number: 613196567
IC- 923110 Administration of Education Programs
IC- 611699 All Other Miscellaneous Schools and Instruction
AN- 113391825

Next, the alert for cyber school.

1. TI- Too Many Words, Too Little Support: Vocabulary Instruction in Online Earth Science Courses
AU- Rice, Mary F.
AU- Deshler, Donald D.
SO- International Journal of Web-Based Learning and Teaching Technologies, v13 n2 Article 4 p46-61 2018
VI- 13
IP- 2
DT- 20180101
YR- 2018
SP- 46
EP- 61
PG- 16
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SP- Department of Education (ED)
SU- Vocabulary Development; Online Courses; Earth Science; Disabilities; Educational Technology; Technology Uses in Education; Content Analysis; Science Instruction; Secondary School Students; Reading Difficulties; Content Area Reading; Coding; Course Content
SU- Secondary Education
AB- As online coursework become more popular, students with disabilities that need vocabulary support for reading comprehension will be among the increase in cyber school students. Researchers have some evidence that certain types of vocabulary support strategies are more efficacious for students with disabilities. The purpose of this article is determining if what was known about strategies for supporting vocabulary was being applied to online learning coursework. A content analysis of types of vocabulary and types of support strategies was performed on science courses from three online course vendors. The results of this study indicate a need for online course vendors to pay more explicit attention to the types of words supported and the strategies they use to do so and for those who support online learners (teachers, parents) to be more proactive about vocabulary support deficiencies that are likely to be present in the courses.
LA- English
CN- H327U110011
IS- 1548-1093
FT- Y
AN- EJ1170724
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2018
RV- Y

2. TI- The K-12 Online Teaching Dynamic: A Study of Educators at Multiple Cyber Charter Schools in Pennsylvania
AU- Van Vooren, Scott E.
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, Drexel University
DT- 20170101
YR- 2017
PG- 156
PT- Dissertation
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Online Courses; Educational Technology; Technology Uses in Education; Structured Interviews; Case Studies; Charter Schools; Teacher Characteristics; Teacher Competencies; Teaching Skills; Technological Literacy
GE- Pennsylvania
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- This study harvested and synthesized information on K-12 online educators within the State of Pennsylvania through structured interviews and artifact evaluations. As parents, students, and the greater K-12 educational community look for innovative ways to increase rigor and student achievement in the 21st century, educational technology is viewed as the conduit to that end. Using a multi-site case study approach, comprehensive research brought to the surface a profile of effective K-12 online educators teaching at various Pennsylvania cyber charter schools. This study sought to answer the following questions: What are the characteristics and competencies of effective K-12 online educators in Pennsylvania cyber charter schools? What evidence displays skills that are specific to effective K-12 online educators in Pennsylvania? These educators rely on their skills acquired during traditional pre-service training to teach in an online environment. Study participants stated they require skills that go above and beyond traditional knowledge, skills collectively known as digital pedagogy. In the 21st century, digital pedagogy skills are moving to the forefront of teacher usage and knowledge base. This is evidenced from the study participants’ statements and the adoption of online teacher certification and credentialing by state departments of education. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-0-355-07361-4
AN- ED577476
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2017

 

Finally, I did not receive the alert for K-12 online learning this week.

April 15, 2018

EBSCO Alerts

ebscoFirst, the alert for virtual school.

1. TI- Rich Online Learning Is Mission for Indiana Leader.
AU- Davis, Michelle
JN- Education Week
PD- 2/21/2018, Vol. 37 Issue 21, p44-47
PG- 4p
DT- 20180221
PT- Article
AB- The article profiles Michele Eaton, the Director of Virtual and Blended Learning for the Metropolitan School District of Wayne Township, Indianapolis, Indiana. Topics include her views on the potential of online education and a district online school, a personalized-learning initiative for virtual school teachers in the district, and the importance of effective teaching in the district.
DE- VIRTUAL schools
DE- INTERNET in education
DE- EDUCATION
DE- BLENDED learning
DE- EFFECTIVE teaching
DE- INDIVIDUALIZED instruction
SU- INDIANA
PE- EATON, Michele
IS- 02774232
AN- 128749485

Next, the alert for cyber school.

1. TI- THE ROLES AND CHALLENGES CONFRONTING THE SCHOOL GOVERNING BODY IN REPRESENTING SCHOOLS IN THE DIGITAL AGE.
AU- Nwosu, Lilian Ifunanya  1
AU- Chukwuere, Joshua Ebere  1
JN- Journal of Economics & Economic Education Research
PD- 2017, Vol. 18 Issue 2, p1-24
PG- 24p
DT- 20170501
PT- Article
AB- This research centres on the roles and challenges facing the “School Governing Body” (SGB) in this digital age where students and educators are more becoming tech-active and addicted. A case study was deployed in a school located in Mafikeng, the capital of the North West Province, South Africa. The 21st century learners and educators are making technology there daily necessity both within and outside the school premises. The Department of Education is investing in schools technologically. Then, the aim of this research was to find out the problems SGB’s face in dealing with these technologies and representing the schools in order to carry out their roles. The qualitative research technique was used applying exploratory and descriptive research pattern. Data was gathered through an individual interview with SGB members in the school and also, a semi-structured focused group interview was conducted with non SGB members. The collected data was analysed in themes and categories in order to get indepth perspectives of the participants in regards to the topic. The findings have various roles and challenges confronting the SGB in the new information age. These roles include to maintain and monitor school policy in line with information age, control school finance to accommodate growing innovations in technologies, design school technology-oriented curriculum and calendar, draft school rules and determine the vision and mission statement of the school to include digitalisations, maintain and monitor school properties, create a good link between the SGB members and the school and lastly to be a mediator between the learners and the SGB in resolving technology related issues. Findings also revealed that the SGB are faced with various challenges in respect of the representivity aspect of the school in this digital age. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
AB- Copyright of Journal of Economics & Economic Education Research is the property of Jordan Whitney Enterprises, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
DE- Schools
SU- Students
SU- Educators
SU- Digital technology
SU- Educational fundraising
KW- Digital Age
KW- Education
KW- Learners
KW- Representation
KW- School
KW- SGB
KW- South Africa
IC- 611699 All Other Miscellaneous Schools and Instruction
IC- 611110 Elementary and Secondary Schools
AD- 1 North-West University
IS- 15333604
AN- 127184302

2. TI- EDUCATION FRAUD AT THE MARGINS: USING THE FEDERAL FALSE CLAIMS ACT TO CURB ENROLLMENT ABUSES IN ONLINE, FOR-PROFIT K–12 SCHOOLS.
AU- Chapman, Erin R.  1
JN- Michigan Law Review
PD- Feb2018, Vol. 116 Issue 4, p645-666
PG- 22p
DT- 20180201
PT- Article
AB- America’s online schools have some things to account for. In recent years, an increase in the number of for-profit K–12 schools has coincided with the rise of online education. Meanwhile, funding models that award money for each additional student incentivize for-profit schools to over enroll students in online programs that were once reserved for specialized subsets of students. Although, to date, reported incidents of enrollment fraud have been rare, there are many reasons to think that the problem has gone largely undetected. As education reformers on both sides of the political spectrum continue to push privatization and charter schools, figuring out how to avoid waste and minimize fraud will only become more important. This Note argues that the federal False Claims Act (FCA) is the best short-term option for curbing this kind of enrollment-reporting abuse. By drawing an analogy to health-care fraud, this Note makes the case that prosecutors and individuals can and should use expanded theories of false claiming to hold accountable online charter schools that exaggerate their enrollment. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
AB- Copyright of Michigan Law Review is the property of Michigan Law Review Association and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
DE- GOVERNMENT policy
DE- Education & economics
SU- Education & state — United States
SU- False claims laws
SU- False claims
SU- Educational finance laws
IC- 923110 Administration of Education Programs
AD- 1 University of Michigan Law School.
IS- 00262234
AN- 127780336

Finally, the alert for K-12 online learning this week.

1. TI- The Nature of Online Charter Schools: Evolution and Emerging Concerns
AU- Waters, Lisa Hasler
AU- Barbour, Michael K.
AU- Menchaca, Michael P.
SO- Educational Technology & Society, v17 n4 p379-389 2014
VI- 17
IP- 4
DT- 20140101
YR- 2014
SP- 379
EP- 389
PG- 11
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
PT- Information Analyses
SU- Charter Schools; Virtual Classrooms; Elementary Secondary Education; Literature Reviews; Definitions; Educational History; Nontraditional Education; Governance; School Effectiveness; School Funds; Electronic Learning; Accountability; Dropout Rate
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Online charter schools are unique among K-12 online learning options for students. They are full-time, public schools that combine online learning with traditional and home schooling practices. They are often chartered by a state agency, supported in full or in part with state funds and most often managed by a private educational management company. Some extol the virtues of these schools as being able to reach unique student populations at a fraction of the cost borne by traditional public school education. Others are concerned over the lack of evidence supporting the effectiveness of these schools and the problems encountered by young learners who are separated from their teachers due to the online nature of learning in this environment. The goal of this literature review is to: (a) provide a definition of online charter schools; (b) describe their evolution and current status; (c) describe their operations; and, (d) to reveal emerging concerns, including governance, funding and effectiveness. Finally, the authors conclude that there are three significant gaps found in the literature concerning online charter schools and provide recommendations for further research.
LA- English
IS- 1436-4522
AN- EJ1045582
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2014
RV- Y

2. TI- A Study of the Effectiveness of the Louisiana Algebra I Online Course
AU- O’Dwyer, Laura M.
AU- Carey, Rebecca
AU- Kleiman, Glenn
SO- Journal of Research on Technology in Education, v39 n3 p289-306 Spr 2007
VI- 39
IP- 3
DT- 20070101
YR- 2007
SP- 289
EP- 306
PG- 18
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Enrollment; Quasiexperimental Design; Algebra; Online Courses;
Instructional Effectiveness; Teaching Methods; Conventional Instruction;
Outcomes of Education; Models
SU- Louisiana
GE- Louisiana
AB- Student enrollment in K-12 online learning programs showed a tenfold expansion in the years between 2002 and 2005. Despite increased  implementation to fulfill critical local needs, there is very little evidence-based research available to inform education leaders’ decisions relating to these initiatives. To address the important question of whether online learning can be as effective as traditional face-to-face learning, this research presents the findings from a quasi-experimental design implemented to examine the effect of the Louisiana Algebra I Online initiative on student outcomes. The findings presented suggest that the Louisiana Algebra I Online model is a viable online model for providing effective Algebra I instruction. (Contains 9 tables and 1 footnote.)
LA- English
IS- 1539-1523
FT- Y
AN- EJ768882
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2007
RV- Y

April 8, 2018

EBSCO Alerts

ebscoFirst, I received the alert for virtual school, but there were no relevant items.

Next, I received the alert for cyber school and, again, there were no relevant items.

Finally, I did not receive the alert for K-12 online learning this week.

So unlike last week, when they sent me like an everyday search, there’s nothing to report.

April 1, 2018

EBSCO Alerts

ebscoThis was the oddest of week for the EBSCO alerts that I received because not only did I receive all three, but all there pulled in over a hundred items from the past decade each (although some of those were still not relevant).  So here are the few hundred that did make the cut…

First, the alert for virtual school.

1.

TI- Online Teacher Work to Support Self-Regulation of Learning in Students
with Disabilities at a Fully Online State Virtual School
AU- Rice, Mary F.
AU- Carter, Richard Allen, Jr.
SO- Online Learning, v20 n4 p118-135 Dec 2016
VI- 20
IP- 4
DT- 20161201
YR- 2016
SP- 118
EP- 135
PG- 18
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Speeches/Meeting Papers
PT- Report
SP- Department of Education (ED)
SU- Disabilities; Elementary Secondary Education; Self Control; Online
Courses; Virtual Classrooms; Qualitative Research; Models; Learning
Strategies; Case Studies; Special Education Teachers; Interviews;
Interaction; Coding; Teacher Attitudes; Computer Mediated Communication;
Teacher Role; Student Role; Planning; High School Students; Secondary School
Teachers
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; High Schools; Secondary Education
AB- Students with disabilities represent a growing number of learners
receiving education in K-12 fully online learning programs. They are,
unfortunately, also a large segment of the online learning population who are
not experiencing success in these environments. In response, scholars have
recommended increasing instruction in self-regulation skills for these
students, but whether teachers are able to promote self-regulation as part of
their instruction and how they will do so remains unknown. The purpose of
this qualitative study was to examine how practicing teachers provided
self-regulation strategies to students with disabilities in a fully online
learning environment. In this context, the teachers intended to offer
self-regulation strategies to students, but they were largely unable to do
so. This work has the potential to influence professional development
programs for online teachers in the hopes that students with disabilities
will be able to learn self-regulation strategies and ultimately be more
successful. [Paper presented at the Special Interest Group on Online Teaching
and Learning (SIG-OTL), American Educational Research Association (AERA)
Centennial Annual Meeting (100th, Washington, D.C., April 8-12, 2016).]
LA- English
CN- H327U110011
IS- 1939-5256
FT- Y
AN- EJ1124643
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2017
RV- Y

2.

TI- Teacher Working Conditions: Perceptions of Novice and Experienced K-12
Virtual School Teachers
AU- Francis, Tiffany
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, Liberty University
DT- 20170101
YR- 2017
PG- 120
PT- Dissertation
SU- Teaching Conditions; Teacher Attitudes; Beginning Teachers; Experienced
Teachers; Comparative Analysis; Elementary Secondary Education; Virtual
Classrooms; Teacher Surveys; State Surveys; Statistical Analysis; Job
Satisfaction; Leadership; Time Management; Educational Practices
GE- North Carolina
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- The purpose of this study was to examine if there is a difference between
novice and experienced teachers’ perceptions of the working conditions at the
K-12 virtual school. This study examined the teachers’ total years employed
at the school to determine if a difference exists in the groups’ perceptions
of the teacher working conditions. Teacher working conditions were measured
by the North Carolina Teacher Working Conditions (NC TWC) survey that was
administered to North Carolina teachers. A causal-comparative research design
was used to conduct the study. A convenience sample of (N = 318) licensed
K-12 virtual school instructors participated in the anonymous statewide
survey. This study focused on 6-12 grade virtual school teachers. An
independent-sample t-test was conducted to evaluate the difference between
the means of the teachers’ perceptions of working conditions of their school
as measured by the NC TWC survey and the total number of years the teacher
has been employed at the virtual school. The independent variable examined in
this study was the years of employment (1 to 3 years and 4 to 10 years) and
the dependent variable was the teachers’ perceived working conditions of the
virtual school. Applying Herzberg’s Two-Factory Theory of Satisfaction, this
quantitative study was conducted in a public virtual school consisting of
middle and high school students in North Carolina. The findings of this study
indicated that there is a statistically significant difference in the
teachers’ perceptions of the working conditions. Experienced teachers
perceived school leadership, their use of time, and instructional practices
and support at a higher level than novice teachers. [The dissertation
citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC.
Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of
dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-369-63335-1
AN- ED575435
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2017

3.

TI- Credit Recovery in a Virtual School: Affordances of Online Learning for
the At-Risk Student
AU- Oliver, Kevin
AU- Kellogg, Shaun
SO- Journal of Online Learning Research, v1 n2 p191-218 2015
VI- 1
IP- 2
DT- 20150101
YR- 2015
SP- 191
EP- 218
PG- 28
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- At Risk Students; Repetition; Required Courses; High School Students;
Online Courses; Virtual Classrooms; Teacher Surveys; Student Surveys; Program
Effectiveness; Comparative Analysis; General Education; Honors Curriculum;
Qualitative Research; Likert Scales; Statistical Analysis; Academic Failure;
Barriers; Educational Technology; Technology Uses in Education; Grades
(Scholastic)
SU- High Schools; Secondary Education
AB- This paper summarizes evaluation findings about a high school credit
recovery (CR) program as solicited by a statesponsored virtual school in the
United States. Student and teacher surveys explained why CR students failed
previous instances of face-to-face courses and defined how the online CR
model helped these learners overcome both internal issues of self-direction
and time management and external issues of teacher support and feedback.
Comparisons between the CR course group and general studies and honors course
groups suggested several significant differences of interest that were
interpreted by qualitative comments and prior research. Comparative data
helped to define unique needs of the CR population (e.g., may require added
technology and support to participate online), areas of success in the CR
program (e.g., CR students report learning more online), and areas for
expansion in CR courses (e.g., may benefit from added collaborative,
project-based work).
LA- English
IS- 2374-1473
FT- Y
AN- EJ1148607
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2017
RV- Y

4.

TI- Approaching Authentic Assessment: Using Virtual School Teachers’
Expertise to Develop an Understanding of Full Time K-8 Virtual School Teacher
Practices
AU- Seamster, Christina Lambert
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, Florida Atlantic University
DT- 20160101
YR- 2016
PG- 243
PT- Dissertation
SU- Performance Based Assessment; Virtual Classrooms; Elementary School
Teachers; Secondary School Teachers; Expertise; Educational Practices;
Teacher Effectiveness; Teacher Evaluation; Mixed Methods Research;
Technological Literacy; Pedagogical Content Knowledge; Electronic Learning;
Focus Groups; Telecommunications; Meetings; Teacher Student Relationship;
Feedback (Response); Computer Mediated Communication; Electronic Mail;
Interpersonal Communication; Faculty Development; Teacher Collaboration;
Communities of Practice; Curriculum Based Assessment; Family School
Relationship; Individualized Instruction; Educational Technology; Predictor
Variables; Scoring Rubrics
SU- Elementary Education
AB- According to Molnar (2014), full time virtual school education lacks a
measurement tool that accurately measures effective virtual teacher practice.
Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, the current study sought to
understand the common practices among full time K-8 virtual school teachers,
the extent to which teachers believed such practices impacted student
learning, as well as the methods in which current standards, recommendations
and practices were implemented in the full time K-8 virtual school setting.
The relationship between virtual school teacher practices and their
Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) was also explored.
Using the standards, practices and recommendations developed for online
learning from International Association for K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL),
National Education Association (NEA), Southern Regional Education Board
(SREB), and the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) a
team of focus group members gave input on the common practices for teaching
students in the full time K-8 virtual school environment. The results
included 11 general virtual school teacher practices, 12 teacher practices
relating to evaluation and three practices relating to special needs and
diverse learners. Qualitative and quantitative findings indicated that
teachers most frequently meet the established practices through the following
strategies: phone conferences, live sessions with students, feedback on
assessments, webmail communication, professional development, collaborating
with peers/teacher collaboration, professional learning communities,
curriculum based assessments on the phone, communicating with family
stakeholders, and determining students in the bottom quartile. A framework
for K-8 full time virtual school pedagogy which includes evaluating student
learning and individualizing instruction through technology tools and
collaborative methods was developed. Finally, the quantitative findings
indicated that of the three virtual school teacher practice categories
(teacher practice, evaluation and special needs and diverse learners),
evaluation was the leading predictor of teacher TPACK scores. Specifically,
collaboration, having an online voice and presence, and using data from
assessments to modify instruction were found to significantly predict a
teacher’s Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge. Using virtual
school teachers’ expertise on the practices which most impact student
learning and the methods for implementing virtual school teacher practices,
the researcher created a draft full time K-8 virtual school teacher
evaluation rubric. [The dissertation citations contained here are published
with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited
without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone
(800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-369-61308-7
AN- ED575824
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2017

5.

TI- Any Time, Any Place, Any Pace-Really? Examining Mobile Learning in a
Virtual School Environment
AU- Barbour, Michael K.
AU- Grzebyk, Tamme Quinn
AU- Eye, John
SO- Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, v15 n1 p114-127 Jan 2014
VI- 15
IP- 1
DT- 20140101
YR- 2014
SP- 114
EP- 127
PG- 14
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
PT- Tests/Questionnaires
SU- Educational Technology; Online Courses; Technology Uses in Education;
Case Studies; History Instruction; Advanced Placement; Virtual Classrooms;
Telecommunications; Student Attitudes; Negative Attitudes; Surveys; High
School Students; Handheld Devices; Computers
SU- United States (Midwest)
SU- High Schools; Secondary Education
AB- Over the past decade, the number of K-12 students engaged in online
learning has increased from between 40,000 and 50,000 to more than two
million. Students have also gained increased access to mobile devices
throughout recent years, and educators have actively looked for ways to
capitalize on this trend. A case study of students enrolled in an Advanced
Placement European History course, offered by a statewide, supplemental
virtual school in the Midwest. The students were studied over the course of
four weeks, using “Mobl21,” an app that works on mobile devices, and offers
an emulated version that runs on a computer. The results showed that despite
the fact that existing literature indicated students’ perceptions were
positive toward mobile technologies; these students’ perceptions were
negative. The isolated implementation of the project may have affected these
perceptions. However, students’ access to mobile devices limited the project
implementation.
LA- English
IS- 1302-6488
FT- Y
AN- EJ1042983
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2014
RV- Y

6.

TI- Virtual School Counseling
AU- Osborn, Debra S.
AU- Peterson, Gary W.
AU- Hale, Rebecca R.
SO- Professional School Counseling, v18 n1 p179-190 2014-2015
VI- 18
IP- 1
DT- 20150101
YR- 2015
SP- 179
EP- 190
PG- 12
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- School Counseling; Counseling Techniques; Computer Mediated
Communication; Virtual Classrooms; School Counselors; Distance Education;
Internet; Technology Uses in Education; Career Development; High Schools;
Mixed Methods Research; Online Surveys; Counselor Role; Job Skills; Attitude
Measures; Ethics; Structured Interviews
SU- Florida
GE- Florida
SU- High Schools; Secondary Education
AB- The advent of virtual schools opens doors to opportunity for delivery of
student services via the Internet. Through the use of structured interviews
with four practicing Florida virtual school counselors, and a follow-up
survey, the authors examined the experiences and reflections of school
counselors who are employed full time in a statewide virtual school. Findings
highlight how virtual school counselors differ in their activities from
traditional school counselors. This article presents implications for
practice, training, and future research.
LA- English
IS- 1096-2409
AN- EJ1070018
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2015
RV- Y

7.

TI- Challenges of Virtual School Leadership
AU- Richardson, Jayson W.
AU- LaFrance, Jason
AU- Beck, Dennis
SO- American Journal of Distance Education, v29 n1 p18-29 2015
VI- 29
IP- 1
DT- 20150101
YR- 2015
SP- 18
EP- 29
PG- 12
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Case Studies; Virtual Classrooms; Educational Administration; Leadership
Effectiveness; Semi Structured Interviews; Online Courses; Blended Learning;
Electronic Learning; Accountability; Financial Support; Staff Role; Time
Management; Parents; Professional Development; Institutional Characteristics;
Elementary Secondary Education; Administrator Attitudes; Barriers
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- The purpose of this case study was to examine challenges faced by virtual
school leaders in the United States. Through semistructured interviews, the
researchers explored challenges faced by eighteen leaders of fully online or
blended online programs. Analysis revealed six main challenges: funding,
staff, accountability, time, parents, and professional development. The
researchers found virtual school leaders face many of the same categorical
challenges as leaders in brick-and-mortar schools. The nuances of the
challenges, however, are distinct. The researchers concluded that the field
of educational leadership must respond to the needs of these leaders through
preservice training, in-service professional development, policy reform, and
additional research.
LA- English
IS- 0892-3647
AN- EJ1054621
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2015
RV- Y

8.

TI- The Intersection of Online and Face-to-Face Teaching: Implications for
Virtual School Teacher Practice and Professional Development
AU- Garrett Dikkers, Amy
SO- Journal of Research on Technology in Education, v47 n3 p139-156 2015
VI- 47
IP- 3
DT- 20150101
YR- 2015
SP- 139
EP- 156
PG- 18
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
PT- Tests/Questionnaires
SU- Mixed Methods Research; Online Courses; Conventional Instruction;
Educational Technology; Faculty Development; Focus Groups; Teacher Surveys;
Interviews; Teacher Competencies; Teaching Experience; Coding; Technology
Uses in Education; Role
SU- North Carolina
GE- North Carolina
AB- This mixed-method study reports perspectives of virtual school teachers
on the impact of online teaching on their face-to-face practice. Data from a
large-scale survey of teachers in the North Carolina Virtual Public School (n
= 214), focus groups (n = 7), and interviews (n = 5) demonstrate multiple
intersections between online and face-to-face teaching. Seventy-seven percent
of teachers agreed that teaching online impacted their face-to-face practice.
Teachers discussed changes in instructional practices, communication modes,
roles of teachers and students, and shifts in purpose and profession.
Findings of this study have relevance for teacher education programs and
in-service professional development for teachers who will be needed to bridge
K-12 online and face-to-face modalities.
LA- English
IS- 1539-1523
AN- EJ1091066
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2016
RV- Y

9.

TI- “Everybody Is Their Own Island”: Teacher Disconnection in a Virtual
School
AU- Hawkins, Abigail
AU- Graham, Charles R.
AU- Barbour, Michael K.
SO- International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, v13 n2
p123-144 Apr 2012
VI- 13
IP- 2
DT- 20120401
YR- 2012
SP- 123
EP- 144
PG- 22
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Electronic Learning; Online Courses; Secondary School Teachers;
Educational Technology; Virtual Classrooms; Teacher Role; Teacher Attitudes;
Teacher Student Relationship; Peer Relationship; Teacher Collaboration; High
Schools; Barriers
SU- Utah
GE- Utah
SU- High Schools
AB- Virtual schooling is a recent phenomenon in K-12 online learning. As
such, the roles of the online teachers are emerging and differ from those of
the traditional classroom teacher. Using qualitative interviews of eight
virtual high school teachers, this study explored teachers’ perceptions of
their online teaching role. Teachers expressed a sense of disconnection from
their students, the profession, and their peers as a result of limited
interactions due to significant institutional barriers. Researchers discuss
the implications of this disconnection as well as future avenues for
research. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)
LA- English
IS- 1492-3831
FT- Y
AN- EJ983276
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2012
RV- Y

10.

TI- Communication, Community, and Disconnection: Pre-Service Teachers in
Virtual School Field Experiences
AU- Wilkens, Christian
AU- Eckdahl, Kelli
AU- Morone, Mike
AU- Cook, Vicki
AU- Giblin, Thomas
AU- Coon, Joshua
SO- Journal of Educational Technology Systems, v43 n2 p143-157 Dec 2014
VI- 43
IP- 2
DT- 20141201
YR- 2014
SP- 143
EP- 157
PG- 15
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Preservice Teachers; Virtual Classrooms; Field Experience Programs;
Online Courses; Electronic Learning; Teacher Education; Questionnaires;
Journal Writing; Structured Interviews; Teacher Surveys; Distance Education;
Elementary Secondary Education; Qualitative Research; Technology Uses in
Education; Educational Technology
GE- New York
SU- Higher Education; Postsecondary Education; Secondary Education;
Elementary Secondary Education
AB- This study examined the experiences of 11 graduate-level pre-service
teachers completing Virtual School Field Experiences (VSFEs) with cooperating
teachers in fully online, asynchronous high school courses in New York State.
The VSFEs included a 7-week online teacher training course, and a 7-week
online field experience. Pre-service teachers completed pre- and post-VSFE
questionnaires, biweekly written journals, and formal structured interviews.
Pre-service teachers reported success in communicating with their students,
and struggles with establishing a sense of community in their online courses.
We discuss these outcomes, and suggest that the particulars of the VSFE
matter for pre-service teacher outcomes.
LA- English
IS- 0047-2395
AN- EJ1125912
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2017
RV- Y

11.

TI- The Use of Virtual School to Improve At-Risk Student Retention: An Action
Research Study
AU- Tuck, Ahmal R.
SO- ProQuest LLC, D.Ed. Dissertation, Capella University
DT- 20130101
YR- 2013
PG- 124
PT- Dissertation
SU- At Risk Students; Dropouts; Online Courses; Nontraditional Education;
Graduation; High School Students; Social Work; Statistical Analysis;
Educationally Disadvantaged; Economically Disadvantaged; Intervention;
Qualitative Research; Case Studies; Action Research; Academic Persistence;
Profiles; Student Participation; Interviews; Surveys; Student Attitudes;
Computer Simulation
SU- High Schools; Secondary Education
AB- At-risk students are a part of the educational population of school aged
students whose goals are to graduate upon completion of all required
coursework in an educational institution. In the beginning, there were only
brick-and-mortar schools before the 21st century primarily until virtual
and/or online schools came into existence in the late 1990s. According to
Roblyer (2006), the aforementioned has given all students, specifically
at-risk students, an opportunity to have a more flexible, alternative
education to graduate from high school. For example, “SWO” an at-risk social
work program whose primary goal is to help “SWO”s at-risk students to
graduate from high school. Based on statistics and reports from the
Department of Education and other research studies, students are at-risk of
not graduating from high school primarily because of economical and social
disadvantages of living in a single-parent home and being a minority (i.e.,
black and/or African American and Hispanic). Students who are at-risk are the
most affected by the aforementioned statistics; therefore, at-risk students
are more prone to drop-out of high school and not graduate in the 21st
century. For example, most of the “SWO” and VHS (collaboration/intervention)
student-participants had to work during the school day to help with family
(i.e., single-parent homes) expenses. Therefore, it has been difficult for
the “SWO” student-participants to regularly attend and maintain state
required enrollment and state required academics necessary for graduation.
Again, dropping-out of school has been a negative alternative for “SWO” and
VHS adult at-risk student-participants. Thus, a qualitative case study and/or
action research on the effects of the collaboration of “SWO”, an at-risk
youth social work organization whose goals are for at-risk students to
graduate from high school and a VHS and/or online program were designed to
address the brick-and-mortar as the only alternative education for high
school students to graduate eventually in the 21st century. Five “SWO”s
at-risk adult (18-years old and older) student-participants volunteered to
evaluate the effects of the action research and intervention after completing
flexible and remote online and/or virtual school coursework as an alternative
in the high school as a means to increase student retention for high school
credit for graduation. The “SWO” and VHS collaboration was based on the five
adult “SWO”s at-risk student-participants’ retention, participation, and
completion (70% and above grade average/passing grade average) of the virtual
school and/or online coursework, and they had to be 18-years old and older to
qualify for the study. The qualitative data for the action research
intervention was collected, analyzed and coded analytically
(categorically/thematically) to make a valid and reliable evaluation of the
intervention; A triangulation of documents such as “SWO”s at-risk
student-participants’ enrollment status reports, student course profile
reports (i.e., grades), student participation reports (i.e., daily activities
and coursework), and the interview survey responses (after completion of
coursework with a 70% and above grade average) were collected; the
aforementioned was utilized to evaluate if there was improvement, success,
and/or change from the “SWO” and VHS intervention towards an eventual “SWO”
at-risk student graduation. [The dissertation citations contained here are
published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is
prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by
Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-303-33899-1
AN- ED559937
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2015

12.

TI- A Phenomenological Narrative Study of Texas School District
Administrators Perspectives of Their Districts Virtual School Programs
AU- Wilson, Robert W.
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, Lamar University – Beaumont
DT- 20130101
YR- 2013
PG- 181
PT- Dissertation
SU- Phenomenology; Administrator Attitudes; School Districts; Educational
Technology; Interviews; Experience; Online Courses; Distance Education;
Nontraditional Education; Program Development
SU- Texas
GE- Texas
AB- The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the
perspectives of Texas school district administrators concerning the virtual
school programs being implemented in their districts. Interviews with the
eight participants were analyzed in an effort to provide a comprehensive
explanation of their lived experiences (Moustakas, 1994). The researcher
concluded that participants in this study believe that the virtual school
programs being implemented in their districts provide students with an
equitable and successful alternative to the educational experience received
in the traditional classroom environment. Implications for practice included
recommendations for developing and implementing a virtual school program and
developing a process to determine which students would be successful in the
virtual school program. [The dissertation citations contained here are
published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is
prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by
Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-303-63398-0
AN- ED564728
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2016

13.

TI- Preservice Teachers’ Experience in a Virtual School
AU- Kennedy, Kathryn
AU- Cavanaugh, Cathy
AU- Dawson, Kara
SO- American Journal of Distance Education, v27 n1 p56-67 2013
VI- 27
IP- 1
DT- 20130101
YR- 2013
SP- 56
EP- 67
PG- 12
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Preservice Teacher Education; Teacher Education Programs; Information
Systems; Phenomenology; Course Content; Preservice Teachers; Educational
Experience; Learning Experience; Virtual Classrooms; Interviews; Student
Teacher Attitudes; Teacher Placement; Field Experience Programs; Supervisor
Supervisee Relationship; Delivery Systems; Technological Literacy;
Expectation; Distance Education; Educational Technology
SU- United States
GE- United States
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Higher Education
AB- Situated in the theoretical perspective of phenomenology, the purpose of
this study was to understand the experiences of three preservice teachers who
voluntarily participated in a field placement in a virtual school in the
southeastern United States. The preservice teachers were paired with online
teachers for four weeks. Their experiences were documented via four
phenomenological interviews. Using phenomenological analysis, the interview
data were analyzed, resulting in the essence of the virtual school field
placement. The essence of the virtual school field placement was made up of
six shared horizons, consisting of (1) communication with supervising
teacher, (2) information systems at the virtual school, (3) modification of
course content, (4) exposure to new technologies, (5) balancing act, and (6)
unmet expectations. The results have implications for preservice teachers,
teacher education programs, virtual schools, education policymakers, and
teacher certification organizations. Suggestions for future research are
provided.
LA- English
IS- 0892-3647
AN- EJ994844
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2013
RV- Y

14.

TI- Identifying the Priorities and Practices of Virtual School Educators
Using Action Research
AU- Dawson, Kara
AU- Dana, Nancy Fichtman
AU- Wolkenhauer, Rachel
AU- Krell, Desi
SO- American Journal of Distance Education, v27 n1 p29-39 2013
VI- 27
IP- 1
DT- 20130101
YR- 2013
SP- 29
EP- 39
PG- 11
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Action Research; Faculty Development; Educational Practices; Computer
Simulation; Curriculum Design; Trend Analysis; Research Needs; Distance
Education; Online Courses
SU- Higher Education
AB- This study examined the nature of thirty virtual educators’ action
research questions during a yearlong action research professional development
experience within a large, state-funded virtual school. Virtual educators
included instructional personnel (i.e., individuals responsible for teaching
virtual courses) and noninstructional personnel (i.e., individuals
responsible for other roles in the virtual school such as administration or
course design.) Action research questions emerge from the intersection of
educators’ professional contexts and their real-world challenges or passions
and analyzing the nature of these questions provided a glimpse into the
priorities and practices of the participating instructional and
noninstructional virtual educators. Studying completion rates and
personalizing the curriculum were trends within questions posed by
instructional personnel whereas noninstructional personnel primarily focused
on macrolevel issues within the virtual schools, such as communication.
Future research directions and implications for action research professional
development within virtual schools are discussed.
LA- English
IS- 0892-3647
AN- EJ994780
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2013
RV- Y

15.

TI- Pushing the Envelope on What is Known about Professional Development: The
Virtual School Experience
AU- Dana, Nancy Fichtman
AU- Dawson, Kara
AU- Wolkenhauer, Rachel
AU- Krell, Desi
SO- Professional Development in Education, v39 n2 p240-259 2013
VI- 39
IP- 2
DT- 20130101
YR- 2013
SP- 240
EP- 259
PG- 20
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Professional Development; Online Courses; Action Research; Asynchronous
Communication; Program Descriptions; Teaching Methods; Interviews;
Researchers; Phenomenology; Virtual Classrooms
AB- The purpose of this study was to understand the ways virtual school
teachers experienced professional development framed as a year-long
collaborative action research endeavor. These virtual school teachers taught
completely online courses for a large virtual school and did not reside
within the same geographical location. Thus, the professional development was
supported by the use of various synchronous and asynchronous technology
tools. This study provides insights into what constitutes powerful online
professional learning opportunities not only for virtual school teachers, but
for their traditional face-to-face school counterparts, as well as the ways
synchronous and asynchronous technology tools can be utilized to scaffold
professional learning. (Contains 1 table.)
LA- English
IS- 1941-5257
AN- EJ1012473
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2014
RV- Y

16.

TI- Factors Affecting the Implementation of Policy 2450, Distance Education
and the West Virginia Virtual School, as Perceived by Principals/Assistant
Principals, Counselors, and Distance Learning Contacts and/or Course
Facilitators
AU- Burdette, Keith R.
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, West Virginia University
DT- 20130101
YR- 2013
PG- 322
PT- Dissertation
SU- Educational Policy; Board of Education Policy; Distance Education;
Educational Technology; Administrator Attitudes; Counselor Attitudes;
Principals; Assistant Principals; School Counselors; High Schools; Online
Surveys; Questionnaires; Public Schools; Program Implementation;
Classification; Power Structure; Communication Strategies; Interpersonal
Relationship; Administrator Role; School Policy; Educational Resources;
Resource Allocation
SU- West Virginia
GE- West Virginia
SU- High Schools; Secondary Education
AB- This study examined the factors important to the implementation of West
Virginia Board of Education Policy 2450, Distance Learning and the West
Virginia Virtual School. The purpose of this study was to determine the
factors that facilitated and impeded implementation of the policy, as
perceived by principals/assistant principals, counselors, and distance
learning contacts and/or distance learning course facilitators in 110 West
Virginia high schools. The 659 individuals in the target population were
invited to complete an online questionnaire rating 35 survey items using a
bipolar scale. There were 216 respondents for a return rate of 32.78%. The
three public school groups identified 22 factors predominately from four
categories that facilitated the policy’s implementation. The people category
was rated the highest and a fifth category, resources, was rated the lowest.
The study found five conclusions: (1) people, structure, communication, and
culture facilitated the implementation of WVBE Policy 2450; (2) the people
category of factors, which involved the support, knowledge, and willingness
of administrators and faculties to learn about distance learning, was the
most facilitating; (3) the structure category, including the organizational
hierarchy, policies, and procedures of a school, ranked second among the
factor categories; (4) there were more differences in perceptions about
resources, especially time, than any other category of factors; and (5) all
five categories of factors important to policy implementation were rated
higher in schools where at least 1% of the students were enrolled in distance
learning courses. The study’s findings and conclusions prompted
recommendations for policy, practice, and research. [The dissertation
citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC.
Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of
dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-303-25283-9
AN- ED555168
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2015

17.

TI- The Investigation of Virtual School Communications
AU- Belair, Marley
SO- TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, v56 n4
p26-33 May 2012
VI- 56
IP- 4
DT- 20120501
YR- 2012
SP- 26
EP- 33
PG- 8
PT- Information Analyses
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Foreign Countries; High Schools; Higher Education; Meta Analysis;
Literature Reviews; Research Reports; International Education; Computer
Mediated Communication; Communication Strategies; Organizational
Communication; Distance Education; Web Based Instruction; Virtual Classrooms;
Online Courses
SU- United States; Canada
GE- Canada; United States
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; High Schools; Higher Education;
Postsecondary Education
AB- This literature review includes studies from online virtual high schools
and colleges in The United States, Canada, and around the world. The focus of
these studies is communication practices within diverse virtual school
communities. It also includes information regarding a meta-analysis that was
performed in order to review experimental studies of online education. School
communication and transactional distance are investigated through a
combination of dissertations, peer-reviewed journals, and published books and
studies. The review reveals that a variety of communication methods must be
employed in order to facilitate effective virtual schooling. Further research
which uses the results from these studies to investigate communication
practices within a variety of virtual platforms could lead to best practices
for virtual schooling.
LA- English
IS- 8756-3894
AN- EJ972807
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2012
RV- Y

18.

TI- Virtual School, Real Experience: Simulations Replicate the World of
Practice for Aspiring Principals
AU- Mann, Dale
AU- Shakeshaft, Charol
SO- Journal of Staff Development, v34 n6 p43-45 Dec 2013
VI- 34
IP- 6
DT- 20131201
YR- 2013
SP- 43
EP- 45
PG- 4
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Computer Simulation; Principals; Educational Technology; Computer Uses in
Education; Interaction; Vignettes; Management Development; Teaching Methods;
Cost Effectiveness
SU- Virginia
GE- Virginia
AB- A web-enabled computer simulation program presents real-world
opportunities, problems, and challenges for aspiring principals. The
simulation challenges areas that are not always covered in lectures,
textbooks, or workshops. For example, using the simulation requires
dealing–on-screen and in real time–with demanding parents, observing
classrooms, completing personnel evaluations, coping with budget cuts, and
enforcing curriculum decisions. Simulations that replicate the world of
practice and that connect consequences to behavior are a next step in
professional learning.
LA- English
IS- 0276-928X
AN- EJ1028202
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2014
RV- Y

19.

TI- The Effectiveness of Florida Virtual School in Terms of Cost and Student
Achievement in a Selected Florida School District
AU- McNally, Susan R.
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, University of Florida
DT- 20120101
YR- 2012
PG- 116
PT- Dissertation
SU- Virtual Classrooms; Public Schools; School Effectiveness; Cost
Effectiveness; Academic Achievement; Secondary Schools; Secondary School
Students; Comparative Analysis
SU- Florida
GE- Florida
SU- Secondary Education
AB- Florida Virtual School was started in 1997. Since then, its presence and
impact on public education in Florida has grown significantly. The Florida
Virtual School was started by the Florida legislature and is funded through
Florida’s school funding program, receiving annual appropriations based on
successful course completions. The Florida Virtual School is considered a
public school district in Florida and Florida’s school districts are
prohibited from denying access of its students to Florida Virtual School. It
is anticipated that the demand for and use of the Florida Virtual School will
increase. In fact, the Florida legislature, in 2011, added a graduation
requirement of one online course for its high school students. The trend and
demand for online and virtual education has grown nationwide as well. Few
studies have been conducted to determine the overall effectiveness and impact
on student achievement that occurs as a result of students in grades 6-12
taking courses through an online platform. Several organizations and policy
groups have developed policy papers and written reports on the current state
of online and virtual learning nationwide. These publications however, have
not addressed the effects and outcomes of online and virtual learning for
middle and high school students. The purpose of this study was to determine
specifically how student achievement by the students who enrolled in Florida
Virtual School classes compared to the student achievement of district
students enrolled in the same classes in traditional settings; and was the
instruction of district students via the Florida Virtual School a
cost-effective approach during the three years of the study? To answer these
two questions, this dissertation examined relevant data, primarily from the
Florida Virtual School, the selected school district, and the Florida
Department of Education as well as from the College Board™. As Florida’s
public school system demands and expects increased access to online and
virtual options for its students, it is important for districts to understand
the full impact of this movement to inform future policy decisions. [The
dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of
ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies
of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-303-07022-8
AN- ED554780
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2015

20.

TI- An Investigation of a Virtual School Program in One Public School
District in Texas: A Descriptive Case Study
AU- Quadri, Rizvan
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, Lamar University – Beaumont
DT- 20120101
YR- 2012
PG- 178
PT- Dissertation
SU- Virtual Classrooms; Public Schools; School Districts; Investigations;
Case Studies; Qualitative Research; Focus Groups; Interviews; School
Effectiveness; Program Implementation; Effective Schools Research;
Educational Change; Instructional Leadership; Technology Integration; Online
Courses; Electronic Learning; Elementary Secondary Education
SU- Texas
GE- Texas
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- This qualitative, descriptive case study employed the use of narrative to
investigate a virtual school program in a public school district in Texas. A
focus group interviewing process was used to interview the participants.
Findings from this study conclude that with continued support from district
leaders, along with having the appropriate instructional and technological
resources, will help a virtual school sustain itself and prove successful.
Other findings from the study conclude that providing ongoing instructional
support to teachers, as well as allowing them opportunities in shared
decision-making strengthens their morale and empowers them to take ownership
of their virtual school program. Furthermore, with these types of support
systems in place, it ultimately benefits students who, for one reason or
another, are looking for an alternative setting in which to accomplish their
educational goals. The research presented in this study provides school
district leaders with a blueprint of strategies, ideas and methods by which
to replicate a virtual school program of their own. [The dissertation
citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC.
Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of
dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-267-62236-5
AN- ED546303
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2014

21.

TI- High Enrollment Course Success Factors in Virtual School: Factors
Influencing Student Academic Achievement
AU- Liu, Feng
AU- Cavanaugh, Cathy
SO- International Journal on E-Learning, v10 n4 p393-418 Sep 2011
VI- 10
IP- 4
DT- 20110901
YR- 2011
SP- 393
EP- 418
PG- 26
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Management Systems; Elementary Secondary Education; Academic Achievement;
Online Courses; Performance Factors; Enrollment Influences; Enrollment Rate;
Educational Environment; Predictor Variables; Institutional Characteristics;
Database Management Systems; Time Factors (Learning); Incidence; Teacher
Expectations of Students; Learner Engagement; Lunch Programs; Ethnicity;
Educational Attainment; Virtual Classrooms; Individual Differences; Distance
Education; Student Participation; Achievement Gains; Achievement Need; Data
Analysis; Student Records; Success
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- This paper describes a study of success factors in high enrollment
courses in a K-12 virtual school learning environment. The influence of
variables: time student spent in the learning management system (LMS), number
of times logged into the LMS, teacher comment, participation in free or
reduced lunch programs, student status in the virtual school (full time or
part time student), race/ethnicity, and grade level in the physical school
student attends on student academic achievement was investigated in this
study. Student final score in the courses was used as the measurement for
academic achievement and also the dependent variable of the study.
Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was the data analysis method used to
account for the influence of school characteristics on student final score.
The results show the success factors affect student academic achievement in
the high enrollment online courses in different ways. The implications for
teaching and research were addressed in the discussion of the findings.
Future research is proposed based on the limitations in this study to help
improve the effectiveness of online education in K-12 virtual learning
environments. (Contains 2 figures and 5 tables.)
LA- English
IS- 1537-2456
AN- EJ956400
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2012
RV- Y

22.

TI- English Language Arts and Science Courses in a Virtual School: A
Comparative Case Study
AU- Tustin, Rachel Sarah
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, Walden University
DT- 20120101
YR- 2012
PG- 300
PT- Dissertation
SU- Virtual Classrooms; Educational Technology; Grade 7; Grade 8; Grade 9;
Grade 10; Language Arts; English Teachers; Science Instruction; Case Studies;
Qualitative Research; Questionnaires; Teacher Attitudes; Student Attitudes;
Documentation; Coding; Classification; Direct Instruction; Summative
Evaluation; Individualized Instruction; Teaching Methods; Small Group
Instruction; Technology Uses in Education; Interaction; Inquiry
SU- United States (South)
SU- Grade 7; Junior High Schools; Middle Schools; Elementary Education;
Secondary Education; Grade 8; Grade 9; High Schools; Grade 10
AB- Virtual K-12 schools have rapidly become a popular choice for parents and
students in the last decade. However, little research has been done on the
instructional practices used in virtual courses. As reflected in the central
research question, the purpose of this study was to explore how teachers
provided instruction for Grade 7-10 students in both English language arts
and science courses in a virtual school in a southern state. The conceptual
framework was based on Piaget’s theory of cognitive development and Garrison,
Anderson, and Siemens’ research on instructional design. The units of
analysis in this qualitative, comparative case study were four virtual
courses; the data were collected from teacher and student questionnaires,
threaded student discussions, student work samples, and archival records. The
first level of data analysis involved coding and categorization using the
constant comparative method, and the second level involved examining the data
for patterns, themes, and relationships to determine key findings. Results
indicated that a standardized virtual course design supported teacher use of
direct instruction and summative assessments and some individualized
instruction to deliver course content, including adjusting the course pace,
conducting individual telephone conferences, and providing small group
instruction using Blackboard “Elluminate.” Opportunities for student
interaction and inquiry learning were limited. This study is expected to
contribute to positive social change by providing educators and policymakers
with an awareness of the critical need for further study of research-based
instructional practices in K-12 virtual courses that would improve student
learning. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the
permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without
permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800)
1-800-521-0600. Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-267-78827-6
AN- ED551463
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2015

23.

TI- Virtual Schooling…A Closer Look from the inside of an Indiana Charter
Virtual School Examining the Teachers’ Perceptions of the Characteristics of
Its Teachers and Students
AU- Sturgeon, David Brian
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, Ball State University
DT- 20130101
YR- 2013
PG- 149
PT- Dissertation
SU- Charter Schools; Electronic Learning; Virtual Classrooms; Elementary
Secondary Education; Teacher Attitudes; Teacher Effectiveness; Academic
Achievement; Teacher Characteristics; Time Management; Student
Characteristics; Access to Computers; Family Involvement; Screening Tests;
Professional Development; Technology Education; Teacher Education; Mixed
Methods Research; Interviews; Teacher Surveys
SU- Indiana
GE- Indiana
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- The focus of this research is in the area of virtual schooling at the
K-12 level, specifically looking into teachers’ perceptions of important
traits of teacher effectiveness and student progress in this online learning
environment. Such a study is important in Indiana, as this is the first time
in public school history when there is now a new choice for students to
attend a school such as this. The research is a mixed methods approach
utilizing surveys and interviews to gather data. The findings from this
research indicate several teacher characteristics are important. Teachers
should be communicative, responsive, and manage their time well. Student
characteristics considered important are access to computer and Internet,
strong support from their family or learning coach, and effective time
management skills. A top recommendation emerging from this study is the
development of a screener for parents to take before enrollment to determine
whether this type of learning environment would be the best fit for their
student(s)/child, based on the important student characteristics. Other
recommendations emerging from this study included professional development,
especially in the areas of technology and communication for the school’s
teachers and the relationship with between colleges and universities that
prepare teachers that would lead to development of specific training and lab
experience in a virtual setting. [The dissertation citations contained here
are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is
prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by
Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-303-08978-7
AN- ED553579
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2015

24.

TI- Innovation and Accountability: Vouchers, Charters, and the Florida
Virtual School. Policy Brief.
AU- Hacsi, Timothy A.
AU- Arizona State Univ., Tempe. Education Policy Studies Lab.
SO- Education Policy Studies Laboratory, Arizona State University College of
Education
DT- 20040401
YR- 2004
PG- 23
PT- Report
SU- Charter Schools; Educational Vouchers; Student Evaluation; Virtual
Classrooms; State Aid; Student Diversity; Educational Quality; Public
Schools; Private Schools; Program Effectiveness
AB- In the last half-decade Florida has been in tune with, or on the cutting
edge of, several national trends in education. Florida has a comprehensive
testing program, and has created a range of options for students who seem to
be poorly served by traditional public schools. Three Florida programs
provide scholarships or vouchers to children from failing schools, to those
from low-income families, and to those with disabilities. Florida has also
created a large number of charter schools and developed the most extensive
“virtual” school in the nation. For 2 decades, ever since the publication of
“A Nation at Risk” in 1983, school reform has been a widely discussed social
and political issue. In recent years, much of the energy of school reform has
been expended in one of two areas: designing and implementing high-stakes
testing, and creating alternatives to public schools that are publicly funded
yet free of at least some of the rules and apparatus that control public
schools. This brief will focus on the second of these trends: relatively
independent attempts to use public funding to provide more autonomous and
effective schooling. Supporters advance two separate arguments in favor of
these approaches: (1) they give parents new options for the education of
their children; and (2) though competition, they spur traditional public
schools to improve.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED483727
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2005

25.

TI- Considerations for Planning a State Virtual School: Providing Web-Based
Courses for K-12 Students.
AU- Thomas, William R.
AU- Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.
DT- 20020301
YR- 2002
PG- 5
PT- Opinion Papers
SU- Computer Uses in Education; Elementary Secondary Education; Online
Courses; Program Development; Program Evaluation; Virtual Classrooms; World
Wide Web
SU- Southern Regional Education Board
AB- Courses delivered over the World Wide Web can help states meet the
academic needs of all students. Southern Regional Education Board (SREB)
states are creating state virtual schools to support and manage the
efficient, effect use of Web-based courses. Florida and Kentucky have
invested significant funds, personnel, and time, and Maryland, Texas, and
West Virginia are moving slowly but systematically to understand how best to
use this new technology. These state virtual schools vary greatly in goals,
staffing, and funding. A key issue for each state is to determine whether it
will lease or purchase courses instead of creating them. Leasing or
purchasing courses is less expensive than developing and maintaining courses.
Steps for states that consider creating a state virtual school  include:
establish the state’s vision; identify which courses are needed; organize
actions to meet state needs; determine costs and funding methods; determine
course quality; and evaluate the program. (SM)
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED464073
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2002

26.

TI- Virtual School Pedagogy: The Instructional Practices of K-12 Virtual
School Teachers
AU- DiPietro, Meredith
SO- Journal of Educational Computing Research, v42 n3 p327-354 2010
VI- 42
IP- 3
DT- 20100101
YR- 2010
SP- 327
EP- 354
PG- 28
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Electronic Learning; Virtual Classrooms;
Educational Research; Educational Practices; Teachers; Mentors; Grounded
Theory; Scaffolding (Teaching Technique); Instructional Effectiveness; Access
to Education; Educational Opportunities
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- K-12 virtual schooling is gaining recognition as an alternative to the
traditional face-to-face educational setting by providing students with
access to anytime, anywhere learning opportunities. There is a current need
for research on the pedagogy of K-12 virtual school teaching in order to
understand the coordination of content, pedagogy, and technology underlying
the delivery of a virtual school course. The purpose of this study is to
develop an understanding for the instructional practices of K-12 virtual
school teachers. The findings resulting from this analysis highlight the
relationship between the participants’ beliefs, goals, and practices related
to virtual school teaching. Analysis revealed several unique qualities of the
practices used by virtual school teachers that have relevant implications for
the training programs educating virtual school teachers, the developing body
of policy underlying virtual schools, and future research. (Contains 1
figure, 5 tables, and 1 footnote.)
LA- English
AG- Teachers
IS- 0735-6331
AN- EJ879790
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2010
RV- Y

27.

TI- A Study of Student Learning Outcomes and Effectiveness of the Computer
Based Algebra I Credit Recovery Course Offered at Louisiana Traditional
Schools and the Algebra I Credit Recovery Course Offered in a Virtual
Environment at Louisiana Virtual School
AU- Mack, Roy James
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, Southern University and Agricultural
and Mechanical College
DT- 20110101
YR- 2011
PG- 147
PT- Dissertation
SU- Traditional Schools; Student Evaluation; Economic Status; Social
Sciences; Correlation; Virtual Classrooms; Algebra; Academic Achievement;
Educational Technology; Mathematics Education; Computer Uses in Education;
Sex; Statistical Analysis; Repetition; Required Courses
SU- Louisiana
GE- Louisiana
AB- The central purpose of this research was to assess student learning
outcomes in the Algebra I credit recovery course offered at traditional
schools in Louisiana and the Algebra I credit recovery course offered online
by the Louisiana Virtual School (LVS). It was also conducted to assess the
associations of gender, grade level, and socio-economic status on learning
outcomes measured as final grade in the course.    The researcher utilized
the Statistical Package for Social Sciences to analyze the data. Descriptive
statistics were used to describe the demographic features of the data.
Frequencies of the variables in each group were examined and a crosstab
analysis was also utilized. The Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient as well as
a factorial ANOVA was utilized to determine and examine the relationship
between the independent and the dependent variables.    On the basis of the
findings, it was concluded that the participants who took the course in a
traditional school setting had higher means of the final grades than
participants who took the course at LVS.    A review of the literature and
the findings of this study revealed a need for further research in several
areas.    [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the
permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without
permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800)
1-800-521-0600. Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-124-89159-0
AN- ED533421
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2012

28.

TI- An Investigation into Reported Differences between Online Foreign
Language Instruction and Other Subject Areas in a Virtual School
AU- Oliver, Kevin
AU- Kellogg, Shaun
AU- Patel, Ruchi
SO- CALICO Journal, v29 n2 p269-296 Jan 2012
VI- 29
IP- 2
DT- 20120101
YR- 2012
SP- 269
EP- 296
PG- 28
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Second Languages; Online Courses; Second Language Learning; Cooperation;
Second Language Instruction; Barriers; Oral Language; Negative Attitudes;
Secondary School Teachers; Course Evaluation; High School Students; Virtual
Classrooms; Web Based Instruction; Distance Education; Instructional Design;
Comparative Analysis; Mixed Methods Research; Student Surveys; Student
Attitudes; Teacher Surveys; Teacher Attitudes; Instructional Effectiveness
SU- Open Ended Questions; North Carolina
GE- North Carolina
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; High Schools; Secondary Education
AB- High school students participating in online courses offered by the North
Carolina Virtual Public School (NCVPS) completed end-of-course surveys in
spring 2009. When the responses of 559 foreign language students were
compared to students in five other subject area groups, the findings
suggested foreign language students had significantly lower perceptions of
their online courses in several key areas: overall success in the online
environment, teacher preparation, teaching, course/assignment instructions,
and level of group collaboration. A follow-up survey with open-ended
questions was sent to students and teachers asking them to help explain these
significant differences. The 119 students and 19 teachers who responded to
follow-up questions reported that lower student perceptions of online foreign
language courses might be improved by modifying specific aspects of teaching,
increasing collaboration, and providing adequate support for student learning
needs. (Contains 6 tables.)
LA- English
IS- 0742-7778
AN- EJ968790
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2012
RV- Y

29.

TI- Learning to Lead: Online Learning Principals’ and Counselors’ Perceptions
of a District’s Virtual School Support Services and Desires for Professional
Development
AU- Harrison Ross, Lisa
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, University of Virginia
DT- 20120101
YR- 2012
PG- 189
PT- Dissertation
SU- Electronic Learning; Elementary Secondary Education; School Districts;
Principals; Administrator Attitudes; School Counselors; Counselor Attitudes;
Academic Support Services; National Standards; Professional Development;
School Surveys
SU- Virginia
GE- Virginia
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- The number of online learners in the United States at the K-12 level
almost doubled in the two-year period from 2006 to 2008. However, research in
this area is emergent at best. With the passage of legislation in 2010
requiring all school districts in Virginia to have a plan to provide online
learning options for K-12 students, the need for Virginia educators to
understand K-12 online learning has increased. This study seeks to answer two
questions. First, in a district with an online learning program in place, how
do the principals and counselors rate the student support services of the
online program based upon the present national standards for online learning?
Second, what desires do principals and counselors have for professional
development in the field of online learning? The results of the study
indicate frequently the school counselors gave more favorable ratings to the
student support services in the division’s online learning program than did
building leaders. The study also reveals areas of strength for the district’s
program in providing resources for counselors and advising services. A need
for differentiated professional development for building leaders and
counselors was evident in the study, as well as need for improving support
for at-risk learners. Although this research document focuses on experiences
in one specific district, it does provide a potential survey instrument and
focus group protocol which other virtual schooling programs may utilize as
part of an evaluative tool to gather insight into their stakeholders’
perceptions of their online learning program, as well as their leaders’
desires for professional development. [The dissertation citations contained
here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction
is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by
Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-267-57349-0
AN- ED545496
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2014

30.

TI- Best Practices in Teaching K-12 Online: Lessons Learned from Michigan
Virtual School Teachers
AU- DiPietro, Meredith
AU- Ferdig, Richard E.
AU- Black, Erik W.
AU- Presto, Megan
SO- Journal of Interactive Online Learning, v9 n3 p10-35 Win 2010
VI- 9
IP- 3
DT- 20100101
YR- 2010
SP- 10
EP- 35
PG- 26
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Online Courses; Virtual Classrooms; Web Based Instruction; Distance
Education; Teaching Methods; Instructional Effectiveness; Teacher Attitudes;
Interviews; Best Practices; Experienced Teachers; Teacher Characteristics;
Teacher Effectiveness; Secondary School Teachers
SU- Michigan
GE- Michigan
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Secondary Education
AB- Virtual schools are rising in popularity and presence. Unfortunately,
there is a relative dearth of research related to teaching and learning in
virtual schools. Although there are numerous handbooks addressing teaching
online, there is little research on successful online teaching in the K-12
arena. Much of the existing research focused on teaching online is rooted in
face-to-face content, not focused on content areas, built upon a
post-secondary audience, or fails to use data from the teachers themselves to
triangulate findings. This article reports on a study of 16 virtual school
teachers from the Michigan Virtual School (MVS). It reports on best-practices
from the interviews conducted with MVS teachers; and also provides research
triangulation for those practices. The paper concludes with implications for
policy, research, and practice. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)
LA- English
IS- 1541-4914
AN- EJ938843
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2011
RV- Y

31.

TI- Online Education as a Toll Good: An Examination of the South Carolina
Virtual School Program
AU- Rauh, Jonathan
SO- Computers & Education, v57 n2 p1583-1594 Sep 2011
VI- 57
IP- 2
DT- 20110901
YR- 2011
SP- 1583
EP- 1594
PG- 12
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Achievement Gap; Federal Legislation; State Programs; Economics; Equal
Education; Virtual Classrooms; Web Based Instruction; Educational Principles;
Educational Policy; Policy Analysis; Program Effectiveness
SU- No Child Left Behind Act 2001; South Carolina
SU- No Child Left Behind Act 2001
GE- South Carolina
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Education has long been considered merit good; however, inequitable
distribution has made it more akin to a toll good. This was most recently
demonstrated by Henry, Fortner, and Thompson (2010). Choice requirements
designed to remedy the inequitable distribution of education, have largely
been confined to brick and mortar schools. Subsequently, they face challenges
comparable to traditional programs. With shrinking state budgets and an
increasing achievement gap, online choice options are growing in popularity
as means of satisfying choice requirements specified in No Child Left Behind.
This paper considers whether online options facilitate education as a merit
good, or if they extend education as a toll good.
LA- English
IS- 0360-1315
AN- EJ925840
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2011
RV- Y

32.

TI- Rethinking Virtual School
AU- Schomburg, Gary
AU- Rippeth, Michelle
SO- Principal Leadership, v10 n4 p32-36 Dec 2009
VI- 10
IP- 4
DT- 20091201
YR- 2009
SP- 32
EP- 36
PG- 5
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Student Attitudes; School Attitudes; Economically Disadvantaged; At Risk
Students; Pregnancy; Credits; Grade 9; High School Students; Virtual
Classrooms; Distance Education; Program Effectiveness; School Districts;
Computer Assisted Instruction; Laboratory Schools
SU- Ohio
GE- Ohio
SU- High Schools
AB- Virtual schooling has been touted as one of the best ways to meet the
needs of at-risk students, but what happens when a district’s virtual
education program is unsuccessful? That was the problem in Eastern Local
School District, a small rural district in Beaver, Ohio. The district
contracted virtual school services and used the virtual school for students
who were at risk of dropping out for various reasons–such as pregnancy, poor
health, and truancy–and as an alternative to expulsion. The full-time
virtual students worked from home or the local library and had a track record
of earning poor scores on assessments, not turning in assignments, and even
failing to turn on the computer. Those students mostly failed to earn credits
for graduation and eventually dropped out. It was money wasted for the
district and a tough start to adulthood for the students. Each year, a
significant number of students at Eastern High School were credit deficient
after ninth grade. High school expectations did not jive with their middle
school attitudes, leaving them in a common predicament: staring straight into
a high school career that would last five years or more. On the other end of
the spectrum were the college-prep students who had a very small selection of
courses from which to choose because of the size of the school and the
teaching staff. They had worked their way through upper level math and
science classes and the few number of electives offered. Many of those
students entered their senior year needing only a few credits to graduate and
with not much left to take in course work. Then there was a third group:
seniors who realized that there were classes that they just had not been able
to pass and that they needed to find ways not to fail algebra or biology for
a third time. The school and the district were challenged to develop a plan
that would enable upperclassmen to make up credits from their freshman year
in a setting that was different from the one in which they just failed and
that would increase curricular options for students who were up to the
challenge. This article describes how research and past experiences led
Eastern to choose a modified route as an alternative: an in-house virtual lab
where students could work at their own pace and have access to subject-area
teachers.
LA- English
IS- 1529-8957
AN- EJ868938
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2010

33.

TI- The Concept of the Virtual School Library.
AU- Butterworth, Margaret
DT- 19920701
YR- 1992
PG- 10
PT- Guides – Non-Classroom
PT- Speeches/Meeting Papers
SU- Case Studies; Computer Assisted Instruction; Databases; Definitions;
Electronic Libraries; Electronic Mail; Elementary Secondary Education;
Foreign Countries; Information Networks; Information Services; Library
Automation; Library Role; Online Systems; School Libraries;
Telecommunications
SU- Australia; United Kingdom; Examples; Virtual Reality
GE- Australia; United Kingdom
AB- A library has the capacity to deliver much more than just its locally
stored and owned resources. By using telecommunications, information can be
sought from online databases and from other pupils in schools across the
world. This paper includes: (1) an explanation of the link between “virtual
reality” and the “virtual library,” and the projected impact on traditional
school libraries of the concept of the virtual collection; (2) a description
of Campus 2000 in Britain and NEXUS in Australia, two online information
services geared to the needs of schools; (3) an explanation of the use of
commercial online databases in schools; (4) an explanation of the use of
telecommunications by pupils to gather information from other pupils; (5) a
case study of the use of electronic mail in  Northern Ireland to help
Protestant and Roman Catholic schools break down barriers; and (6) comments
on the virtual school library and the role of the librarian. (Contains 21
references.) (KRN)
LA- English
AG- Media Staff; Practitioners
FT- Y
AN- ED358845
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 1993

34.

TI- The Louisiana Virtual School: A Baseline Study of the Effectiveness and
Quality of Online Learning
AU- Batley, Valerie Lynne Smith
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, University of Louisiana at Monroe
DT- 20090101
YR- 2009
PG- 153
PT- Dissertation
SU- Electronic Learning; Rural Schools; Distance Education; Online Courses;
Program Effectiveness; Statistical Analysis; Facilitators (Individuals);
Principals; Counselor Attitudes; School Counselors; Administrator Attitudes;
Surveys; Urban Schools; Suburban Schools; Virtual Classrooms; Predictor
Variables; Instructional Effectiveness; Educational Quality
SU- Louisiana; Dependent Variables
GE- Louisiana
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- This quantitative study investigated the perceptions of principals,
guidance counselors, and site facilitators in city/suburb, town, and rural
schools concerning the Louisiana Virtual School (LVS). This study provided a
benchmark of attitudes from school personnel about the LVS.    The
non-experimental research design used an online survey adapted with
permission from the Illinois Virtual School. The sample (n = 95) consisted of
55 principals, 19 guidance counselors, and 21 LVS site facilitators in 19
city/suburb, 32 town, and 44 rural schools that offered LVS courses during
the 2008-09 academic year. Data were analyzed using a two-way factorial
analysis of variance and a Scheffe post-hoc analysis. Independent variables
included school locale and school personnel position. Dependent variables
included the perceived value of LVS courses, the effectiveness of
communication between the LVS administrators and schools, the responsiveness
of LVS administrators to the curricular needs of the schools, and online
learning as an effective way for students to learn. Each of the null
hypotheses was rejected for personnel position, and in each case, significant
mean differences were found between the principal and the site facilitator,
favoring the site facilitators. No differences were found between principals
and guidance counselors.    Findings of this study indicated that site
facilitators reported a higher scale value for the LVS course offerings to
students than did principals and guidance counselors. All school personnel
positions regarded the communication associated with the LVS as effective,
believed that the LVS administrators were responsive to the curricular needs
of the school, and perceived online learning as an effective way for students
to learn. Findings among school locales were not significant. The lack of
significant differences indicated that regardless of school locale, personnel
at the local level believe the LVS had value to their students.    In
summary, the results confirmed existing literature that the role of the site
facilitator was important to the success of the virtual school and provided a
vital link between students and their online teachers. The results also
indicated that school personnel directly involved with the virtual school
have good to excellent perceptions regarding the LVS and online learning.
[The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission
of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.
Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600.
Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-109-68777-4
AN- ED515984
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2011

35.

TI- What Are Secondary Students’ Expectations for Teachers in Virtual School
Environments?
AU- Oliver, Kevin
AU- Osborne, Jason
AU- Brady, Kevin
SO- Distance Education, v30 n1 p23-45 May 2009
VI- 30
IP- 1
DT- 20090501
YR- 2009
SP- 23
EP- 45
PG- 23
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Online Courses; Electronic Learning; Teacher Student Relationship;
Expectation; Teacher Effectiveness; Teacher Competencies; Feedback
(Response); Teacher Role
SU- North Carolina
GE- North Carolina
SU- Secondary Education
AB- A recent evaluation of the new North Carolina Virtual Public School
(NCVPS) in the USA revealed numerous expectations for virtual school teachers
from secondary students. Specifically, students expected their teachers to
actually teach rather than moderate a course shell, supplement course shells
with content and projects that illustrate relevance, provide for both content
and peer interaction, and respond to questions and provide feedback quickly.
The data suggest a possible content-related interaction where a limited
course shell can be bolstered by a proactive teacher, but potentially
flounder among teachers who do not expect or know how to supplement an online
course. Data further suggest a potential communication-related interaction
where increased opportunities for student-student and student-teacher
interaction could potentially decrease the actual or perceived need for
individualized attention that is particularly challenging for virtual
teachers to provide. These results can be used to establish teacher
expectations and design professional development experiences that prepare
teachers to undertake divergent roles unique to online instruction. (Contains
2 tables and 4 notes.)
LA- English
IS- 0158-7919
AN- EJ855721
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2009
RV- Y

36.

TI- Toward Practical Procedures for Predicting and Promoting Success in
Virtual School Students
AU- Roblyer, M. D.
AU- Davis, Lloyd
AU- Mills, Steven C.
AU- Marshall, Jon
AU- Pape, Liz
SO- American Journal of Distance Education, v22 n2 p90-109 Apr 2008
VI- 22
IP- 2
DT- 20080401
YR- 2008
SP- 90
EP- 109
PG- 20
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Educational Environment; Student Attitudes; Educational Technology;
Models; Prediction; Online Courses; Student Characteristics; Distance
Education; Student Surveys; High Schools; Virtual Classrooms; High
Achievement; Success; Computer Assisted Instruction; Institutional
Characteristics; Institutional Environment; Program Design
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; High Schools; Secondary Education
AB- Two lines of research have emerged to study the causes and prevention of
student failure in virtual (K-12) schools: studies of learner characteristics
and studies of learning environment characteristics. To develop a useful
model for predicting failure and promoting success in virtual school
environments, a study was designed to measure the relation between a
combination of student and environmental factors derived from previous
research and successful course completion during one semester at a large (N =
4,100) virtual school. Study findings yielded a model that can discriminate
between successful and unsuccessful online school students and is especially
effective at identifying those likely to succeed. (Contains 5 tables.)
LA- English
IS- 0892-3647
AN- EJ799508
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2008
RV- Y

37.

TI- An Investigation into Reported Differences between Online Math
Instruction and Other Subject Areas in a Virtual School
AU- Oliver, Kevin
AU- Kellogg, Shaun
AU- Patel, Ruchi
SO- Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, v29 n4 p417-453
Oct 2010
VI- 29
IP- 4
DT- 20101001
YR- 2010
SP- 417
EP- 453
PG- 37
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Electronic Learning; Online Courses; Internet; Secondary School
Mathematics; Mathematics Achievement; Student Attitudes; Satisfaction;
Educational Strategies; Summative Evaluation; Public Education
SU- North Carolina
GE- North Carolina
SU- Secondary Education
AB- Students and teachers affiliated with Spring 2009 online mathematics
courses offered by the North Carolina Virtual Public School (NCVPS) completed
end-of-course surveys detailing the effectiveness of their courses. Several
significant differences were noted when comparing results from math
participants to results from participants in five other subject areas,
suggesting math students were learning less online, were less likely to
recommend online learning to peers, were more satisfied with content breadth
and depth but could benefit from more detailed and authentic projects, were
less likely to associate their courses with certain 21st century skills and
tools, and were in need of increased communication from the teacher and
increased collaboration with peers. A follow-up survey with math participants
as well as related literature suggest these significant differences can most
likely be attributed to needed improvements in online content and teaching,
as well as characteristics of math students that are independent of but
potentially improved by quality online instruction. (Contains 10 tables and 1
figure.)
LA- English
IS- 0731-9258
AN- EJ916801
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2011
RV- Y

38.

TI- Needs of Elementary and Middle School Teachers Developing Online Courses
for a Virtual School
AU- Oliver, Kevin
AU- Kellogg, Shaun
AU- Townsend, Latricia
AU- Brady, Kevin
SO- Distance Education, v31 n1 p55-75 May 2010
VI- 31
IP- 1
DT- 20100501
YR- 2010
SP- 55
EP- 75
PG- 21
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Feedback (Response); Focus Groups; Web Based Instruction; Middle School
Teachers; Elementary School Teachers; Pilot Projects; Professional
Development; Distance Education; Educational Technology; Electronic Learning;
Blended Learning; Online Courses; Computer Mediated Communication; Electronic
Publishing; Instructional Design; Computer Simulation; Simulated Environment;
Virtual Classrooms; Program Development; Program Descriptions; Program
Effectiveness; Educational Needs; Case Studies; Teacher Surveys; Technical
Support; Integrated Learning Systems; Program Implementation
SU- North Carolina
GE- North Carolina
SU- Elementary Education; Elementary Secondary Education; Middle Schools
AB- Eight teams of elementary and middle school teachers developed pilot
online courses for the North Carolina Virtual Public School (NCVPS) in the
USA. A qualitative case study with focus groups and a follow-up survey helped
to identify common needs of these non-traditional course designers during
course development efforts. Findings suggest virtual schools can better
support non-traditional course designers by providing leadership components
such as technical expertise, regular feedback, and clear expectations,
including an understanding of the target students. Findings further suggest
designers need a range of bite-sized professional development on replicating
model courses, using course management systems, assessing learners online,
designing with copyright and safety issues in mind, integrating Web tools,
and developing course documentation for deployment. The article concludes
with a discussion of support structures that may aid instructors tasked with
online course development.
LA- English
IS- 0158-7919
AN- EJ880782
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2010
RV- Y

39.

TI- The Virtual School Library: Moving toward Reality.
AU- McNicholas, C.
AU- Nelson, P.
DT- 19940401
YR- 1994
PG- 19
PT- Report
PT- Speeches/Meeting Papers
SU- Change; Computer Networks; Cultural Differences; Educational Environment;
Females; Foreign Countries; High Schools; Information Literacy; Information
Retrieval; Information Technology; Integrated Activities; Learning Resources
Centers; Microcomputers; Optical Data Disks; School Libraries; Secondary
School Students; Skill Development; Technological Advancement
SU- Virtual Libraries; Australia; Marist Sisters College (Australia)
GE- Australia
AB- The response of Marist Sisters’ College, Woolwich, New South Wales
(Australia), to the challenges of teaching information literacy is described.
Marist Sisters’ College is a high school enrolling approximately 750 girls
representing diverse cultures and socioeconomic backgrounds in grades 7
through 12. An integrated information-skills program, described elsewhere,
has been developed across the curriculum, and networked computer terminals
and CD-ROM towers have become the foundation for an information-technology
program aimed at information literacy. The concept of the virtual library
serves the College’s aspirations for the information environment. The virtual
library as it is being developed at Marist Sisters’ College gives access to
more information than is contained in four  walls through electronic access
to internal resources and external services, including catalogs and local
area networks that enable remote access. Part of the virtual library approach
is focusing on the skills needed to use technology as a tool. The virtual
library is providing a dynamic and diverse information environment that
supports the entire school curriculum. A detailed outline of the information
process–defining, locating, selecting, organizing, presenting, and
assessing–in terms of skills and outcomes is presented in tabular format.
(Contains 12 references.) (SLD)
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED375837
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 1995

40.

TI- U.S. Virtual School Trial Period and Course Completion Policy Study
AU- Hawkins, Abigail
AU- Barbour, Michael K.
SO- American Journal of Distance Education, v24 n1 p5-20 2010
VI- 24
IP- 1
DT- 20100101
YR- 2010
SP- 5
EP- 20
PG- 16
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Academic Persistence; School Holding Power; Differences; Evaluation
Methods; Withdrawal (Education); Measurement; Evaluation Problems;
Educational Policy; Educational Technology; Distance Education; Electronic
Learning; Web Based Instruction; Online Courses; Virtual Classrooms; School
Surveys; Institutional Characteristics; Program Evaluation
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Variation in policies virtual schools use to calculate course completion
and retention rates impacts the comparability of these quality metrics. This
study surveyed 159 U.S. virtual schools examining the variability in trial
period and course completion policies–two policies that affect course
completion rates. Of the 86 respondents, almost 70% had trial periods that
varied from 1 day to 185 days. Course completion definitions varied from
remaining in the course irrespective of the final grade to receiving an A- in
the course. Such wide variation renders the completion and retention rate
metrics useless. We recommend virtual schools adopt consistent measures for
calculating student retention to allow meaningful comparisons among virtual
schools and between virtual and brick-and-mortar schools. (Contains 8
tables.)
LA- English
IS- 0892-3647
AN- EJ875324
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2010
RV- Y

41.

TI- The Impact of Policy on Student Success in Secondary Online Education: A
Case Study of Florida Virtual School
AU- McPherson, Rhonda Kay
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Central Florida
DT- 20080101
YR- 2008
PG- 174
PT- Dissertation
SU- Grade Point Average; Online Courses; Program Effectiveness; Educational
Change; Theories; Grades (Scholastic); Distance Education; Educational
Technology; Models; Statistical Analysis; Educational Policy; Identification;
Secondary Education
SU- Florida
GE- Florida
SU- Secondary Education
AB- Florida Virtual School (FLVS) was established in 1997 as an online
education alternative for the residents of Florida. The purpose of this study
was to identify policy changes at the organizational, state, and federal
levels that had the propensity to impact student success (as measured by
student’s final letter grade) at FLVS. In addition, this study identified
which type of institutional isomorphic policy (coercive, mimetic, or
normative) best classified major policy changes in the organization from
1997-2007. The use of institutional theory as the guiding framework for this
study proved to be beneficial and enabled the researcher to conclude which
types of policy are the most effective in increasing student success in the
secondary online education environment.    This study utilized ANOVA and
regression analysis to detect whether or not changes in policy at the
organizational and federal level have a statistically significant impact on
student success in the secondary online education environment. This study
reveals that student success at FLVS is consistently decreasing and that the
change is statistically significant. Regression analysis found that the
policy changes at FLVS in this study explain some of the variance detected in
the change in the mean, or GPA, of the school. This study found that both
coercive and mimetic policies have a statistically significant impact on
student success in the secondary online education environment as identified
in the isomorphic mechanisms outlined in institutional theory. This study is
important to the field of literature regarding secondary online education in
that it opens the discussion regarding types of policy and the potential
impact that policy changes have on student success in the secondary online
education environment. It addition, this study serves as a framework upon
which future studies can be conducted and are recommended in this study.
[The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission
of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.
Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600.
Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-124-00871-4
AN- ED527568
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2012

42.

TI- Webinars at Louisiana Virtual School
AU- Grant, Allen
SO- Principal Leadership, v9 n9 p64-66 May 2009
VI- 9
IP- 9
DT- 20090501
YR- 2009
SP- 64
EP- 66
PG- 3
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Educational Change; Professional Development; Virtual Classrooms; Virtual
Universities; Technology Uses in Education; Teleconferencing; Teacher
Education; Strategic Planning; Technology Planning
SU- Louisiana
GE- Louisiana
SU- Higher Education
AB- Delivering meaningful professional development, engaging students in
exciting yet practical curricula, and effectively communicating with faculty
and staff members are challenges in any school setting. At the Louisiana
Virtual School, a state-funded virtual school run by the Louisiana Department
of Education, the 6,000 students, 115 instructors, and 450 site facilitators
are spread across 300 schools in 72 districts. Webinars play a vital role in
the school’s ability to meet the challenges of educating students and
facilitating staff development. Although Louisiana Virtual has successfully
begun the integration of webinar technologies, much work remains. Future
challenges include developing innovative curricula that use webinar
technologies and expanding professional development so that course
instructors have the skills to deliver the new curriculum. Fortunately for
the students of Louisiana, webinar technologies make it easier for school
administrators to meet these challenges. The webinar products used at
Louisiana Virtual are described. Several tips for conducting a great webinar
are also presented.
LA- English
IS- 1529-8957
AN- EJ851785
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2009

43.

TI- A Comparison of Outcomes of Virtual School Courses Offered in Synchronous
and Asynchronous Formats
AU- Roblyer, M. D.
AU- Freeman, John
AU- Donaldson, Martha B.
AU- Maddox, Melina
SO- Internet and Higher Education, v10 n4 p261-268 2007
VI- 10
IP- 4
DT- 20070101
YR- 2007
SP- 261
EP- 268
PG- 8
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Delivery Systems; Distance Education; Formative Evaluation; Web Based
Instruction; Educational Technology; Virtual Classrooms; Online Courses;
Pilot Projects; Interactive Video; Teleconferencing; Instructional
Effectiveness; Outcomes of Education; Comparative Analysis; Program
Evaluation
SU- Alabama
GE- Alabama
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- As part of the formative evaluation of Alabama’s pilot of its virtual
schooling system (the Alabama ACCESS Distance Learning Program), the Alabama
State Department of Education examined outcome data from courses offered in
the two distance delivery systems: web-based course management and
interactive videoconferencing (IVC). In light of Bernard et al’s. [Bernard,
R., Abrami, P., Lou, Y., Borokhovski, E., Wade, A., Wozney, L., et al.
(2004). How does distance learning compare with classroom instruction? A
meta-analysis of the empirical literature. “Review of Educational Research,”
74(3), 379-434] recent meta-analysis finding that asynchronous distance
environments generally had more positive outcomes than synchronous ones, a
comparison of online (asynchronous) and IVC (synchronous) platforms provided
an opportunity to explore and shed more light on outcome comparisons between
synchronous and asynchronous platforms. Though there were some outcome
differences, the dominant finding was of no differences between platforms.
LA- English
IS- 1096-7516
AN- EJ796856
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2008
RV- Y

44.

TI- Cyber-Dilemmas in the New Millennium: School Obligations to Provide
Student Safety in a Virtual School Environment
AU- Shariff, Shaheen
SO- McGill Journal of Education, v40 n3 p467-487 Fall 2005
VI- 40
IP- 3
DT- 20050101
YR- 2005
SP- 467
EP- 487
PG- 21
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Safety; Virtual Classrooms; Educational Environment; Bullying; Computer
Mediated Communication; Adolescents; Guidelines; Court Litigation
AB- Cyber-bullying is a psychologically devastating form of social cruelty
among adolescents. This paper reviews the current policy vacuum as it relates
to the legal obligations and reasonable expectations of schools to monitor
and supervise on-line discourse, while balancing student safety, education,
and interaction in virtual space. The paper opens with a profile and
conditions of cyber-bullying. A brief discussion of the institutional
responses to  cyber-bullying follows. Finally, emerging and established law
is highlighted to provide guidelines that are more likely than arbitrary
responses, to help schools reduce cyber-bullying through educational means
that protect students and avoid litigation.
LA- English
IS- 0024-9033
AN- EJ737078
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2006
RV- Y

45.

TI- The Virtual School Library: Gateway to the Information Superhighway.
AU- Kuhlthau, Carol Collier
AU- And Others
DT- 19960401
YR- 1996
PG- 161
PT- Book
PT- Collected Works – General
PT- Report
SU- Access to Information; Distance Education; Elementary Secondary
Education; Futures (of Society); Higher Education; Information Technology;
Internet; Library Development; Library Education; Library Role; Media
Specialists; Professional Development; Program Implementation; School
Libraries; Technological Advancement; Telecommunications
SU- Virtual Libraries
AB- This book is a compilation of 14 articles that present a wide range of
perspectives on providing access to vast networks of information resources
and enabling students to learn in an information-rich environment. The
articles, arranged in four parts–overview of important technologies
comprising the virtual library, learning in the electronic information age,
examples of implementation, and education for library media
specialists–redefine the role of the school library media specialist to meet
the challenges of the future. The articles are: (1) “The Virtual Library
Impact the School Library Media Center: A Bibliographic Essay” (Virgil L. P.
Blake); (2) “Using the Internet to Enhance Teaching and Learning” (Jon
Summers); (3) “LM-NET: Helping School Library Media Specialists to  Shape the
Networking Revolution in the Schools” (Michael B. Eisenberg & Peter Milbury);
(4) “CD-ROM and the School Library Media Center” (Roxanne Baxter Mendrinos);
(5) “Distance Education: The Virtual Classroom Updated” (Daniel D. Barron);
(6) “Thinking Skills for the Electronic Information Age: Applying Mental
Capacity” (Mark von Wodtke); (7) “The Information Curriculum: Teaching
Concepts for the Virtual Library Environment” (Hilda K. Weisburg & Ruth
Toor); (8) “The Process of Learning from Information” (Carol Collier
Kuhlthau); (9) “Access to Telecommunications through CORE/Internet at the
Pleasant Valley High School: A Letter to Readers” (Peter Milbury); (10)
“Library Media Specialists Move Center Stage: An Example of Implementation of
Information Technologies” (Carol Kroll); (11)”Networking Schools in
Wisconsin” (Neah J. Lohr); (12) “School Library Media Specialist as Knowledge
Navigator” (Kathleen Burnett & Mary Jane McNally); (13) “Distance Education
for Teacher-Librarianship: Learning from Programs in Australia” (Dianne
Oberg); (14) “Uses of Telecommunication in K-12 Education: An Institute in
Print” (Kathleen Garland). (AEF)
LA- English
AG- Media Staff; Teachers; Practitioners
IB- 978-1-56308-336-5
AN- ED394529
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 1996

46.

TI- Predicting Success for Virtual School Students: Putting Research-Based
Models into Practice
AU- Roblyer, M. D.
AU- Davis, Lloyd
SO- Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, v11 n4 Win 2008
VI- 11
IP- 4
DT- 20080101
YR- 2008
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Prediction; Predictor Variables; Success; Virtual Classrooms; Theory
Practice Relationship; Educational Opportunities; At Risk Students; Distance
Education; Dropout Characteristics; Dropout Prevention; Models; Predictive
Measurement; Predictive Validity; Accuracy; Academic Persistence; High School
Students; Student Surveys; Factor Analysis; Multiple Regression Analysis;
School Holding Power; Electronic Learning
SU- High Schools; Secondary Education
AB- Virtual schooling has the potential to offer K-12 students increased
access to educational opportunities not available locally, but comparatively
high dropout rates continue to be a problem, especially for the underserved
students most in need of these opportunities. Creating and using prediction
models to identify at-risk virtual learners, long a popular topic in distance
education, is assuming increasing urgency in virtual schooling. Though many
studies have tested the contributions of various factors to online success,
this article emphasizes that prediction models must be developed and used in
ways that yield findings to support student success rather than prevent
students from enrolling. One such model is offered here. After a description
of data collection and statistical processes used to derive the model,
procedures are outlined for how to implement it in virtual school settings in
ways that increase both the accuracy and utility of predictions.
LA- English
IS- 1556-3847
AN- EJ1065647
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2015
RV- Y

47.

TI- What Is a Virtual School?
AU- Tuttle, Harry G.
SO- MultiMedia Schools, v5 n3 p46-48 May-Jun 1998
VI- 5
IP- 3
DT- 19980101
YR- 1998
SP- 46
EP- 48
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Computer Assisted Instruction; Computer Mediated Communication; Distance
Education; Evaluation Criteria; Internet; Nontraditional Education; Online
Systems; Teaching Methods; World Wide Web
SU- Virtual Classrooms; Virtual Curriculum; Web Sites
AB- Describes six models of virtual schools which use e-mail, online chats,
Internet resources, and archived resources to teach courses. Discusses
advantages and limitations of virtual schools, and presents some questions
for evaluating them. A sidebar lists 10 virtual school Web sites. (AEF)
LA- English
IS- 1075-0479
AN- EJ566580
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 1999

48.

TI- A Journey through Cyberspace: Reading and Writing in a Virtual School.
AU- Noden, Harry R.
SO- English Journal, v84 n6 p19-26 Oct 1995
VI- 84
IP- 6
DT- 19950101
YR- 1995
SP- 19
EP- 26
PT- Report
PT- Guides – Classroom – Teacher
PT- Academic Journal
SU- Class Activities; Computer Uses in Education; Computers; Educational
Change; Educational Development; Electronic Mail; Secondary Education
SU- Internet
AB- Describes a teacher’s discovery of the possibilities for using the
electronic mail and the Internet in his eighth-grade language arts classroom.
Shows how he makes connections with other educators across the globe and
outlines some of the ways in which the Internet is organized. Offers
justification for student use of the Internet as an educational device. (TB)
LA- English
IS- 0013-8274
AN- EJ513233
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 1996
RV- Y

49.

TI- Management Matters. Virtual School Library Media Center Management
Manual
AU- Pappas, Marjorie L.
SO- School Library Media Activities Monthly, v21 n5 p37-38 Jan 2005
VI- 21
IP- 5
DT- 20050101
YR- 2005
SP- 37
EP- 38
PG- 2
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Library Administration; School Libraries; Guides; Policy; Library
Services; Occupational Information; Records (Forms); Web Sites
AB- In this article, the author describes a management manual she maintained
while working as a school library media specialist. She started the manual
when she was a student in the organization and administration course in the
library science program and kept it current with information gleaned from
conferences, workshops, and networking with other school library media
specialists. She ultimately decided that a virtual version of this
traditional paper manual might be an interesting and useful concept to enable
parents, community members, and other school library professionals to view
how others manage media centers and teach students to gather and use
information. In this paper, she describes how to begin such a virtual
management manual, and provides suggestions on the type of information that
should be included.
LA- English
IS- 0889-9371
AN- EJ720742
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2005

50.

TI- Virtual Schools in the U.S. 2017
AU- Molnar, Alex
AU- Miron, Gary
AU- Gulosino, Charisse
AU- Shank, Christopher
AU- Davidson, Caryn
AU- Barbour, Michael
AU- Huerta, Luis
AU- Shafter, Sheryl Rankin
AU- Rice, Jennifer King
AU- Nitkin, David
AU- University of Colorado at Boulder, National Education Policy Center
SO- National Education Policy Center
DT- 20170401
YR- 2017
PG- 103
PT- Report
SP- Great Lakes Center for Education Research and Practice
SU- Virtual Classrooms; Blended Learning; Public Schools; Traditional
Schools; Enrollment; School Demography; Proprietary Schools; Private Schools;
Charter Schools; Student Characteristics; Minority Group Students; Low Income
Students; Teacher Student Ratio; Educational Indicators; Federal Programs;
School Effectiveness; Elementary Secondary Education; Accountability;
Graduation Rate; Educational Policy; Educational Research; Educational
Finance; Governance; Educational Quality; Teacher Effectiveness; Special
Education; English Language Learners; Gender Differences; Supplementary
Education
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- In the five years since the first National Education Policy Center (NEPC)
“Annual Report on Virtual Education” was released in 2013, virtual education
has continued to be a focal point for policymakers. Proponents argue that
virtual education can expand student choices and improve the efficiency of
public education. In particular, full-time virtual schools (also sometimes
referred to as virtual charter schools, virtual academies, online schools or
cyber schools) have attracted a great deal of attention. Many believe that
online curriculum can be tailored to individual students more effectively
than curriculum in traditional classrooms, giving it the potential to promote
greater student achievement than can be realized in traditional
brick-and-mortar schools. Further, the promise of lower costs–primarily for
instructional personnel and facilities–makes virtual schools financially
appealing to both policymakers and for-profit providers. The assumption that
virtual schools are cost effective and educationally sound, coupled with
policies expanding school choice and providing market incentives attractive
to for-profit companies, continue to help fuel virtual school growth in the
U.S. There is, however, little high-quality systematic evidence that the
rapid expansion of the past several years is wise. Indeed, evidence presented
in the NEPC annual reports argues for caution. Nevertheless, the movement
toward virtual schools continues to gather steam, often supported by weak or
even dishonest data. For example, as a part of the confirmation hearings for
the current Secretary of Education, National Public Radio reported that
Secretary Betsy DeVos responded to a written question from Senator Patty
Murray using performance data provided by a for-profit corporation that
inflated the four-year graduation rates of virtual schools–in some cases by
as much as 300%.1 The 2017 NEPC Annual Report contributes to the existing
evidence related to virtual education, and so to debates surrounding it. It
provides objective analysis of the characteristics and performance of
full-time, publicly funded K-12 virtual schools; available research on
virtual school practices and policy; and an overview of recent state efforts
to craft new policy. In Section I–“Full-Time Virtual and Blended Schools:
Enrollment, Student Characteristics, and Performance,” Gary Miron, Charisse
Gulosino, Christopher Shank, and Caryn Davidson focus on two specific types
of K-12 online and blended learning: full-time virtual schools and blended
schools. The authors assigned schools in their study a unique identification
code that allowed them to gather complete data about each school from a
variety of sources (the National Center for Educational Statistics,
individual Departments of Education, and so on). The authors use the terms
“full-time virtual school” and “full-term blended school” because they want
to link these school types to data sets on school characteristics, student
demographics, and school outcomes. In Section II–“Still No Evidence,
Increased Call for Regulation: Research to Guide Virtual School Policy,”
Michael Barbour focuses on all forms of K-12 virtual and blended learning.
Barbour distinguishes among the different forms of virtual schooling–both
supplemental and full-time–and describes the limited reliable research on
blended learning programs and blended learning schools. In Section III–“Key
Policy Issues in Virtual Schools: Finance and Governance, Instructional
Quality, and Teacher Quality,” Luis Huerta, Sheryl Rankin Shafer, Jennifer
King Rice, and David Nitkin use the general term “virtual school” as an
umbrella term including all forms of K-12 online learning. When the National
Education Policy Center first began this annual examination in 2013, the
distinctions among K-12 online learning, virtual schooling and cyber
schooling were not as prominent within the academic literature. Additionally,
many of the K-12 online learning programs sponsored or supported by State
Departments of Education were referred to as virtual schools. Similarly, much
of the legislation and policy language used the term virtual (for example,
virtual charter school). For these reasons, this annual report was and will
continue to use the term Virtual Schools in its title. Therefore, unless they
are quoting specific language from a given piece of legislation or policy,
the authors of this third section will continue to use the term “virtual
schools.” (Each section contains a list of notes and references.) [For
“Virtual Schools Report 2016: Directory and Performance Review,” see
ED574701.]
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED574702
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2017
RV- Y

51.

TI- In Search of a Virtual School.
AU- Paulsen, Morten Flate
SO- Technological Horizons in Education, v15 n5 p71-76 Dec-Jan 1987-88
VI- 15
IP- 5
DT- 19880101
YR- 1988
SP- 71
EP- 76
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Computer Assisted Instruction; Computer Oriented Programs; Computer Uses
in Education; Educational Policy; Elementary Secondary Education; Foreign
Countries; Higher Education; Information Systems; Technical Education;
Telecommunications
SU- Norway
GE- Norway
AB- Asserts that future distance education will be dominated by the virtual
school. Measures the potential of telecommunications, computer assisted
learning, audio/visual systems and computer conferencing against the
definition of a virtual school. Concludes that conferencing is the only
technology capable of serving as the basis for a virtual school. (CW)
LA- English
AG- Practitioners; Policymakers
AN- EJ365236
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 1988

52.

TI- A Virtual School Principal’s To-Do List
AU- Frey, Barbara
SO- T.H.E. Journal, v32 n6 p34 Jan 2005
VI- 32
IP- 6
DT- 20050101
YR- 2005
PG- 1
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Urban Schools; Principals; Virtual Classrooms; Administrator Role;
Educational Administration; Academic Achievement; Teacher Education; Parent
School Relationship
SU- Colorado
GE- Colorado
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- The author began her career as a classroom teacher, and for the last 20
years has focused on improving teaching and learning in urban school
districts. Now, as a principal of the Connections Academy virtual K-8 public
schools in Colorado, her day may look different from that of a traditional
school principal, but there are actually a lot of similarities. The to-do
list presented in this article shows the differences and likenesses in this
new realm of education.
LA- English
AG- Administrators
IS- 0192-592X
AN- EJ710340
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2005
RV- Y

53.

TI- A Preliminary Investigation of Maine Virtual Charter School Costs
Relative to the Essential Programs and Services Funding Model
AU- Johnson, Amy F.
AU- Hopper, Fleur
AU- Sloan, James E.
AU- University of Southern Maine, Maine Education Policy Research Institute
SO- Center for Education Policy, Applied Research, and Evaluation
DT- 20160701
YR- 2016
PG- 52
PT- Report
PT- Information Analyses
SP- Maine State Legislature
SP- University of Maine System (UMS)
SU- Charter Schools; Virtual Classrooms; Educational Technology; Technology
Uses in Education; Elementary Secondary Education; Costs; Educational
Finance; Funding Formulas; Literature Reviews; Expenditures; Resource
Allocation; Expenditure per Student; Qualitative Research; Statistical
Analysis; Interviews
GE- Maine
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- In 2015, the Maine State Legislature’s Joint Standing Committee on
Education and Cultural Affairs commissioned the Maine Education Policy
Research Institute (MEPRI) to study the state’s Essential Program and
Services (EPS) K-12 education funding model in relationship to the funding
for Maine’s two virtual charter schools. The study was initiated with a
review of available literature and reports on virtual school funding in other
states. Because the structure of Maine’s virtual schools differs from typical
models in other states, most notably because core academic subject teachers
are required to teach from one central physical location, further cost
analysis was conducted using only Maine-­based data. The expenditure data
available was from one school (Maine Connections Academy) in its first year
of operation in 2014-­15. This limits the generalizability of the findings.
Data were analyzed by categorizing the virtual school expenditures as much as
was possible into nineteen separate components of Maine’s Essential Programs
and Services funding model. In each category, the report first provides a
qualitative description of how the virtual school carries out that type of
work. This provides background to aid the reader in understanding how virtual
schools operate, and in interpreting any differences in expenditures. Next
the quantitative analysis for that cost category is detailed, followed by a
concise summary of whether the expenditures for that category were higher,
lower, or similar to the EPS cost model, unless inadequate data were
available to make a determination. An appendix provides a summary of virtual
school policies in other states.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED574347
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2017

54.

TI- Virtual Schools Report 2016: Directory and Performance Review
AU- Miron, Gary
AU- Gulosino, Charisse
AU- University of Colorado at Boulder, National Education Policy Center
SO- National Education Policy Center
DT- 20160401
YR- 2016
PG- 38
PT- Report
SP- Great Lakes Center for Education Research and Practice
SU- Virtual Classrooms; Blended Learning; Public Schools; Traditional
Schools; Enrollment; School Demography; Proprietary Schools; Private Schools;
Charter Schools; Student Characteristics; Minority Group Students; Low Income
Students; Teacher Student Ratio; Educational Indicators; Federal Programs;
School Effectiveness; Elementary Secondary Education; Accountability;
Graduation Rate
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- This 2016 report is the fourth in an annual series of National Education
Policy Center (NEPC) reports on the fast-growing U.S virtual school sector.
This year’s report provides a comprehensive directory of the nation’s
full-time virtual and blended learning school providers. It also pulls
together and assesses the available evidence on the performance of America’s
virtual and blended learning schools. It is intended as reference work for
policymakers, educators, and the public. This report provides a detailed
overview and inventory of full-time virtual schools and blended learning
schools that are also known as hybrid schools. Full-time virtual schools
deliver all curriculum and instruction via the Internet and electronic
communication, usually asynchronously with students at home and teachers at a
remote location. Blended schools combine traditional face-to-face instruction
in classrooms with virtual instruction. Although increasing numbers of
parents and students are choosing virtual or blended schools, little is known
about the inner workings of these schools. Evidence related to inputs and
outcomes indicate that students in these schools differ from those in
traditional public schools. The school performance measures for both virtual
and blended schools also indicate that these schools are not as successful as
traditional public schools. Nevertheless, the evidence suggests that their
enrollment growth has continued. Large virtual schools operated by for-profit
education management organizations (EMOs) dominate this sector and are
increasing their market share. While more districts are opening their own
virtual schools, the schools are typically small, and with limited
enrollment. This report provides a census of full-time virtual schools and
blended schools. It also includes student demographics, state-specific school
performance ratings, and a comparison of virtual school outcomes with state
norms. The following appendices are available for download: (1) Numbers of
Virtual Schools and Students by State; (2) Numbers of Blended Learning
Schools and Students by State; (3) Numbers of Full-Time Virtual Schools and
the Students They Serve; (4) Numbers of Blended Learning Schools and the
Students They Serve; and (5) Measures of School Performance: State
Performance Ratings, Adequate Yearly Progress Status, and Graduation
Rates–Full-Time Virtual Schools. (A list of notes and references is
included.) [For “Virtual Schools in the U.S. 2015: Politics, Performance,
Policy, and Research Evidence,” see ED558722.]
LA- English
AG- Policymakers; Practitioners; Community
FT- Y
AN- ED574701
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2017
RV- Y

55.

TI- Career Planning with CareerForward: Exploring Student Perceptions and
Experiences in an Online Career Preparation Course
AU- Barbour, Michael
AU- Lahiri, Minakshi
AU- Toker, Sacip
AU- Harrison, Kelly Unger
SO- Journal on School Educational Technology, v11 n3 p1-9 Dec 2015-Feb 2016
VI- 11
IP- 3
DT- 20160101
YR- 2016
SP- 1
EP- 9
PG- 9
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Career Planning; Student Attitudes; Student Experience; Graduation
Requirements; Electronic Learning; Online Courses; Virtual Classrooms; Access
to Education; Data Analysis; Outcomes of Education; Career Education; High
School Graduates; Program Evaluation; Student Surveys; Statistical Analysis;
Qualitative Research
GE- Michigan
SU- High Schools; Secondary Education
AB- In April 2006, the Michigan State Board of Education and Michigan
Legislatures adopted a rigorous package of high school graduation
requirements, one of which made Michigan the first state that incorporated an
online learning graduation requirement into the K-12 curriculum. All
Michigan’s students entering high school during 2008-2009 school year were
required to complete online learning during their course of high school
studies in order to graduate. Michigan Virtual School helped the schools in
Michigan to fulfill this requirement by developing a 20-hour online learning
course called “Career Forward”. In December 2008, the Michigan Virtual
University provided the National Repository of Online Courses access to the
CareerForward course content, allowing students from anywhere in the United
States, the ability to access CareerForward free of charge. This evaluation
study was conducted to provide Michigan Virtual School with information to
improve the design and delivery of the Career Forward course, in order to
improve the learning experiences of the future students and to improve the
overall efficiency of the course. Analysis of data from this research
indicated that, CareerForward in its current format had very little impact on
student attitude towards career planning. Recommendations for changes in
design and delivery options of the course for future offerings are suggested
in order to make the course more effective and to meet its objectives.
LA- English
IS- 0973-2217
FT- Y
AN- EJ1131832
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2017
RV- Y

56.

TI- Real-Time Virtual Teaching: Lessons Learned from a Case Study in a Rural
School
AU- Barbour, Michael K.
SO- Online Learning, v19 n5 p54-68 Dec 2015
VI- 19
IP- 5
DT- 20151201
YR- 2015
SP- 54
EP- 68
PG- 15
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Rural Schools; Educational Technology; Case Studies; Teaching Methods;
Synchronous Communication; Online Courses; Technology Uses in Education;
Computer Mediated Communication; Conventional Instruction; Foreign Countries;
Distance Education; Student Experience; Observation; Focus Groups;
Interviews
SU- Newfoundland; Labrador
GE- Canada
AB- Due to the challenges facing rural schools, many jurisdictions have
resorted to the use of virtual school programs to provide curricular
opportunities to their students. While the number of virtual schools that
rely on synchronous instruction as a primary or significant method of
delivery is quite small, there are some programs that do (and a growing
number of virtual schools that use it with small groups or individuals). This
case study examined the use of synchronous online instruction by one virtual
school with students in a single rural school in Newfoundland and Labrador.
The data from a variety of collection methods revealed three themes:
similarities with online student experiences and their traditional classroom
experiences, the development of local learning communities, and the
preference for students to use chat over audio.
LA- English
IS- 1939-5256
FT- Y
AN- EJ1085762
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2016
RV- Y

57.

TI- Professional Experiences of Online Teachers in Wisconsin: Results from a
Survey about Training and Challenges. REL 2016-110
AU- Zweig, Jacqueline
AU- Stafford, Erin
AU- Clements, Margaret
AU- Pazzaglia, Angela M.
AU- Regional Educational Laboratory Midwest (ED)
AU- National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance (ED)
AU- American Institutes for Research
SO- Regional Educational Laboratory Midwest
DT- 20151101
YR- 2015
PG- 40
PT- Report
PT- Tests/Questionnaires
SU- Online Courses; Teaching Experience; Teacher Surveys; Training; Teacher
Competencies; Barriers; Teacher Education; Faculty Development; Student
Behavior; Educational Methods; Elementary School Teachers; Secondary School
Teachers; Technology Uses in Education; Academic Persistence; Student
Responsibility
SU- Wisconsin
GE- Wisconsin
SU- Elementary Education; Secondary Education
AB- REL Midwest, in partnership with the Midwest Virtual Education Research
Alliance, analyzed the results of a survey administered to Wisconsin Virtual
School teachers about the training in which they participated related to
online instruction, the challenges they encounter while teaching online, and
the type of training they thought would help them address those challenges.
REL Midwest researchers and Virtual Education Research Alliance members
collaborated to develop the survey based on items from the Going Virtual!
survey (Dawley et al., 2010; Rice & Dawley, 2007; Rice et al., 2008).
Wisconsin Virtual School administered the survey to its 54 teachers, and 49
(91 percent) responded to the survey. The responses of the 48 teachers who
indicated that they taught an online course during the 2013/14 or 2014/15
school year were analyzed for the report. Results indicate that all Wisconsin
Virtual School teachers reported participating in training or professional
development related to online instruction and that more teachers reported
participating in training that occurred while teaching online than prior to
teaching online or during preservice education. The teachers most frequently
reported challenges related to students’ perseverance and engagement and
indicated that they preferred unstructured professional development to
structured professional development to help them address those challenges.
Further research is needed to determine what types of professional
development and training are most effective in improving teaching practice,
especially related to student engagement and perseverance. The following are
appended: (1) Survey on online teacher training and challenges; (2) Data and
methodology; and (3) Supplementary tables.
LA- English
CN- EDIES12C0004
FT- Y
AN- ED561235
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2015
RV- Y
FF- Yes

58.

TI- Online High School Student Achievement on State-Issued Standardized
Tests: A Case Study
AU- Gifford, William M., III
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, Northcentral University
DT- 20170101
YR- 2017
PG- 119
PT- Dissertation
SU- Electronic Learning; Academic Achievement; Standardized Tests; Case
Studies; Online Courses; Virtual Classrooms; Interviews; Focus Groups; High
Schools; Qualitative Research
GE- Georgia
SU- High Schools
AB- Online education has increased greatly in recent years among K-12
learners and post-secondary learners. Online learning provides opportunities
such as course remediation or access to courses not typically offered, which
have benefited many learners. The growth of online learning has also
presented educators with challenges as well. Students in fully online classes
often perform poorly on standardized tests when compared to their
counterparts in traditional classrooms. This is not the case with the
students of the Georgia Virtual School, where students participate in fully
online coursework and perform on par with traditionally schooled students in
the state of Georgia. The purpose of this research project was to identify
what practices educators from the Georgia Virtual School use to effectively
teach online learners and promote academic achievement in the virtual
classroom. A qualitative approach was implemented during the research process
to collect data. An exploratory case study design was used to examine online
instructional practices of Georgia Virtual School educators. Data was
collected through individual teacher interviews, individual administrator
interviews, and a teacher focus group. A purposive sampling method was used
to identify qualified study participants, and prospective participants were
only considered if they had been teaching for a minimum of three years, which
is the number of years required to be considered a veteran teacher as
outlined by the state of Georgia. Several key themes emerged in the
identification and codification of data. Thematic results of the study that
positively impact online student learning include the importance of a quality
online curriculum, highly skilled and motivated educators, individualized
instruction and feedback, and timely and consistent communication between the
teacher and all parties invested in the learning process. One recommendation
based on the results of this study is that online institutions must create
and implement quality curriculum in an online environment. A second
recommendation based on the results of this study is that online institutions
must implement policies that promote timely and consistent communication
between teachers and students. Based on the results of this study continued
research in the field of online education includes sampling other successful
online schools and identifying what types of communication are most critical
for student success in an online setting. [The dissertation citations
contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further
reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be
obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-0-355-24749-7
AN- ED580639
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2018

59.

TI- Virtual Schools: The Changing Landscape of K-12 Education in the U.S.
AU- Toppin, Ian N.
AU- Toppin, Sheila M.
SO- Education and Information Technologies, v21 n6 p1571-1581 Nov 2016
VI- 21
IP- 6
DT- 20161101
YR- 2016
SP- 1571
EP- 1581
PG- 11
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Electronic Learning; Institutional
Characteristics; Futures (of Society); Educational Trends; Virtual
Classrooms
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Virtual schools are a growing phenomenon in k-12 education. School
systems in almost every state in the United States offer some version of
fully online or blended education. It is no longer far-fetched to conclude
that if the current trend continues, virtual school enrollments will eclipse
those of traditional brick-and-mortar k-12 institutions within the next
10 years. This paper examines some of the challenges and strengths of virtual
schools, it offers questions to consider when deciding whether or not a
virtual school option would be ideal, and it draws conclusions, which provide
an outlook for the future of virtual schools in k-12 education.
LA- English
IS- 1360-2357
AN- EJ1111516
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2016
RV- Y

60.

TI- Administrator Work in Leveraging Technologies for Students with
Disabilities in Online Coursework
AU- Carter, Richard Allen, Jr.
AU- Rice, Mary F.
SO- Journal of Special Education Technology, v31 n3 p137-146 Sep 2016
VI- 31
IP- 3
DT- 20160901
YR- 2016
SP- 137
EP- 146
PG- 10
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SP- Department of Education (ED)
SU- Online Courses; Technology Uses in Education; Educational Technology;
Disabilities; Teamwork; Interviews; Documentation; Individualized Education
Programs; Content Analysis; Cooperative Planning; Administrators; Special
Education; Interaction; Computer Mediated Communication; Case Studies
AB- This article describes a study of online educators’ use of technology as
part of the accommodations they provided to students with disabilities at
their school. Specifically, research focused on four teachers who were
members of an interdisciplinary team in a large virtual school program, in a
state with established policies regarding online education, and online course
work as a requirement for graduation. Data were collected over 4 months in a
series of weekly interviews and through a content analysis of stipulated
accommodations and modifications in student Individualized Education Program
(IEP) documents. The findings of this study indicated (1) providing
technologically grounded accommodations and modifications required intensive
collaboration with students, parents, and other special education support
staff at the virtual school, (2) online teachers struggled to keep up with
all of the possible means and methods of enhancing the learning experience
and providing accommodations that were stipulated in the IEP while also
remaining sensitive to practices and supports that they could provide (using
technology that were not mandated), and as a result (3) technology use as
part of accommodation was most often relegated to what naturally exists in an
online learning environment and is available to all students. The
implications of this work are that transferring disability service plans, and
IEPs in particular, is no simple matter, and that moving to a technological
environment (and the notion that the online environment is inherently
accommodating) needs interrogation at every level (practice, research, and
policy).
LA- English
CN- H327U110011
IS- 0162-6434
AN- EJ1119795
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2016
RV- Y

61.

TI- Partnering for Success: A 21st Century Model for Teacher Preparation
AU- Kennedy, Kathryn
AU- Archambault, Leanna
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20131001
YR- 2013
PG- 45
PT- Collected Works – General
PT- Report
SU- Teacher Education; Electronic Learning; Online Courses; Elementary
Secondary Education; Educational Technology; Virtual Classrooms; Blended
Learning; Field Experience Programs; Preservice Teachers
SU- Idaho; Florida; Michigan; Arizona; Ohio; Utah
GE- Arizona; Florida; Idaho; Michigan; Ohio; Utah
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Higher Education; Postsecondary
Education
AB- This report studies the best practices necessary to rethink the skills,
methods, and pedagogical evolution that teacher education must address. If we
are to ensure great teachers are trained, mentored, and retained for our
students–the programs themselves must emulate 21st century skills. The
examples found in this report have unique elements and frameworks that others
may learn from and replicate. The partnerships highlighted in this report
provide guideposts to rethinking and modernizing educator preparation
programs for today’s schools. Following a foreword by Susan Patrick,
President and CEO of International Association for K-12 Online Learning
(iNACOL), and an introduction by Kathryn Kennedy, Director of Research of
iNACOL, this report contains the following contributions: (1) Boise State
University and Idaho Digital Learning Academy (Kerry Rice and Dazhi Yang);
(2) Florida State University and Florida Virtual School (Dina Vyortkina); (3)
Wayne State University (Michael Barbour); (4) Arizona State University and
Florence Virtual Academy (Leanna Archambault); (5) Mount Vernon Nazarene
University and TRECA Digital Academy (Dean Goon); (6) University of Central
Florida and Florida Virtual School (Michael Hynes, Bryan Zugelder, and Janet
Zajac); (7) Utah State University and Utah Virtual Academy (Robin Parent);
and (8) Conclusion (Leanna Archambault). Individual sections contain
references.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED561281
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2015

62.

TI- An Analysis of Student Engagement Patterns and Online Course Outcomes in
Wisconsin. REL 2016-147
AU- Pazzaglia, Angela M.
AU- Clements, Margaret
AU- Lavigne, Heather J.
AU- Stafford, Erin T.
AU- Regional Educational Laboratory Midwest (ED)
AU- American Institutes for Research (AIR)
AU- National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance (ED)
AU- Regional Educational Laboratory Midwest (ED), Midwest Virtual Education
Research Alliance
SO- Regional Educational Laboratory Midwest
DT- 20160701
YR- 2016
PG- 30
PT- Report
SU- Learner Engagement; Online Courses; Outcomes of Education; Electronic
Learning; Data Analysis; High School Students; Virtual Classrooms; Time on
Task; Scores; Enrollment; Advanced Placement; Core Curriculum; Elective
Courses; Statistical Significance; Gender Differences; Instructional Program
Divisions; Elementary Secondary Education; Regression (Statistics);
Correlation; Hierarchical Linear Modeling
SU- Wisconsin
GE- Wisconsin
SU- High Schools; Secondary Education; Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Student enrollment in online courses has increased in the past 15 years
and continues to grow. However, little is known about students’ education
experiences or online course outcomes. These are areas of particular interest
to the Midwest Virtual Education Research Alliance, whose goal is to
understand how to support student success in online courses. Members of the
alliance partnered with Regional Educational Laboratory Midwest to develop
and conduct this study on how students engage in online learning and how
student engagement patterns are associated with online course outcomes.
Findings from this study may help inform policymakers, state and local
education agencies, and online learning providers as they seek ways to
support student success in online courses. This study analyzed learning
management system data and student information system data for all core,
elective, and Advanced Placement online high school course enrollments during
the fall 2014 semester. The data were collected by Wisconsin Virtual School,
a state-level online learning program that partnered with 194 Wisconsin
districts to serve 5,511 student enrollments in 256 supplemental online
courses during the 2014/15 school year. Analyses looked for student
engagement patterns in online courses and the percentage of student
enrollments that followed each pattern; differences among student engagement
groups (groups of student enrollments that followed a given pattern) in
course type taken, gender, or grade level; and associations between student
engagement in online learning and online course outcomes. Engagement refers
to behavioral engagement and was defined as the amount of time a student was
logged in to the online course each week. Course outcomes were measured by
the percentage of possible points earned in the course (which students’ home
schools use to assign a letter grade based on the local grading scale) and
the percentage of course activities completed. Key findings include: (1)
Student enrollments in online courses followed one of six engagement
patterns, with average engagement ranging from 1.5 hours to 6 or more hours
per week; (2) Most students (77 percent) steadily engaged in their online
course for 1.5 or 2.5 hours per week; (3) Students who engaged in their
online course for at least 1.5 hours per week typically earned a high enough
percentage of possible points to pass the course; and (4) Students who
engaged in their online course for two or more hours per week had better
course outcomes than students who engaged for fewer than two hours per week.
The following are appended: (1) Study methodology; and (2) Supplemental
findings. [For the summary companion report, “An Analysis of Student
Engagement Patterns and Online Course Outcomes in Wisconsin. Stated Briefly.
REL 2016-157,” see ED566959.]
LA- English
CN- EDIES12C0004
FT- Y
AN- ED566960
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2016
RV- Y
FF- Yes

63.

TI- An Analysis of Student Engagement Patterns and Online Course Outcomes in
Wisconsin. Stated Briefly. REL 2016-157
AU- Pazzaglia, Angela M.
AU- Clements, Margaret
AU- Lavigne, Heather J.
AU- Stafford, Erin T.
AU- Regional Educational Laboratory Midwest (ED)
AU- National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance (ED)
AU- American Institutes for Research (AIR)
AU- Regional Educational Laboratory Midwest (ED), Midwest Virtual Education
Research Alliance
SO- Regional Educational Laboratory Midwest
DT- 20160701
YR- 2016
PG- 8
PT- Report
SU- Learner Engagement; Online Courses; Outcomes of Education; Virtual
Classrooms; Time on Task; Scores; Enrollment; High School Students; Advanced
Placement; Core Curriculum; Elective Courses; Statistical Analysis;
Statistical Significance; Elementary Secondary Education; Correlation;
Hierarchical Linear Modeling
SU- Wisconsin
GE- Wisconsin
SU- High Schools; Secondary Education; Elementary Secondary Education
AB- This study used administrative data from Wisconsin Virtual School to
identify patterns of student engagement in online courses (defined as the
amount of time students were logged in to their course each week and how this
varied over time). The study also examined whether the patterns were
associated with course outcomes (defined as the percentage of possible points
earned and the percentage of course activities completed). Six patterns of
engagement were identified, and most students in five of the six engagement
groups earned a high enough percentage of possible points to pass their
online course. Students with low but steady engagement in their online course
had better outcomes than students with low initial engagement that diminished
throughout their course. Students who engaged in their online course for two
or more hours per week had better outcomes than students who engaged for
fewer than two hours per week. [For the full report, “An Analysis of Student
Engagement Patterns and Online Course Outcomes in Wisconsin. REL 2016-147,”
see ED566960.]
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED566959
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2016
RV- Y
FF- Yes

64.

TI- Students with Special Health Care Needs in K-12 Virtual Schools
AU- Fernandez, Heidi
AU- Ferdig, Richard E.
AU- Thompson, Lindsay A.
AU- Schottke, Katherine
AU- Black, Erik W.
SO- Educational Technology & Society, v19 n1 p67-75 2016
VI- 19
IP- 1
DT- 20160101
YR- 2016
SP- 67
EP- 75
PG- 9
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Special Needs Students; Health Services; Virtual Classrooms; Elementary
Secondary Education; Online Courses; Epidemiology; Incidence; Socioeconomic
Background; Ethnicity; Intermode Differences; Conventional Instruction;
Electronic Learning; Academic Achievement; Parent Surveys; Demography; Mail
Surveys; Student Characteristics; At Risk Students; Multivariate Analysis;
Regression (Statistics)
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- This study sought to establish a baseline for understanding the
epidemiology of online K-12 students with special health care needs,
determine the prevalence in K-12 online schooling of students from certain
racial/ethnic backgrounds, those with socioeconomic disadvantages, and
determine how these students perform in online classes compared to their
prior experiences in traditional, face-to-face programs. Data from two
different studies was used to address these questions with the goal to
support virtual K-12 schools, blended programs, and teachers as they continue
to implement best practices for all students. Students with special health
care needs attending virtual school are underrepresented in the literature. A
possible explanation is that these students are not identified. However,
current research suggests that high-risk students, with or without a
disability, are choosing virtual school as a viable option (Cavanaugh,
Repetto, & Wayer, 2011). The Children with Special Health Care Needs screener
can be used to identify these students in order to provide support beyond
their Individualized Education Program (IEP). Students who need extra
support, self-pacing, or cannot attend school physically can potentially
benefit from virtual schooling.
LA- English
IS- 1436-4522
AN- EJ1087147
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2016
RV- Y

65.

TI- It’s Not That Tough: Students Speak about Their Online Learning
Experiences
AU- Barbour, Michael K.
AU- McLaren, Angelene
AU- Zhang, Lin
SO- Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, v13 n2 p226-241 Apr 2012
VI- 13
IP- 2
DT- 20120401
YR- 2012
SP- 226
EP- 241
PG- 16
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Student Attitudes; Foreign Countries; Electronic Learning; Online
Courses; Course Content; Educational Technology; Secondary School Students;
Attitude Measures; Computer Uses in Education; Asynchronous Communication;
Synchronous Communication; Interviews; Interpersonal Communication
SU- Canada
GE- Canada
SU- Secondary Education
AB- K-12 online learning is growing in Canada and elsewhere in the world.
However, the vast majority of literature is focused on practitioners and not
on systematic inquiry. Even the limited published research has largely
excluded the perspectives of students engaged in virtual schooling. This
study examines secondary student perceptions of components of virtual
schooling that were beneficial and challenging. Students largely enjoyed
their virtual school courses and found the synchronous classes, the
technology, and the ability to control their own learning as positive aspects
of their experience. Students also found the lack of a sense of community,
working during their asynchronous class time, and the asynchronous course
content to be challenging; and made suggestions for improvement to each,
along with advice to future virtual school students. (Contains 1 table.)
LA- English
IS- 1302-6488
FT- Y
AN- EJ983658
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2012
RV- Y

66.

TI- Interactions and Learning Outcomes in Online Language Courses
AU- Lin, Chin-Hsi
AU- Zheng, Binbin
AU- Zhang, Yining
SO- British Journal of Educational Technology, v48 n3 p730-748 May 2017
VI- 48
IP- 3
DT- 20170501
YR- 2017
SP- 730
EP- 748
PG- 19
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Online Courses; Second Language Learning; Outcomes of Education; High
School Students; Teacher Student Relationship; Regression (Statistics); Peer
Relationship; Learning Motivation; Learning Strategies; Student Attitudes;
Second Language Instruction
SU- High Schools; Secondary Education
AB- Interactions are the central emphasis in language learning. An increasing
number of K-12 students take courses online, leading some critics to comment
that reduced opportunities for interaction may affect learning outcomes. This
study examined the relationship between online interactions and learning
outcomes for 466 students who were taking high-school level online language
courses in a Midwestern virtual school. Regression analysis was employed to
examine how three broad types of interactions, learner-instructor,
learner-learner and learner-content (Moore, 1989), affected students’
perceived progress and satisfaction. After controlling for demographic
information, motivation and learning strategies, the results of multiple
regression showed that learner-instructor and learner-content interactions
had significantly positive effects on satisfaction, whereas learner-learner
interaction did not affect satisfaction. Learner-content interaction was the
only factor that affected perceived progress.
LA- English
IS- 0007-1013
AN- EJ1135968
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2017
RV- Y

67.

TI- “When We Talk about Compliance, It’s Because We Lived It”: Online
Educators’ Roles in Supporting Students with Disabilities
AU- Rice, Mary Frances
AU- Carter, Richard Allen, Jr.
SO- Online Learning, v19 n5 p18-36 Dec 2015
VI- 19
IP- 5
DT- 20151201
YR- 2015
SP- 18
EP- 36
PG- 19
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Online Courses; Technology Uses in Education; Educational Technology;
Disabilities; Distance Education; Special Education; Teacher Role;
Administrator Role; Academic Accommodations (Disabilities); Student Needs;
Teaching Conditions; Semi Structured Interviews; Coding; Interaction;
Curriculum; Barriers; Educational Policy; Educational Administration
AB- As participation in online learning grows, so do concerns around the ways
in which students with disabilities are served in virtual school programs,
both full and part-time. At the crux of this struggle is the way in which
federal and state laws (many of which were incepted before online learning
existed or gained traction as an educational option) are interpreted by
educators and translated into policies at the school level. Further,
administrators, special education case managers, and teachers all interpret
school level policies and answer to directives from a hierarchy of
supervisors. The interpretations of these policies and the understandings
educators use to guide their thinking have not been well-researched. In the
present study, teachers, special education case managers, school level
special education administrators, and regional directors were interviewed
about their roles in developing, supporting, and implementing accommodations
and other forms of support for students with disabilities in online courses.
Findings from this work focus on the role conceptions of various types of
educators in virtual schools and the tensions they experience as they work to
support each other in positioning students with disabilities for success.
LA- English
IS- 1939-5256
FT- Y
AN- EJ1085761
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2016
RV- Y

68.

TI- An Investigation of Communication in Virtual High Schools
AU- Belair, Marley
SO- International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, v13 n1
p105-123 Jan 2012
VI- 13
IP- 1
DT- 20120101
YR- 2012
SP- 105
EP- 123
PG- 19
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- High Schools; Virtual Classrooms; Investigations; Educational Practices;
Communication Research; Communication Strategies; Qualitative Research;
Telephone Instruction; Interviews; Communication Problems; Distance
Education; Observation; Teacher Influence; Instructional Effectiveness
SU- High Schools
AB- Virtual schooling is an increasing trend for secondary education.
Research of the communication practices in virtual schools has provided a
myriad of suggestions for virtual school policies. The purpose of this
qualitative study was to investigate the activities and processes involved in
the daily rituals of virtual school teachers and learners with the goal of
determining how regular phone calls by teachers contributed to the work
habits of students. Eight virtual teachers were observed attempting to
contact more than 60 struggling learners. Phone conversations with 12 of
these learners showed that teachers repeatedly attempted to help them. Eleven
students were interviewed and indicated preferences for written
communications. Ten additional teachers who were interviewed emphasized the
difficulty they had in reaching students by phone and the lack of student
responses to phone-call attempts. The teachers in the study provided
additional data regarding their regular communication patterns. Archival
records from more than 100 contact attempts showed that approximately 20% of
the students responded to teacher phone calls and less than half of these
students completed the work requested. The interview data revealed that
teachers believe written communications or multiple forms of communication
may be more effective than regular phone calls. Future research should extend
current research by expanding on sample size and investigating alternate
methods of communication. Further investigation of learner responses to phone
calls and of nonresponsive students could add to this data. (Contains 1
table.)
LA- English
IS- 1492-3831
FT- Y
AN- EJ979646
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2012
RV- Y

69.

TI- An Actor-Network Theory Reading of Change for Children in Public Care
AU- Parker, Elisabeth
SO- British Educational Research Journal, v43 n1 p151-167 Feb 2017
VI- 43
IP- 1
DT- 20170201
YR- 2017
SP- 151
EP- 167
PG- 17
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Foreign Countries; Foster Care; Network Analysis; Special Education;
Special Needs Students; Virtual Classrooms; Intervention; Individualized
Education Programs; Academic Achievement; Acceleration (Education);
Caseworkers; Social Work; Accountability
GE- United Kingdom
AB- The education of children in public, or Local Authority (LA), care, known
in the United Kingdom (UK) as looked-after children (LAC), is supported by
government initiatives to reduce the attainment gap that exists between LAC
and their non-LAC peers. These children often find remaining in education a
challenge, are twice as likely to be permanently excluded, and three times
more likely to receive a fixed-term exclusion than other school-age children.
A high proportion (61%) have been labelled as having special educational
needs (SEN) (DfE, 2015a). In the UK, the Virtual School (VS) has a statutory
role in the education of LAC (DfE, 2014a) and aims to encourage more
stringent monitoring and intervention for pupils. This is partly achieved
through the creation of a personalised education plan (PEP) for each LAC
pupil, which outlines progress, strategies intended to accelerate attainment,
and resources needed for doing so. The process involves the pupil, their
social worker and the designated teacher (responsible for the welfare of LAC
pupils) of the school attended. The current study uses Actor-Network Theory
(ANT, e.g. Latour, 1999) as a lens through which to conceptualise change for
LAC pupils during the PEP process. The focus is upon three PEP meetings in
one LA setting, in order to explore the people and things that are active in
driving forwards change for LAC, with a view to examining the efficacy of the
process and the roles of those involved. The analysis made visible the
importance of the role of the designated teacher in the PEP process, in
contrast to the relative inactivity of social workers and of pupil voice.
LA- English
IS- 0141-1926
AN- EJ1128636
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2017
RV- Y

70.

TI- Comparing Mathematics Achievement Scores: Face-To-Face versus Online
Delivery
AU- Lenderman, Ami
SO- ProQuest LLC, D.Phil. Dissertation, Mercer University
DT- 20170101
YR- 2017
PG- 154
PT- Dissertation
SU- Statistical Analysis; Correlation; Online Courses; Mathematics
Achievement; Grade 9; Grade 10; Teaching Methods; Academic Standards;
Comparative Analysis; Conventional Instruction; Educational Technology;
Technology Uses in Education
GE- Georgia
SU- Grade 9
AB- The purpose of this quantitative study was to explore the relationship
between the use of online courseware at Georgia Virtual School as an
instructional delivery method and student achievement of 9th and 10th grade
mathematics students as measured by Mathematics I and Mathematics II End of
Course Test (EOCT) scores. The knowledge of an increase, a decrease, or
having no statistically significant difference in student mathematics
achievement of students who satisfy the Mathematics I or Mathematics II
course requirements through online courseware when compared to students who
satisfy the same requirements in the traditional, face-to-face classroom
setting would be beneficial to many educational stakeholders. The two
research questions that drove this study were: 1) How does 9th grade student
achievement on the Mathematics I EOCT of students in the traditional
classroom setting compare to the scores of students taking Mathematics I
through online courseware in Georgia?; and 2) How does 10th grade student
achievement on the Mathematics II EOCT of students in the traditional
classroom setting compare to the scores of students taking Mathematics II
through online courseware in Georgia? To address these research questions,
the researcher selected the chi-square contingency table as the statistical
test. The statistically significant results indicate that there is an
association or relationship between mode of instruction for Mathematics I and
Mathematics II and student achievement. [The dissertation citations contained
here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction
is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by
Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-369-72104-1
AN- ED576290
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2017

71.

TI- IDEAL-NM Annual Report: School Year 2013-2014
AU- New Mexico Public Education Department
SO- New Mexico Public Education Department
DT- 20150101
YR- 2015
PG- 38
PT- Report
SP- Department of Education (ED)
SU- Annual Reports; Statewide Planning; Database Management Systems;
Electronic Learning; State Programs; Program Effectiveness; Program
Evaluation; Program Descriptions; Demography; Expenditures; Integrated
Services; Distance Education; Delivery Systems; Online Courses; Geographic
Location; Geographic Distribution; Virtual Classrooms; Enrollment Rate;
Credits; Progress Monitoring; Accountability; Trend Analysis; Courseware;
Shared Resources and Services
GE- New Mexico
SU- Higher Education; Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Innovative Digital Education and Learning-New Mexico (IDEAL-NM) was
created in response to the 2005 Performance and Accountability Contract,
“Making Schools Work” to leverage technology. On October 27, 2006, the
statewide e-learning program that would implement a shared e-learning
infrastructure using a single statewide learning management system (LMS); web
conferencing system; and help-desk support for K-12 schools, higher education
institutions, and governmental agencies was announced. IDEAL-NM implemented a
statewide Cyber Academy beginning in the summer of 2008, with 54 enrollments
from nine school districts. The vision of the statewide Cyber Academy was to
provide, through the innovative use of technology, equitable access for
education opportunities to all New Mexico students, by reducing geographic
and capacity barriers. The statewide Cyber Academy works in partnership with
New Mexico schools to deliver quality and rigorous online courses taught by
highly qualified New Mexico teachers via a supplemental or blended model. In
this model, students enroll in a physical, brick-and-mortar school, and
credit for the completed Cyber Academy course is awarded by the enrolling
school. As a nationally recognized program IDEAL-NM provides statewide
eLearning services to P-12 schools and state government agencies. IDEAL-NM is
a program of the Public Education Department (PED). New Mexico is the first
state in the nation to create a statewide eLearning system that, from its
inception, encompasses all aspects of learning–from traditional public and
higher education environments, to teacher professional development, to
continuing and workforce education. This report provides the following
relating to the program: demographic description, detailed report of
expenditures, description of services provided, the number and location of
local distance learning sites to date, schools and distance learning
completions (virtual school only–does not include portal enrollments),
courses offered, and Student and Teacher Accountability Reporting (STARS)
data. Three appendixes are included: (1) K-12 Web Portals; (2) State Agency
and Community Organization/Non Profit Portals; and (3) Tribal Colleges
Portals. [Issued December 2014.]
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED572923
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2017

72.

TI- Online Education: Let’s Start the Conversation
AU- Dixon, Robert J.
SO- Communique, v46 n2 p26-27 Oct 2017
VI- 46
IP- 2
DT- 20171001
YR- 2017
SP- 26
EP- 27
PG- 2
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Online Courses; School Psychologists; Delivery Systems; Training Methods;
Electronic Learning; Virtual Classrooms; Instructional Innovation; School
Psychology; Elementary Secondary Education
GE- Wisconsin
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- National shortages of school psychologists have started conversations
about training, the number of training programs needed, and how to initiate
new programs. This article discusses the difficulties associated with
traditional training programs for school psychologists and proposes exploring
online education and virtual school psychology service delivery models as a
solution to the rural shortage of school psychologists.
LA- English
IS- 0164-775X
AN- EJ1156609
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2017

73.

TI- Online Teacher Support Programs: Mentoring and Coaching Models
AU- Wortmann, Karly
AU- Cavanaugh, Cathy
AU- Kennedy, Kathryn
AU- Beldarrain, Yoany
AU- Letourneau, Therese
AU- Zygouris-Coe, Vicky
AU- North American Council for Online Learning
SO- North American Council for Online Learning
DT- 20081001
YR- 2008
PG- 26
PT- Report
SU- Mentors; Teacher Persistence; Beginning Teachers; Coaching (Performance);
Interprofessional Relationship; Teacher Role; Models; Communities of
Practice; Experienced Teachers; Beginning Teacher Induction; Inservice
Teacher Education; Specialists; Principals; Teacher Supervision; Teacher
Evaluation; Graduate Study; Online Courses; Web Based Instruction; Electronic
Learning; Virtual Classrooms; Technical Support; Instructional Design; Best
Practices; Educational Strategies; Program Descriptions; Elementary Secondary
Education; Institutional Characteristics; Teaching Methods; Academic Support
Services; Program Design; Social Networks; Vendors; Teaching Skills;
Knowledge Base for Teaching; Master Teachers; Program Evaluation; Program
Effectiveness; Professional Development; Distance Education; Blended
Learning; Video Technology; Teleconferencing; Web Sites
SU- Mississippi; Alabama; Missouri; Florida; Massachusetts; Colorado;
Tennessee; Idaho
GE- Alabama; Colorado; Florida; Idaho; Massachusetts; Mississippi; Missouri;
Tennessee
SU- Elementary Education; Elementary Secondary Education; High Schools;
Secondary Education
AB- This document describes the mentoring relationship from the perspectives
of several virtual schools that have built mentoring programs to assist their
new teachers. Each school’s mentoring program is unique and has been designed
specifically for the school’s staff, size, and instructional approach. These
schools have learned that a successful mentoring program is key in developing
effective novice virtual school teachers and in supporting the continued
growth of experienced virtual school teachers. Mentoring programs are still
new to virtual schools, but they may also be a factor in teacher retention.
In any case, an effective mentoring program will benefit the mentee through
development of knowledge and skills, the mentor through development of
leadership and communication capabilities, and the school through the sharing
of ideas and expertise. (Contains 3 figures.)
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED509629
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2010

74.

TI- Teachers’ Perceptions of the Benefits of Online Instruction for Students
with Special Educational Needs
AU- Marteney, Tina
AU- Bernadowski, Carianne
SO- British Journal of Special Education, v43 n2 p178-194 Jun 2016
VI- 43
IP- 2
DT- 20160601
YR- 2016
SP- 178
EP- 194
PG- 17
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Teacher Attitudes; Educational Needs; Special Needs Students; Online
Courses; Asynchronous Communication; Virtual Classrooms; Teacher Surveys;
Learning Activities; Access to Education; Student Improvement; Student
Motivation; Individualized Education Programs; Bullying; Resource Allocation;
Academic Accommodations (Disabilities)
AB- This article discusses the perceptions of “virtual” teachers with regard
to the benefits of online education for students with special educational
needs. Surveys were distributed to teachers from one educational management
company about their experiences of teaching in asynchronous (self-paced)
virtual school classrooms. The survey responses revealed the following
findings: online education has made it easier for students with limitations
to access learning activities; improvements have been made in student
academic performance; students have had success with asynchronous
(self-paced) education; student motivation has increased; and more
individualised support has been available. Even though these results focused
on positive outcomes, some negative perceptions were also recorded. These
included discrepancies related to cyber-bullying in asynchronous learning
programmes, matters related to student accommodations, and problems
associated with student use of online classroom resources.
LA- English
IS- 0952-3383
AN- EJ1104972
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2016
RV- Y

75.

TI- Beyond Minimum Technology Requirements: Course Characteristics for the
Instructional Design of Virtual Programs at the Elementary Grade Levels
AU- Vytlacil, Kerrie A.
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, Capella University
DT- 20130101
YR- 2013
PG- 145
PT- Dissertation
SU- Online Courses; Elementary Education; Qualitative Research; Delphi
Technique; Elementary School Teachers; Web Based Instruction; Virtual
Classrooms; Teacher Attitudes; Administrator Attitudes; Surveys; Interaction;
Educational Games; Visual Stimuli; Color; Cartoons; Instructional Design;
Barriers; Multimedia Instruction; Technology Uses in Education
SU- Elementary Education
AB- With virtual public school initiatives in each of the 50 states, there is
an impetus to develop and implement online programs for the elementary grades
(Cavanaugh, 2004, pp. 262-266; Oliver et al., p. 56). Yet, learner usability
characteristics for successful online schooling for the elementary grades are
unknown and/or unspecified. The purpose of this qualitative Delphi study was
to explore factors that online elementary educators, online elementary
curriculum coordinators and developers, and virtual school administrators
believe influence elementary learner engagement in the design of online
programs. This study used the classic qualitative Delphi method to answer the
central research question by allowing experts to answer the research
subquestions in three survey rounds until final consensus answers addressing
the central research question were reached. The analysis procedures were
based on the models of Hasson et al. (2000) and Kurubacak (2007). The data
from each of the three survey rounds was analyzed with basic descriptive
statistics (frequency and mean) and categorized by the themes of the four
research study subquestions. It was expected that participant answers would
include the desire and/or need for more engaging interactions and
instructional games for the online elementary student. It was also expected
that participant answers might indicate preference for childlike primary
color design features and cartoon characters. Participant answers supported
interactivity, games, and bright colors, and did not support primary colors
or cartoon figures. A possible result from this study includes improvements
to the course development phase of instructional design for developers,
administrators, and instructors of virtual school programs. Additionally,
with a more accurate development analysis for instructors and designers of
elementary programs for online use, elementary students who experience
barriers from multimedia and interactive features may gain additional
e-learning options for differentiation, accessibility, and usability within
the course design. [The dissertation citations contained here are published
with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited
without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone
(800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-303-33902-8
AN- ED559767
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2015

76.

TI- Caregivers’ Support for Their Elementary School Children in the Virtual
Classroom
AU- Fairbairn, Shane Jay
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, Walden University
DT- 20130101
YR- 2013
PG- 171
PT- Dissertation
SU- Elementary School Students; Virtual Classrooms; Rural Education; Child
Caregivers; Experience; Barriers; Caregiver Role; Decision Making;
Interviews; Access to Education
SU- Elementary Education
AB- Families living in rural areas face a number of barriers to educational
access in both face to face and virtual instruction to which students in more
urban areas are not exposed. The purposes of this inquiry were to explore the
lived experiences and self-reported interpretations of the caregivers of
rural elementary-aged students participating in virtual education and to
identify successful self-reported strategies and behaviors that caregivers
develop to enable their children to succeed despite either real or perceived
barriers in online education. Rogers’s innovation diffusion theory and
Johnson and Puplampu’s techno-subsystem within Bronfenbrenner’s ecological
systems theory were used as the conceptual framework. The research questions
for this study asked how caregivers overcame barriers with their children’s
virtual education, how they made the decision to use virtual education with
their children, and how they viewed their role in the education of their
children. Two interviews and a narrative journal were collected, analyzed,
and coded to identify rich themes and patterns. The themes identified as
barriers to children’s success in the virtual environment were “focus,”
“frustration,” “socialization,” and “distance.” Although strategies for some
of these barriers had been developed, socialization for children in a virtual
education program remained unaddressed. Families chose virtual school in
response to their children’s needs and for the flexibility it afforded to
their unique situations. Participants viewed their roles in terms of
“caregiver,” “teacher,” and “advocate” and experienced frustration when their
roles were in conflict. The implications for social change from this
preliminary work extend into advocacy for families who virtual school and
equity of access to high quality instruction through technology. [The
dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of
ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies
of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-303-01320-1
AN- ED552976
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2015

77.

TI- Online Teaching in K-12: Models, Methods, and Best Practices for Teachers
and Administrators
AU- Bryans-Bongey, Sarah
AU- Graziano, Kevin J.
SO- Information Today, Inc.
DT- 20160101
YR- 2016
PG- 352
PT- Book
PT- Collected Works – General
PT- Guides – Classroom – Teacher
SU- Electronic Learning; Elementary Secondary Education; Elementary School
Teachers; Secondary School Teachers; Online Courses; Models; Best Practices;
Administrators; Technology Integration; Pedagogical Content Knowledge;
Technological Literacy; Assistive Technology; Blended Learning; Educational
Technology
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Elementary Education; Secondary
Education
AB- “Online Teaching in K-12” is the essential hands-on reference and
textbook for education professionals seeking success in the planning, design,
and teaching of K-12 online courses and programs. This skillfully edited book
brings together more than two dozen experts and practitioners to present an
array of innovative models and methods, successful programs and practices,
useful tools and resources, and need-to-know information on diverse aspects
of online teaching and learning. Organized in three parts–Foundations,
Supporting Diverse Learners, and Implementation Strategies–“Online Teaching
in K-12” will be welcomed for its clear and timely coverage geared to
supporting teachers, administrators, professional trainers, colleges, and
schools in their quest for excellence in online primary education. Following
a Foreword (Norman Vaughn) chapters include: Part 1–Foundations: (1) The
Online Course Environment: Learning Management Systems (LMSs) (Xavier Gomez);
(2) The Online Teacher: Skills and Qualities to be Successful (Steven C.
Moskowitz); (3) Building Community in K-12 Online Courses: The Community of
Inquiry (CoI) (Sarah Bryans-Bongey); (4) Online Constructivism: Tools and
Techniques for Student Engagement and Learning (Michael Kosloski and Diane
Carver); (5) TPACK as Mediated Practice (Rolin Moe and Linda Polin); (6)
Captivating the Online Learner: Frameworks and Standards for Effective
Technology Integration (Chery Takkunen-Lucarelli); and (7) Online Student
Teaching: From Planning to Implementation (Lori Feher and Kevin J. Graziano).
Part 2–Supporting Diverse Learners: (8) Flipped Learning: Making the
Connections and Finding the Balance (Kevin J. Graziano); (9) Virtual
School-Home Communication (Dianne L. Tetreault); (10) Universal Design for
Learning (UDL) and Online Learning (Luis Pérez, Kendra Grant, and Elizabeth
Dalton); (11) Helping Special Education Teachers Transition to K-12 Online
Learning (Richard Allen Carter, Jr., James D. Basham, and Mary Frances Rice);
and (12) Assistive Technology in the 21st Century Online Classroom
(Jacqueline Knight). Part 3–Implementation Strategies: (13) Teacher-Created
Online Content: Two Teachers’ Tech Tales (Christopher Rozitis and Heidi
Weber); (14) Student-Centered Digital Learning Through Project-Based Learning
(Andrew Miller); (15) Open and Free Educational Resources for K-12 Online and
Face-to-Face Classrooms (John Elwood Romig, Wendy J. Rodgers, Kat D. Alves,
and Michael J. Kennedy); (16) Tools and Strategies for Assessment in an
Online Environment (Kim Livengood and Lesley Casarez); and (17) Mobile Apps
and Technology Integration for Virtual and Hybrid Learning Spaces (Gregory
Shepherd). Abbreviations are appended. A section about the editors, about the
contributors, and an index is included.
LA- English
AG- Teachers; Administrators
IB- 978-1-57387-527-1
AN- ED573521
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2017

78.

TI- Virtual Schools and 21st Century Skills
AU- North American Council for Online Learning
SO- North American Council for Online Learning
DT- 20061101
YR- 2006
PG- 11
PT- Report
SU- Electronic Learning; Instructional Design; Online Courses; Virtual
Classrooms; Web Based Instruction; Distance Education; Role of Education;
Educational Trends; Educational Needs; Educational Environment; Educational
Principles; Guidelines; Skill Development; Education Work Relationship;
Global Education
SU- Florida; Michigan
GE- Florida; Michigan
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; High Schools; Secondary Education
AB- Online learning through virtual schools is one of the most important
advancements in attempting to rethink the effectiveness of education in the
United States. The virtual school provides access to online, collaborative
and self-paced learning environments–settings that can facilitate 21st
Century skills. Today’s students must be able to combine these skills with
the effective use of technology to succeed in current and future jobs. The
full promise of virtual learning is dependent, however, on its ability to
incorporate 21st century skills in its instructional design, delivery and
implementation. Virtual school leaders, administrators and teachers must
ensure that students who learn in online environments are gaining the skills
necessary to compete as citizens and workers in the 21st century. This
document attempts to articulate a vision for 21st century learning in virtual
schools, and identify ways in which online learning can improve outcomes for
all students. An example of a school using online learning is appended.
(Contains 2 endnotes.) [This report was written by the North American Council
for Online Learning and the Partnership for 21st Century Skills.]
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED514436
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2011

79.

TI- An Examination of State Funding Models Regarding Virtual Schools for
Public Elementary and Secondary Education in the United States
AU- Stedrak, Luke J.
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, University of Florida
DT- 20120101
YR- 2012
PG- 128
PT- Dissertation
SU- Educational Finance; Public Education; Elementary Secondary Education;
Virtual Classrooms; Public Policy; Educational Policy; Educational
Legislation; State Legislation; State Policy; Electronic Learning
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- This study contains an analysis of virtual schools, public policy, and
funding in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine what
public policies and legislation were in place regarding the funding models of
virtual education on a state by state basis. Furthermore, this study
addressed how allocations were being made by state legislatures and if
individual state public policies allowed for private/publicly-funded virtual
school options. The analysis of the public policy was grouped into three
models with the following classifications: Centralized Virtual School Model,
Publicly-Funded Virtual School Model, and Privately/Publicly-Funded Virtual
School Model. Each model contained the name of the state’s primary virtual
school, its year of inception, funding source information, and if there were
evidence of any alternatives to a state’s primary virtual school.
Furthermore, this study contained a breakdown and analysis of data in terms
of how a given state viewed its virtual school public policy mission
statement(s), goal(s) and/or aspiration(s). [The dissertation citations
contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further
reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be
obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-303-06715-0
AN- ED554761
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2015

80.

TI- A Descriptive Study of Wisconsin PK-12 Virtual Public School Program
Operations and Management
AU- Banker, Margaret M.
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, Edgewood College
DT- 20120101
YR- 2012
PG- 176
PT- Dissertation
SU- Electronic Learning; Virtual Classrooms; Public Schools; Elementary
Secondary Education; Program Development; Mixed Methods Research; Scaling;
Blended Learning; Educational Quality; Accountability; Educational
Innovation; Surveys; Interviews
SU- Wisconsin
GE- Wisconsin
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- E-Learning as it pertains to public education is in its infancy in
America. There is limited research on what operational design, development,
and management attributes of virtual school programs foster student
achievement. The Wisconsin Department of Instruction has not developed or
adopted program standards for E-Learning programs. The purpose of this
descriptive mixed-methods study was to survey PK-12 Wisconsin public virtual
school leaders to gather data regarding current practices around virtual
school program development, management, and operations. The survey and
interview tools used National Standards for Quality Online Programs developed
by the International Association for K-12 Online learning. The mixed-methods
research approach included two data collection phases; a quantitative survey
phase followed by a qualitative interview phase. The five ancillary questions
served as an organization structure to surface research findings. Study
findings identified promising practices among virtual school program leaders.
These practices included purchasing course content from vendors and devoting
resources to teacher professional development. While E-Learning program
administrators reported accomplished leadership and governance practices,
external audits of program operations had not been conducted. Conclusions
drawn from data collection are PK-12 Wisconsin public virtual school leaders’
self-reported high levels of proficiency with matters of program management
and operations. Areas of concern revealed in the research included
scalability associated with rapid program growth and emerging demand for
blended learning options. Wisconsin virtual school program leaders grapple to
strike a balance between ensuring quality programs, demonstrating
accountability to stakeholders, and allowing for innovation through program
expansion. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the
permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without
permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800)
1-800-521-0600. Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-303-13389-3
AN- ED554060
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2015

81.

TI- Factors Influencing Student Academic Performance in Online High School
Algebra
AU- Liu, Feng
AU- Cavanaugh, Cathy
SO- Open Learning, v27 n2 p149-167 2012
VI- 27
IP- 2
DT- 20120101
YR- 2012
SP- 149
EP- 167
PG- 19
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Algebra; Online Courses; Web Based Instruction; Integrated Learning
Systems; Virtual Classrooms; Mathematics Tests; Data Analysis; Institutional
Characteristics; Influences; Correlation; Predictor Variables; Mathematics
Instruction; Student Characteristics; Teacher Student Relationship; Time
Factors (Learning); Individualized Education Programs; Special Needs
Students; Socioeconomic Status; Full Time Students; Part Time Students;
Secondary School Students
SU- United States (Midwest)
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Secondary Education
AB- This paper describes the effect of teacher comments, students’
demographic information and learning management system utilisation on student
final scores in algebra courses in a K-12 virtual learning environment.
Students taking algebra courses in a state virtual school in the Midwestern
US region during 2007-2008 participated in this study. Student final scores
on these courses were collected using tests administered at the end of
semester in the virtual school courses. The hierarchical linear modelling
technique was used for data analysis to account for the influence of school
characteristics on student final scores. The results show these factors have
different influences on student final scores in different algebra courses.
The discussion of the findings addresses the implications for teaching.
(Contains 4 tables.)
LA- English
IS- 0268-0513
AN- EJ968554
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2012
RV- Y

82.

TI- Adolescent Attitudes towards Virtual Learning
AU- Pleau, Andrea R.
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, Northeastern University
DT- 20120101
YR- 2012
PG- 108
PT- Dissertation
SU- Adolescent Attitudes; Electronic Learning; Online Courses; Student
Motivation; High School Students; Virtual Classrooms; Questionnaires;
Interviews; Educational Benefits; Individualized Instruction; Access to
Education; Flexible Scheduling
SU- High Schools; Secondary Education
AB- This study was designed to examine adolescents’ attitudes towards virtual
schooling. Virtual schooling may be defined as any public or private
organization that delivers instruction via the Internet. The rationale for
this study is based on the increased number of adolescents opting to complete
some or all of their secondary education through a virtual school. In eight
years, approximately half of all adolescents in the United States will earn
some or all of their high school credit in a virtual classroom (LaPrade,
Marks, Gilpatrick, Smith, & Beazley, 2011). In each case, the student’s
motivation for completing one or more virtual courses is different.
Regardless of their reason, it is clear that virtual schooling has become a
popular pathway for students enrolled in K-12 education. Participants
included eight high school adolescents who were enrolled either full or
part-time at the Rolling Green Hills Virtual School. Each adolescent
completed both an open ended questionnaire and an interview to determine
adolescent attitudes towards virtual schooling. The research revealed that
adolescents believe there are four benefits to virtual learning: flexibility
with place & time/time of day, access to schooling when brick & mortar is not
possible, access to courses when/if desired, and individualized
pacing/coursework. Additionally, adolescents believed there are three
disadvantages to virtual learning: teacher access & willingness, difficulty
with collaboration, and the requirement for more self-motivation. [The
dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of
ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies
of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-267-59437-2
AN- ED546199
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2014

83.

TI- OtagoNet: One Region’s Model for Virtual Schooling
AU- Pratt, Keryn
AU- Pullar, Ken
SO- Journal of Open, Flexible and Distance Learning, v17 n1 p1-11 2013
VI- 17
IP- 1
DT- 20130101
YR- 2013
SP- 1
EP- 11
PG- 11
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Foreign Countries; Electronic Learning; Virtual Classrooms; Distance
Education; Rural Schools; Leadership Role; Educational Finance; Models;
Educational Practices; Program Effectiveness; Web Based Instruction; Program
Descriptions
SU- New Zealand
GE- New Zealand
AB- Virtual schools are increasingly common in New Zealand and
internationally as schools are challenged to meet the needs of their
students. This article presents a description of the distance-learning model
used by a group of schools in rural Otago for the last decade. The leadership
team and roles are described, and the funding model, which is based on
reciprocity, is outlined. The most common teaching and learning practices are
described, and support mechanisms identified. Finally, a summary of the
research conducted since OtagoNet’s inception is presented. This research
shows that this model is generally effective for teachers and learners
although, as is the case for other models of virtual school, a number of
factors affect this.
LA- English
IS- 1179-7665
FT- Y
AN- EJ1079853
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2015
RV- Y

84.

TI- Understanding and Improving Full-Time Virtual Schools: A Study of Student
Characteristics, School Finance, and School Performance in Schools Operated
by K12 Inc. [with Appendices]
AU- Miron, Gary
AU- Urschel, Jessica L.
AU- University of Colorado at Boulder, National Education Policy Center
SO- National Education Policy Center
DT- 20120701
YR- 2012
PG- 77
PT- Numerical/Quantitative Data
PT- Report
PT- Tests/Questionnaires
SU- School Administration; Student Characteristics; Educational Finance;
School Effectiveness; Elementary Secondary Education; Electronic Learning;
Virtual Classrooms; Race; Ethnicity; Economically Disadvantaged; Special
Education; English Language Learners; Enrollment; Income; Expenditures; Cost
Effectiveness; Educational Indicators; Federal Programs; Reading Achievement;
Mathematics Achievement; Graduation Rate; School Holding Power
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- K12 Inc. enrolls more public school students than any other private
education management organization in the U.S. Much has been written about K12
Inc. (referred to in this report simply as “K12”) by financial analysts and
investigative journalists because it is a large, publicly traded company and
is the dominant player in the operation and expansion of full-time virtual
schools. This report provides a new perspective on the nation’s largest
virtual school provider through a systematic review and analysis of student
characteristics, school finance, and school performance of K12-operated
schools. Using federal and state data, this report provides a description of
the students served by K12 and the public revenues received and spent by the
company at the school level. Further, the report presents evidence from a
range of school performance measures and strives to understand and explain
the overall weak performance of these virtual schools. While the authors
share the excitement of new technologies and the potential these have to
improve communication, teacher effectiveness, and learning, they recommend
that policymakers move forward cautiously and only after piloting and
thoroughly vetting new ideas. The authors express hope that their findings
will help inform policymakers and motivate researchers to carefully study
various aspects of full-time virtual schools. They conclude that a better
understanding of virtual schools can serve to improve this new model and help
ensure that full-time virtual schools can better serve students and the
public as a whole. Appended are: (1) Demographic Characteristics of Students
Enrolled in K12 Schools, 2010-11; (2) Details on Publicly Reported Revenues
and Expenditures for Schools Operated by K12 Inc., 2008-09; (3) State
Performance Ratings, Adequate Yearly Progress Status, and Reasons for Not
Meeting AYP; (4) Performance of K12 Schools on State Reading Assessments,
2010-11; (5) Performance of K12 Schools on State Math Assessments, 2010-11;
and (6) Questions about Online Learning for Policymakers and School Leaders
from the Center for Public Education Study. (Contains 14 figures, 6 tables,
83 notes and references, and 1 footnote.)
LA- English
AG- Researchers; Policymakers
FT- Y
AN- ED533960
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2012

85.

TI- Adapting Reading Intervention for Online Students
AU- Chen, Baiyun
AU- Hirumi, Atsusi
AU- Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Washington,
DC.
SO- Association for Educational Communications and Technology, 27th, Chicago,
IL, October 19-23, 2004
DT- 20041001
YR- 2004
PG- 6
PT- Guides – Classroom – Teacher
PT- Speeches/Meeting Papers
SU- High School Students; Secondary Education; Online Courses; Web Based
Instruction; Remedial Reading; Reading Strategies; Reading Comprehension;
Teaching Methods; Reading Difficulties
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- With the advances of computer and network technologies, student
enrollment in distance education has increased rapidly since the 1990s. In
2003, it is estimated that about 40,000 to 50,000 K-12 students are enrolled
in online courses nationwide (Golden, Wicks, & Williams, 2004). With the
ever-increasing number of K-12 students who attend online program,
researchers state in a report on virtual school in United States that “online
education program(s)… already are having a significant impact on public
education” (Watson, Winograd, & Kalmon, May 2004). Most likely, the K-12
online programs will take an increasingly important role in the school system
of the United States. According to “Building a Snapshot of Virtual Schools
Across the Nation” by Collins, “12 states have established online high school
programs and 5 others are developing them… 25 states allow for the creation
of socalled cyber charter schools, and 32 states have e-learning initiatives
under way” (Collins, 2004). In the future, the option of e-learning will be
available to every child for purposes of advanced study, credit recovery or
remedial learning. The target population of a virtual school encompasses
gifted students, students seeking credit recovery, and at-risk and dropout
students. The focus of this paper is the problematic students who do not
succeed in traditional classroom. The at-risk and dropout student population
size is shockingly large. The primary purpose of this paper is to explore and
elaborate these issues and to develop and test an online reading intervention
module for problematic secondary students to improve their reading
abilities.
LA- English
AG- Teachers; Practitioners
FT- Y
AN- ED485049
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2005
RV- Y

86.

TI- Keeping Pace With K-12 Online Learning: A Snapshot of State-Level Policy
and Practice
AU- Watson, John F.
AU- Winograd, Kathy
AU- Kalmon, Stevan
AU- North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL)
SO- Learning Point Associates / North Central Regional Educational Laboratory
(NCREL)
DT- 20040501
YR- 2004
PG- 117
PT- Report
SP- Institute of Education Sciences (ED)
SP- Colorado Department of Education
SP- Learning Point Associates
SU- Electronic Learning; Elementary Secondary Education; Educational Policy;
State Legislation; Profiles; State Programs; Financial Support; Curriculum;
Access to Education; Equal Education; Accountability; Teacher Qualifications;
Teacher Evaluation; Student Characteristics; State Departments of Education
SU- Florida; Ohio; Idaho; Pennsylvania; Colorado; Minnesota; State Policy;
Illinois; Texas; California; Michigan; Wisconsin
GE- California; Colorado; Florida; Idaho; Illinois; Michigan; Minnesota;
Ohio; Pennsylvania; Texas; Wisconsin
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Online learning holds promise for providing new educational opportunities
to a wide range of students across the country. The rapid expansion of K-12
online learning, however, threatens to outpace the development of appropriate
state-level policies that serve to fulfill the promise. As the National
Association of State Boards of Education warned more than two years ago, “In
the absence of firm policy guidance, the nation is rushing pell-mell toward
an ad hoc system of education that exacerbates existing disparities and
cannot assure a high standard of education across new models of instruction.”
This study was undertaken to ascertain what states are doing to address the
need for policy guidance. The report provides information on specific topics
of K-12 online learning policy and practice as well as analysis and
discussion of the issues. References also provide listings of Legislation and
web sites. Appended are: (1) Glossary of Online Learning Terms 94; (2)
California Assembly Bill 294: Online Classroom Pilot Program 98; (3) Florida
2003 Statute: Florida Virtual School 1002.37 102; (4) Florida K-8 Virtual
School Pilot 107; (5) Minnesota Legislation 124D.095: On-line Learning Option
108; and (6) Ohio eCommunity School and eCourse Legislative Recommendations.
[Funding for “Keeping Pace With K-12 Online Learning: A Snapshot of
State-Level Policy and Practice” was also provided by Illinois Virtual High
School, and Wisconsin Virtual School.]
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED518634
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2011

87.

TI- Virtual Schools. Trends and Issues.
AU- Hadderman, Margaret
AU- ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.
DT- 20020101
YR- 2002
PG- 6
PT- ERIC Publications
PT- Report
SP- Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.
SU- Educational Administration; Educational Trends; Elementary Secondary
Education; Internet; Nontraditional Education; Online Systems; School Choice
AB- This article looks at a rapidly growing form of distance education:
virtual schools. Also known as cyber schools, these Internet-based programs
enroll fewer than 50,000 students nationwide, but more and more companies are
entering this market. Some examples of these virtual schools are the Willoway
CyberSchool, which was founded by a former elementary-school teacher; K 12
Inc., established by former U.S. Secretary of Education William Bennett; VHS
Inc., a virtual high school that was developed with federal funding; Florida
Virtual School, the nation’s largest virtual school, offering free courses to
any student in grades 9-12 in the state; the Internet Academy in Washington
State, which fills gaps in homeschooled students’ instruction; the Kentucky
Virtual High School, which  offers advanced, specialized, and
foreign-language courses free to public students; and the Colorado Online
School Consortium, which was founded to provide advanced-placement courses to
students attending rural and small schools and homeschoolers. The increasing
number of virtual schools has raised concern with education planners since
most school districts receive funding based on student enrollment. States are
having to revisit their school-finance laws as virtual schools compete for
state dollars. Many believe a set number of virtual courses can benefit a
student but decry full reliance on computers, believing that parent-child
interaction is the essence of homeschooling. (RJM)
NT- In: School Choice. Trends and Issues; see EA 032 330.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED473002
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2003

88.

TI- Virtual Schools: Trends and Issues. A Study of Virtual Schools in the
United States.
AU- Clark, Tom
DT- 20011001
YR- 2001
PG- 43
PT- Report
SP- WestEd, Phoenix, AZ. Distance Learning Resource Network.
SP- Western Illinois Univ., Macomb.
SU- Computer Uses in Education; Educational Development; Educational
Technology; Educational Trends; Elementary Secondary Education; Internet;
School Surveys; Virtual Classrooms; Web Based Instruction; World Wide Web
SU- Technology Utilization
AB- This report provides a summary and analysis of activities and trends of
virtual schools (i.e., educational organizations that offer K-12 courses
through Internet- or World Wide Web-based methods) across the United States.
The study provides analysis of trends based on an online survey of
state-approved or regionally accredited schools conducted from July through
August 2001. A peer group of 44 virtual schools was surveyed, with e-mail and
telephone follow-up. Virtual school profiles are presented for:
state-sanctioned state-level virtual schools; college and university-based
virtual schools; consortium and regionally-based virtual schools; local
education agency-based virtual schools; virtual charter schools; private
virtual schools; and for-profit providers of curricula,  content, development
tools, and infrastructure. Highlights include: (1) the trend from virtual
high schools to virtual K-12 schools continues; (2) $300 per semester was the
most reported tuition, but prices varied greatly; and (3) calculus AB was the
online AP (advanced placement) course offered by the most schools. Several
context factors influencing the development of virtual schools are
summarized, including demographic factors, public perceptions, education
market forces, technology access, curriculum equity, and government policies
and actions. The virtual school list is appended. (Contains 14 references.)
(MES)
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED462923
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2002

89.

TI- Virtually Possible
AU- Mellon, Ericka
SO- District Administration, v47 n2 p56-61 Feb 2011
VI- 47
IP- 2
DT- 20110201
YR- 2011
SP- 56
EP- 61
PG- 6
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Distance Education; Electronic Learning; Public Schools; Administrators;
School Administration; Virtual Classrooms
SU- Florida
GE- Florida
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Diane Lewis began building her popular virtual education program in a
storage closet. The drab room, just big enough to squeeze in a tiny table,
was her office at the headquarters of Seminole County (Florida) Public
Schools. She had a computer and a small staff of temporary workers. Lewis,
who managed to open two successful virtual schools for Seminole County last
year, has emerged as a guru of online education. Speaking with the zeal of a
preacher and the authority of an educator, she has traveled the world touting
the virtues of technology and busting myths about cyberlearning. In 2008, the
Florida Legislature ordered all of the state’s school districts to start at
least one virtual school; the state has been running its own, Florida Virtual
School, since 1997, serving students worldwide. This article shares Lewis’
tips for starting a virtual school.
LA- English
IS- 1537-5749
AN- EJ916347
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2011

90.

TI- Customization of Education through Online Learning
AU- Rayburn, Kalim
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, University of Southern California
DT- 20110101
YR- 2011
PG- 118
PT- Dissertation
SU- Electronic Learning; Individualized Instruction; Virtual Classrooms;
Middle School Students; High School Students; Enrollment Influences; Student
Needs; Student Characteristics
SU- California
GE- California
SU- Grade 10; Grade 11; Grade 12; Grade 6; Grade 7; Grade 8; Grade 9; High
Schools; Junior High Schools; Middle Schools; Secondary Education
AB- The educational opportunities provided through connectivity to the
internet that did not previously exist make way for many opportunities to
expand curricular options. Through the use of technology and the internet
students are able to receive education through a tailored learning approach
delivered via online resources. The purpose of this study is to examine
customization of education through online learning. Included are the
characteristics and goals of students enrolled and the effects of online
learning at one virtual school site serving grades 6-12 from 5 different
counties in southern California.    The research questions used to guide this
study are (1) Why are students at LVS in grades 6-12 enrolling online; (2)
How are the customized paths meeting the needs of the students in the
program; and (3) Do the characteristics of students vary with their purpose
in enrolling? Data collection was completed through an online self-reporting
student survey using fixed choice questions and an open-ended question. These
data were analyzed along with faculty interviews and a comprehensive district
profile. Out of 219 students surveys submitted, four trends emerged: Online
course fits within the desired schedule, attainment of individual educational
goals, better use of time; and flexibility of taking an online course.
Moreover, data revealed that students who reported having a positive
experience in online learning correlated with specific demographic variables,
grade level and types of online students.    To be successful, district and
school personnel must have a common vision for the online school including:
defining a target audience (grade levels), clear outcomes, and identifying
someone to maintain the vision. The final online school plan should be
developed collaboratively to ensure that all members of the school district
community can assess desired outcomes of the virtual school and be supported
by school district stakeholders.    A duplicate study is recommended at a
later date to see if enrollment continues to rise at Lakeside Virtual School.
While the focus of this study was on customization of education through
online learning, future studies might yield more information regarding the
overall effectiveness of the individual student experience through a
customized online path. Another potential study could include determining
whether the district’s design model for Lakeside Virtual School is equally
effective for middle or high school levels, rather than a singular focus on
grades 6-12 levels.    [The dissertation citations contained here are
published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is
prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by
Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-124-95136-2
AN- ED534210
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2012

91.

TI- The Investigation of Teacher Communication Practices in Virtual High
School
AU- Belair, Marley
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, Northcentral University
DT- 20110101
YR- 2011
PG- 227
PT- Dissertation
SU- Research Design; Qualitative Research; Investigations; Communications;
Teachers; Virtual Classrooms; Secondary Education; Observation; Interviews;
Case Studies; Work Ethic; Students; Sample Size; Correlation; Research
Methodology; Teacher Student Relationship; Responses
SU- Secondary Education
AB- Virtual schooling is an increasing trend for secondary education.
Research of the communication practices in virtual schools has provided a
myriad of suggestions for virtual school policies. Although transactional
distance has been investigated in relation to certain aspects of the
communication process, a small-scale qualitative study has not included
observations and interviews in a case study format. The purpose of this
qualitative study was to investigate the activities and processes involved in
the daily rituals of virtual school teachers and learners with the goal of
determining how regular phone calls by teachers contributed to the work
habits of students. Eight virtual teachers were observed attempting to
contact more than 60 struggling learners. Phone conversations with 12 of
these learners showed that teachers repeatedly attempted to help them. Eleven
students who were interviewed indicated preferences for written
communications. The students reported that they worked in response to phone
calls but did not always answer the phone when teachers called. Ten teachers
who were interviewed emphasized the difficulty reaching students by phone and
the lack of student responses to phone calls attempts. A qualitative research
design led to correlation between notes from observations and interviews and
the supporting documents from teacher and school records. A preponderance of
evidence from the triangulation of data determined that teacher phone calls
may not lead to assignment completion for virtual learners. Records from more
than 100 contact attempts showed that fewer than 20% of the students
responded to teacher phone calls and less than half of these students
completed the work requested. The interview data included the ideas that
teachers believe written communications or multiple forms of communication
may be more effective than regular phone calls. The teachers mentioned
autonomy and prioritize as reasons they did not use phone calls for learners
who were not struggling. Future research should bridge the gap in current
research and expand on sample size and alternate methods of communication. It
may involve quantitative measures for responses to teacher phone calls or
user activity. Further investigation of learner responses to phone calls and
nonresponsive students could add to this data.    [The dissertation citations
contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further
reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be
obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-124-96265-8
AN- ED533582
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2012

92.

TI- Washington K-12 & School Choice Survey: What Do Voters Say about K-12
Education? Polling Paper Number 6
AU- DiPerna, Paul
AU- Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice
SO- Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice
DT- 20120313
YR- 2012
PG- 76
PT- Numerical/Quantitative Data
PT- Report
PT- Tests/Questionnaires
SU- Charter Schools; Elementary Secondary Education; Opinions; School Choice;
Familiarity; Sampling; Scholarships; Educational Vouchers; Public Schools;
Educational Attitudes; Attitude Measures; Expenditure per Student; Electronic
Learning; Virtual Classrooms; Educational Policy; Educational Quality;
Income; Low Income Groups; Interviews; Private Schools; Questionnaires;
School Districts; Surveys; Tax Credits
SU- Washington; Sampling Error
GE- Washington
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- The “Washington K-12 & School Choice Survey” project, commissioned by the
Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice and conducted by Braun Research
Incorporated (BRI), measures Washington registered voters’ familiarity and
views on a range of K-12 education topics and school choice reforms. The
author and his colleagues report response “levels” and “differences” (using
the  term “net score” or “net”) of voter opinion, and the “intensity” of
responses. Where do Washington’s voters stand on important issues and policy
proposals in K-12 education? The author and his colleagues attempt to provide
some observations and insights in this paper. A randomly selected and
statistically representative sample of Washington voters recently responded
to 17 substantive questions and 11 demographic questions. A total of 602
telephone interviews were conducted in English from February 9 to 20, 2012,
by means of both landline and cell phone. Statistical results were weighted
to correct known demographic discrepancies. The margin of sampling error for
the statewide sample is plus or minus 4.0 percentage points. In this project
they included four split-sample experiments. A split-sample design is a
systematic way of comparing the effects of two or more alternative wordings
for a given question. The purpose is to see if particular wording, or
providing a new piece of information, can significantly influence opinion on
a given topic. For this survey, they were particularly interested in how
wording can affect responses to questions on taxes, education spending, and
digital learning–all salient issues in Washington state politics and policy
discussions. Key findings include: (1) The vast majority of Washington’s
voters (79%) are paying attention to issues in K-12 education. Only 5% of
voters say they pay no attention; (2) Washingtonians are much less likely to
think that K-12 education is heading in the “right direction” (31%) compared
to being on the “wrong track” (52%). The statewide sample produces a negative
net score (-21 net), suggesting major discontent among voters; (3) Washington
voters tend to be positive in the way they rate the state’s public school
system (52% say “good” or “excellent”; 44% say “fair” or “poor”). In lay
terms, the electorate is saying the schools are pretty good, but in light of
the previous question, voters are saying they are not content with the pace
of improvements; (4) Generally speaking, Washington voters do not know how
much is spent in the public schools. There is a yawning information gap; (5)
When given the latest per-student spending information, voters are less
likely to say public school funding is at a level that is “too low” compared
to answering without having such information; (6) In a split-sample
experiment, it appears voters are more likely to want tax increases to fund
public schools at the state level (47%), rather than increases at the local
level (30%). A plurality of voters would like an increase at the state level,
compared to keeping taxes “about the same” (36%) or a decrease (13%). On the
other hand, a plurality of voters would like local taxes to “stay about the
same” (45%), compared to those wanting an increase (30%) or decrease (19%) in
local taxes; (7) When asked for a preferred school type, Washington voters
demonstrate a serious disconnect between their preferred school types and
actual enrollment patterns in the state; (8) About 15% of voters in the
survey prioritize a “better education” as the key attribute they are looking
for in the selection of a school. The second most important attribute, as
suggested by 11% of all voters, is “individual attention”; (9) Washington
voters are much more likely to favor charter schools (60%), rather than
oppose such schools (23%). More than 4 of 10 voters (46%) say they are at
least somewhat familiar with charter schools, which is similar awareness
compared to what the author and his colleagues have seen in other states;
(10) Depending on terminology, voters appear to shift their lightly-held
views on virtual/online schools. In a split-sample experiment, the author and
his colleagues asked identical questions, but alternated the terms “virtual
school” and “online school”; (11) Washington voters clearly support
“tax-credit scholarships.” The percentage of those who favor (59% or 66%,
depending on the question version) is more than double the number of people
who say they oppose the policy (25% and 21%). No matter the wording of the
question, the author and his colleagues measure very positive reactions (+34
net and +45 net); (12) Washington voters support an “education savings
account” system (also called “ESA”). The percentage of those who favor ESAs
(57%) is much larger than the proportion who say they oppose (31%) the
policy. The net score is large (+26 net) with some enthusiasm (+7 intensity);
and (13) Washington voters give solid support for school vouchers, 55% say
they favor the school choice policy compared to 35% who say they oppose such
a system. About one-third third of voters (35%) say they are at least
somewhat familiar with school vouchers, which is a bit lower awareness
compared to what the author and his colleagues have seen in other states.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED531338
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2012

93.

TI- Narratives from the Online Frontier: A K-12 Student’s Experience in an
Online Learning Environment
AU- Barbour, Michael
AU- Siko, Jason
AU- Sumara, JaCinda
AU- Simuel-Everage, Kaye
SO- Qualitative Report, v17 Article 20 2012
VI- 17
DT- 20120101
YR- 2012
PG- 19
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
PT- Tests/Questionnaires
SU- Electronic Learning; Elementary Secondary Education; Online Courses;
Educational Opportunities; Student Experience; Interviews; Females;
Asynchronous Communication; Rural Schools; Personal Narratives; Grade 12;
High School Students; Help Seeking; Comprehension; Internet; Search Engines;
Search Strategies; Course Content; Satisfaction; Difficulty Level
SU- Georgia
GE- Georgia
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Grade 12; High Schools
AB- Despite a large increase in the number of students enrolled in online
courses, published research on student experiences in these environments is
minimal. This article reports the narrative analysis of a series of
interviews conducted with a female student at a brick-and-mortar school
enrolled in a single virtual school course. Her narratives describe a student
who often struggled with the content in her online course and was reluctant
to interact with her online teacher. When she interacted with people online,
it was using text, because she was shy and the hardware often did not work.
Darlene’s experiences, likely typical of many K-12 online students, highlight
a system in need of better strategies for the design and delivery of its
educational opportunities. (Contains 10 tables.)
LA- English
IS- 1052-0147
FT- Y
AN- EJ974843
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2012
RV- Y

94.

TI- An (Updated) Primer on Virtual Charter Schools: Mapping the Electronic
Frontier. Authorizing Matters. Issue Brief. NACSA Cyber Series
AU- Vanourek, Greg
AU- National Association of Charter School Authorizers
SO- National Association of Charter School Authorizers
DT- 20110901
YR- 2011
PG- 16
PT- Report
SU- Charter Schools; Technology Uses in Education; Electronic Learning;
Blended Learning; Student Needs; Educational Trends; Governance; Virtual
Classrooms; Educational Administration; Student Characteristics;
Misconceptions; Educational Finance; Educational Quality
SU- Georgia; Texas; Alaska; Pennsylvania; Minnesota; Colorado; Ohio; Florida;
District of Columbia; Nevada; Wisconsin; Tennessee; Kansas; Idaho
GE- Alaska; Colorado; District of Columbia; Florida; Georgia; Idaho; Kansas;
Minnesota; Nevada; Ohio; Pennsylvania; Tennessee; Texas; Wisconsin
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- The Internet has had a profound effect on everyone’s lives, work,
politics, and commerce–and increasingly, on the schools. Virtual schools
have arrived, creating new opportunities for students, and also a set of
challenges to the notions about schooling and the policies that govern public
education. The potential application of technology in education may change
the way that current versions of schools and schooling are limited in time
and space. Will future technological innovations revamp educational
conceptions of time, like class periods, grade levels, six-hour school days,
and 180-day school years? These units of time, as well as physical school
buildings, classrooms, and district boundaries, still define “school” for the
vast majority of students. Will this change in the coming years? These are no
longer unusual questions. Online and blended schools challenge some of the
most basic assumptions about schooling. They no longer place groups of
children of the same age in an assigned grade with a teacher and chalkboard
in a room for 50-some minutes at a time in 180 six-hour days. With virtual
schools, there has been a move to learning that is not bound by time, space,
and pace, liberating education systems from the confines of rigid blocks of
time and uninspired configurations of space to better meet the needs of
students. While the potential for true educational transformation is great,
one must begin by creating a shared understanding of what online and blended
learning is, and how it is best implemented. This is the first in a series of
briefs aimed at improving authorizer practices for virtual charter schools.
This paper will define concepts in online learning, including full-time and
blended learning, and will discuss recent trends in growth and governance of
various types of online learning and virtual charter schools. (Contains 3
figures, 4 endnotes, and a glossary of key virtual school terms.)
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED544289
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2014

95.

TI- The Validation of One Parental Involvement Measurement in Virtual
Schooling
AU- Liu, Feng
AU- Black, Erik
AU- Algina, James
AU- Cavanaugh, Cathy
AU- Dawson, Kara
SO- Journal of Interactive Online Learning, v9 n2 p105-132 Sum 2010
VI- 9
IP- 2
DT- 20100101
YR- 2010
SP- 105
EP- 132
PG- 28
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Parent Participation; Academic Achievement; Parent School Relationship;
Educational Environment; Virtual Classrooms; Traditional Schools; Evaluation
Methods; Test Validity; Test Reliability; High School Students; Models
SU- Grade 10; Grade 11; Grade 12; Grade 9; High Schools
AB- Parental involvement has been recognized as an important factor for
student achievement in traditional school settings. The lack of research
regarding the effect of parental involvement on student achievement in
virtual schooling is, in part, due to the absence of a valid and reliable
instrument to measure this construct. This paper provides an overview of
parental involvement in traditional education, discusses its role in K-12
virtual schooling, and describes a study that validates a parental
involvement assessment with a virtual school population. The results of this
study show the instrument is overall a valid and reliable measurement for
parental involvement in the virtual school environment. Implications for
research in virtual schooling are addressed, and suggestions were given to
modify this instrument for use in future studies. (Contains 3 tables and 3
figures.)
LA- English
IS- 1541-4914
AN- EJ938840
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2011
RV- Y

96.

TI- The Impact of and Key Elements for a Successful Virtual Early Field
Experience: Lessons Learned from a Case Study
AU- Compton, Lily
AU- Davis, Niki
SO- Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education (CITE Journal),
v10 n3 p309-337 2010
VI- 10
IP- 3
DT- 20100101
YR- 2010
SP- 309
EP- 337
PG- 29
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Preservice Teacher Education; Teacher Education Curriculum; Observation;
Experiential Learning; Teaching Skills; Misconceptions; Teaching Methods;
Pilot Projects; Science Teachers; Cooperating Teachers; Teacher Educators;
Student Attitudes; Discourse Analysis; Content Analysis; Interviews;
Instructional Effectiveness; Teacher Role; Science Instruction; Field
Experience Programs; Internet; Computer Mediated Communication; Case Studies;
Blended Learning; Virtual Classrooms; Distance Education; Computer Assisted
Instruction
SU- Iowa
GE- Iowa
SU- Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
AB- Virtual schooling, or the practice of offering K-12 courses via distance
technologies, has rapidly increased in popularity since its beginning in
1994. Although effective interaction with and support for students in these
environments requires a unique set of skills and experiences, teacher
education programs rarely include teaching and facilitation competencies for
virtual school education. Even less has been offered in terms of virtual
field experience. A pilot virtual field experience enabled teacher candidates
to observe how a high school science course was taught by an exemplary
teacher using blended technologies. Key findings show that the virtual field
experience helped to clarify misconceptions, preconceptions, and concerns and
led to a better understanding of Virtual School teaching skills and teacher’s
role as well as the supportive role of technology. Teacher candidates also
reported an increased interest in Virtual School and learning goals at the
end of the experience. Five key elements were also identified as contributive
to the successful experience. The elements were putting the “virtual” in the
virtual early field experience, increasing awareness through external and
internal informational gathering methods, including self-paced and guided
observation, providing guided hands-on experiential learning, and including
on-site observation. (Contains 3 online resources and 2 figures.)
LA- English
IS- 1528-5804
AN- EJ912428
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2011
RV- Y

97.

TI- Factors Influencing Success in Online High School Algebra
AU- Liu, Feng
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida
DT- 20100101
YR- 2010
PG- 196
PT- Dissertation
SU- Electronic Learning; Feedback (Response); Online Courses; Mathematics
Tests; Data Analysis; Grade 6; Grade 7; Grade 8; Computer Uses in Education;
Mathematics Instruction; Mathematics Achievement; Teacher Influence; Student
Characteristics; Standardized Tests
SU- United States (Midwest)
SU- Grade 6; Grade 7; Grade 8
AB- At present, an increasing number of students at the K-12 level in the
U.S. are taking courses online via virtual schools, which have been in
existence since the end of the 20th century. Virtual schooling is becoming a
mainstream option alongside traditional face-to-face learning environments.
Even with its increasing popularity, very few empirical studies have been
conducted to provide practical guidance for teaching, learning, research, and
policy making in K-12 virtual schooling. Some leading virtual school
organizations, such as the Southern Regional Educational Board and the
International Association for K-12 Online Learning, have produced standards
in these fields. However, many of the standards lack empirical support based
on research conducted in virtual learning environments.    Math has been
identified as a very important force to push a society forward since it is
considered a foundational subject. Many countries emphasize the improvement
of math knowledge and they develop policies to attract more people to the
field. The examination of success factors in the math field in general and
Algebra in specific in virtual learning environments can provide better
implementation strategies in 12 virtual schools to improve student math and
science achievement and increase the Science, Technology, Engineering, and
Mathematics (STEM) workforce in U.S.    The purpose of this study is to
examine the factors including LMS utilization, teacher comment/feedback and
student demographic information that can influence the success of Algebra
courses in K-12 virtual learning environments. Students who completed Algebra
and took the end-of-course (EOC) test and students who took one state
standardized mathematics test at grade 6-8 level in a state virtual school in
the Midwestern U.S. region during 2008-2009 participated in this study.
Student scores on these tests were collected by this virtual school.
Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) technique was used for data analysis to
account for the influence of school characteristics on student scores. The
results show these factors have different influences on student performance
on the state standardized mathematics test and the Algebra EOC test. These
findings have implications for quality online teaching, instructional design,
and the policy-making process in virtual learning environments. Further
research is proposed based on the results and limitations of this study.
[The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission
of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.
Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600.
Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-124-36088-1
AN- ED522599
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2011

Next, the alert for cyber school.

1.

TI- A Place for Us? Latino Parent and Student Satisfaction in a Cyber School
AU- Beck, Dennis
AU- Maranto, Robert
AU- Tuchman, Sivan
SO- Educational Research Quarterly, v41 n1 p63-83 Sep 2017
VI- 41
IP- 1
DT- 20170901
YR- 2017
SP- 63
EP- 83
PG- 21
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Hispanic American Students; Hispanic Americans; Student Satisfaction;
Parent Attitudes; Parent Surveys; Student Surveys; Virtual Classrooms;
Electronic Learning; Grades (Scholastic); Racial Differences; Correlation;
Race; Factor Analysis; Statistical Analysis; Secondary School Students
SU- Secondary Education
AB- Research indicates that traditional public schools are less effective in
serving Latino students. Yet Latino students, but not their parents, exhibit
greater school satisfaction than do their counterparts. The purpose of this
study was to examine Latino student and parent satisfaction with their cyber
school and prior traditional public school using results from surveys of
students (53.7% response; n = 269) and parents (n = 232; response = 48.7%).
ANOVA indicate that Latino parents rated their cyber school and prior
traditional public schools more positively than other parents. Latino
students rated the cyber school but not their prior traditional public
schools more positively. We discuss implications and directions for further
research.
LA- English
IS- 0196-5042
AN- EJ1166644
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2018
RV- Y

2.

TI- Determinants of Student and Parent Satisfaction at a Cyber Charter
School
AU- Beck, Dennis E.
AU- Maranto, Robert
AU- Lo, Wen-Juo
SO- Journal of Educational Research, v107 n3 p209-216 2014
VI- 107
IP- 3
DT- 20140101
YR- 2014
SP- 209
EP- 216
PG- 8
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Satisfaction; Student Attitudes; Parent Attitudes; Charter Schools;
Virtual Classrooms; Well Being; Student Surveys; Parent Surveys; Special
Education; Gender Differences; Racial Differences; Secondary School Students;
Factor Analysis; Statistical Analysis
SU- Secondary Education
AB- Research indicates that in traditional public schools the subjective
well-being of students and parents varies by gender, race, and special
education status. Prior studies suggest that general education students are
more satisfied with their schooling than special education students, that
female students have greater satisfaction with their schooling than male
students, and that Caucasian and Latino students report greater school
satisfaction than African American students. No prior research has studied
parental and student subjective well-being in a cyber environment. The
authors investigate parental and student subjective well-being in a cyber
charter school, using a student (n = 269; 53.7% response rate) and parent (n
= 232; 48.7% response rate) survey. They find statistically significant
differences in subjective well-being across demographic groups of students,
and also significantly higher satisfaction among special education students
in the cyber school environment. Implications are discussed.
LA- English
IS- 0022-0671
AN- EJ1031091
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2014
RV- Y

3.

TI- Cyber Charter Schools: Evolution, Issues, and Opportunities in Funding
and Localized Oversight
AU- Ellis, Kathleen
SO- Educational Horizons, v86 n3 p142-152 Spr 2008
VI- 86
IP- 3
DT- 20080101
YR- 2008
SP- 142
EP- 152
PG- 11
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Funding Formulas; Charter Schools; Governance; Virtual Classrooms;
Educational Finance; School Districts; Board of Education Role; Home
Schooling; Money Management; Elementary Secondary Education; Educational
Technology; Distance Education; Educational Policy; Financial Policy
SU- Pennsylvania
GE- Pennsylvania
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Cyber schools, also known as virtual schools, are noteworthy charter
school developments that provide viable options for education. Charter
schools in general and cyber charter schools in particular are not “revenue
neutral” to local school districts. Nationwide, hundreds of millions of
dollars allocated for education are being routed into charter schools. As
parents opt for cyber schools to augment home-school resources, the funding
burden shifts from the family to the taxpayers without input from local
districts or residents. Cyber schools’ rapidly increasing popularity demands
the creation of new standards for educational funding and institutional
governance. The recommendations presented in this paper focus on two areas:
(1) funding formulas, and (2) empowering local school authorities to operate
as management agents who maintain and control cyber school options to benefit
their local clientele.
LA- English
IS- 0013-175X
FT- Y
AN- EJ798519
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2008
RV- Y

4.

TI- Virtually Forgotten: Special Education Students in Cyber Schools
AU- Carnahan, Chris
AU- Fulton, Lacey
SO- TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, v57 n4
p46-52 May 2013
VI- 57
IP- 4
DT- 20130501
YR- 2013
SP- 46
EP- 52
PG- 7
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Virtual Classrooms; Web Based Instruction; Instructional Design; Special
Education; Elementary Secondary Education; Educational Practices; Educational
Research; Student Needs
SU- Pennsylvania
GE- Pennsylvania
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- The area of online K-12 education is experiencing rapid growth, yet
practice has greatly surpassed the research. This article looks to add to the
field by examining special education students enrolled in the Commonwealth of
Pennsylvania. There were over 2600 students in the state that were identified
as special education students and enrolled in virtual schools in 2009
according to the Pennsylvania Department of Education. The population of
special education students in cyber school mirrors the population of special
education students in brick and mortar classrooms, thus it is important to
understand the characteristics associated with special needs learners as
current research and practices are not designed to serve this population.
Understanding the characteristics of this group is fundamental for
instructional design and educational practice to serve the needs of these
diverse learners.
LA- English
IS- 8756-3894
AN- EJ1004286
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2013
RV- Y

5.

TI- Tearing down the Walls: Cyber Charter Schools and the Public Endorsement
of Religion
AU- Cambre, Belinda M.
SO- TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, v53 n4
p61-64 Jul 2009
VI- 53
IP- 4
DT- 20090701
YR- 2009
SP- 61
EP- 64
PG- 4
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Traditional Schools; Legal Problems; Charter Schools; Parent Rights;
Private Schools; Home Schooling; Religion; Religious Education; Online
Courses; Computer Uses in Education; Court Litigation; Parent Participation;
Legal Responsibility; Nontraditional Education
AB- States have the ability to regulate cyber charter schools just as they
regulate traditional schools, private schools, and homeschooling. The
situation becomes trickier in terms of religion. In homeschool settings,
parents have the right to deliver religious education to their children.
Under “Zelman v. Simmons-Harris” (2002), a cyber charter provider, or a
parent in the role of instructor, may deliver religious instruction as long
as the cyber school is not discriminating in any manner. Trends in case law
appear to protect parental rights outside of the school setting, and to
protect the school’s rights within the setting. However, when one begins to
“tear down the walls” and blurs the lines between traditional schools and
home cyber charter schools, many issues will become tricky. With parents
taking an increased role in their child’s education, new legal issues emerge.
Parents may not have the ability to control or alter the curriculum. Parents
may also be prevented from opting in to a cyber charter for part-time
purposes. These actions, however, may not rise to the level necessary to
prove state actor status triggering liability on the part of the parent.
Cyber charter schools come with great advantages for both students and
administrators, but they also come with particular issues which should be
thoroughly discussed before allowing the establishment of such schools by
religious organizations.
LA- English
IS- 8756-3894
AN- EJ851079
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2009
RV- Y

6.

TI- Pennsylvania Cyber School Funding: Follow the Money
AU- Carr-Chellman, Alison A.
AU- Marsh, Rose M.
SO- TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, v53 n4
p49-55 Jul 2009
VI- 53
IP- 4
DT- 20090701
YR- 2009
SP- 49
EP- 55
PG- 7
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Charter Schools; Elementary Secondary Education; Internet; Computer Uses
in Education; Financial Support; Educational Finance; School Choice; State
Legislation; Funding Formulas; Federal Aid; State Aid; School Districts;
Online Courses
SU- Pennsylvania
GE- Pennsylvania
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Cyber charter schools are public charter schools which are entirely
online and typically serve all grades from pre-kindergarten through 12th
grade. Pennsylvania implemented widespread charter school legislation as
early as 1997. This has offered a great number of Pennsylvanians options in
their public schooling. One of these options has been online pre-K-12
education once cyber charters entered the scene in Pennsylvania in 2000.
These public schools provide students extensive curricular materials, use of
a free computer and printer, and a monthly reimbursement for Internet
connections. The question asked by a number of people is, how is all of this
being paid for? This article examines the basic formula Pennsylvania uses to
fund their cyber charter schools, with particular attention to following how
the money flows from the federal level to states to districts and finally to
cyber charters. (Contains 2 tables and 4 figures.)
LA- English
IS- 8756-3894
AN- EJ851077
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2009
RV- Y

7.

TI- A Travel Agent in Cyber School: The Internet and the Library Media
Program.
AU- LeBaron, John F.
AU- And Others
DT- 19970101
YR- 1997
PG- 170
PT- Book
PT- Computer Programs
SU- Change Strategies; Computer Uses in Education; Course Integrated Library
Instruction; Elementary Secondary Education; Futures (of Society); Internet;
Librarians; Library Role; Media Specialists; School Community Relationship;
School Libraries
AB- The global computing networks that are revolutionizing our society have
created an opportunity for school libraries and librarians. Taking the
position that librarians occupy key positions in the educational technology
revolution, this book explores how technology-enhanced education improvements
fit together with the library media program and how the skills possessed by
librarians and media specialists make them prime candidates for an expanded
leadership role in their schools and communities. Addressing issues that
range from access and equity to security and censorship, the process of
changing from a traditional library to an information center is examined
along with implications for librarians. After outlining the history,
structure, and future of the Internet and reviewing  basic Internet
vocabulary, organizational challenges that library media specialists might
encounter as they integrate the Internet throughout the school curriculum are
discussed. Promoting an information-based curriculum, the book reviews the
planning process of Internet integration; considers the relationships between
schools and their communities and discusses how to create viable networks;
investigates effects on staff development and policy; and discusses
ramifications with issues such as acceptable use, censorship, and copyright.
Throughout the text, examples are used to illustrate the concepts and cite
relevant Internet resources, some commonly used Internet tools are explained,
and guidelines for access and curriculum application are provided. Two
diskettes (one for Macintosh and  the other for Windows) are included which
contain HTML files that provide links to resources discussed in the book.
(Author/AEF)
LA- English
AG- Media Staff; Practitioners
IB- 978-1-56308-333-4
AN- ED401894
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 1997

8.

TI- Homework in Cyber Schools: An Exploratory Study in an American School
AU- Beck, Dennis
AU- Maranto, Robert
AU- Tuchman, Sivan
SO- Quarterly Review of Distance Education, v18 n2 p23-37 2017
VI- 18
IP- 2
SP- 23
EP- 37
PG- 15
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Homework; Parent Surveys; Academic Achievement; Parent Attitudes;
Correlation; Educational Quality; School Effectiveness; Grades (Scholastic);
Retention (Psychology); Distance Education; Student Surveys; Student
Attitudes; Least Squares Statistics; Regression (Statistics); Charter
Schools; Secondary School Students; Comparative Analysis
SU- Secondary Education
AB- Research suggests that homework has moderately positive impacts on
student learning in brick-and-mortar schools (Marzano & Pickering, 2007), but
no prior research has explored such relationships in cyber schools. We
surveyed parents (n = 232) and students (n = 269) at an American cyber
school, and collected student achievement data. For students and parents,
findings indicate modest direct relationships between homework and grades and
retention. For parents we also find evidence of direct relationships between
homework and perceived school quality. Stronger relationships are found for
the students’ prior traditional school than for the cyber school, suggesting
the inchoate nature of homework in a setting where the home is the school.
LA- English
IS- 1528-3518
AN- EJ1159086
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2017
RV- Y

9.

TI- Using Student Voice to Examine Teacher Practices at a Cyber Charter High
School
AU- Borup, Jered
AU- Stevens, Mark A.
SO- British Journal of Educational Technology, v48 n5 p1119-1130 Sep 2017
VI- 48
IP- 5
DT- 20170901
YR- 2017
SP- 1119
EP- 1130
PG- 12
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- High Schools; Charter Schools; Virtual Classrooms; Educational Practices;
High School Students; Case Studies; Interviews; Qualitative Research; Teacher
Student Relationship; Caring; Individualized Instruction; Learner Engagement;
Learning Activities; Teacher Effectiveness
SU- High Schools
AB- Efforts to identify K-12 online instructional best practices and
standards have been limited because they largely ignored students’ voice–the
primary stakeholder in any educational context. In this case study, we
conducted 20 interviews among 10 students enrolled in a cyber charter high
school. Qualitative analysis of interviews found that students valued
teachers’ efforts to nurture caring relationships, facilitate sustained
dialogue, design and organize engaging learning activities, and provide
personalized instruction. However, students found that teachers varied in
their abilities to effectively perform these activities and provided
recommendations to improve how courses were designed and how teachers
interacted with students. Although findings from this case study should not
be generalized, these findings may prove insightful to those in similar
contexts. Research should continue to obtain and understand online students’
voices and assist cyber schools as they work to respond to students’ needs.
LA- English
IS- 0007-1013
AN- EJ1151118
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2017
RV- Y

10.

TI- Parents’ Perceptions of Teacher Support at a Cyber Charter High School
AU- Borup, Jered
AU- Stevens, Mark A.
SO- Journal of Online Learning Research, v2 n3 p227-246 2016
VI- 2
IP- 3
DT- 20160101
YR- 2016
SP- 227
EP- 246
PG- 20
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Charter Schools; High Schools; Parent Attitudes; Interviews; Teacher
Student Relationship; Secondary Education; Interaction; Online Courses;
Educational Technology; Technology Uses in Education; Teacher Role; Case
Studies
SU- High Schools; Secondary Education
AB- Despite high growth rates, cyber charter schools experience higher
attrition rates than their brick-and-mortar counterparts. Students’ reasons
for failing an online course are complex and students may require a high
level of teacher support to be successful online. Research examining
effective teacher engagement has relied heavily on teacher perceptions, and
perceptions of parents may prove especially insightful. In this research we
conducted 19 interviews among nine parents of students who were enrolled at a
cyber charter school. Interview analysis was guided by, but not limited to,
the elements of teacher engagement described in the adolescent community of
engagement (ACE) framework. Parents tended to be highly satisfied with the
course quality and the support that teachers provided to their students.
However, parents also expressed a degree of dissatisfaction with their
students’ experience in the school and provided recommendations for
improvement.
LA- English
IS- 2374-1473
FT- Y
AN- EJ1148409
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2017
RV- Y

11.

TI- Teacher Perceptions of Learner-Learner Engagement at a Cyber High School
AU- Borup, Jered
SO- International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, v17 n3
p231-250 Apr 2016
VI- 17
IP- 3
DT- 20160401
YR- 2016
SP- 231
EP- 250
PG- 20
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Teacher Attitudes; Learner Engagement; Cooperative Learning; Virtual
Classrooms; High Schools; High School Students; Distance Education;
Electronic Learning; Interaction; Peer Relationship; Student Behavior; Case
Studies; Teacher Surveys; Interviews; Charter Schools; Friendship; Student
Motivation; Peer Teaching; Instruction; Learning Processes; Barriers;
Cheating; Bullying; Educational Benefits; Online Courses
SU- High Schools; Secondary Education
AB- Distance education has historically contained little or no
learner-learner interactions. Currently the Internet allows for unprecedented
levels of learner-learner interaction and has the potential to transform how
students learn online. However, many courses offered online focus more on
flexibility and independence than on interaction and collaboration. Often it
is up to the teacher to decide how much learner-learner interaction their
courses contain. However, little research has examined how online high school
teachers perceive, value, and facilitate learner-learner interactions. This
case study used teacher surveys and interviews at a full-time online charter
high school to examine teacher perceptions of learner-learner interactions.
The analysis identified four student behaviors that positively impact student
engagement and learning: befriending, motivating, instructing, and
collaborating. Teachers also identified several drawbacks to learner-learner
interactions such as bullying and cheating. Furthermore, there appeared to be
tension between providing for students’ individual needs and requiring
collaborative learning opportunities.
LA- English
IS- 1492-3831
FT- Y
AN- EJ1102782
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2016
RV- Y

12.

TI- Parent and Student Perceptions of Parent Engagement at a Cyber Charter
High School
AU- Borup, Jered
AU- Stevens, Mark A.
AU- Waters, Lisa Hasler
SO- Online Learning, v19 n5 p69-91 Dec 2015
VI- 19
IP- 5
DT- 20151201
YR- 2015
SP- 69
EP- 91
PG- 23
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Charter Schools; High School Students; Parent Attitudes; Student
Attitudes; Parent Participation; Virtual Classrooms; Interviews; Online
Courses; Case Studies; Interpersonal Relationship; Mentors; Student
Motivation; Instruction; Educational Practices; Parent Role; Parent School
Relationship; Qualitative Research
SU- Utah
GE- Utah
SU- High Schools; Secondary Education
AB- As enrollments in cyber charter schools grow, it becomes increasingly
important to understand how parents engage in their students’ learning.
Researchers have hypothesized that parental engagement is even more critical
when online students learn from home, but few researchers have examined
parents’ engagement behavior–especially parents of adolescent learners. In
this case study we addressed this gap using parent and student interviews at
a full-time online charter school. Our analysis of 19 interviews with 9
parents and 10 interviews with 10 students identified five primary types of
parental engagement within this setting: (1) nurturing relationships and
interactions, (2) advising and mentoring, (3) organizing, (4) monitoring and
motivating student engagement, and (5) instructing. We also identified
obstacles to effective parental engagement, and in this paper we discuss how
programs can work with parents to foster more collaborative relationships.
LA- English
IS- 1939-5256
FT- Y
AN- EJ1085792
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2016
RV- Y

13.

TI- An Analysis of the Effect of a Cyber Home Learning System on Korean
Secondary School Students’ English Language Achievement and Attitude
AU- Shin, Ji Hye
AU- Albers, Peggy
SO- TESL Canada Journal, v32 n2 p45-66 2015
VI- 32
IP- 2
DT- 20150101
YR- 2015
SP- 45
EP- 66
PG- 22
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- English (Second Language); Second Language Learning; Second Language
Instruction; Quasiexperimental Design; Online Systems; Access to Education;
Educational Quality; Public Education; Surveys; Academic Achievement;
Experimental Groups; Control Groups; Language Proficiency; Cognitive Style;
Statistical Analysis; Student Attitudes; Secondary School Students; Tutoring;
Online Courses; Instructional Effectiveness; Learning Motivation; Foreign
Countries; Pretests Posttests; Grade 9; Middle School Students
SU- South Korea
GE- South Korea
SU- Secondary Education; Grade 9; Junior High Schools; Middle Schools; High
Schools
AB- This study examined the effectiveness of a Cyber Home Learning System
(CHLS), an online learning system currently being employed in South Korea to
improve the access and quality of public education as well as to reduce
private tutoring expenditures. The quasi-experimental research design used
experiment and survey methods to learn about the impact of CHLS on student
performance and to ascertain students’ perceptions of the system. The results
of the experiment indicated that no statistically significant differences in
test performance existed between the experimental and control groups. This
finding suggested that CHLS did not have an impact on student performance
overall. However, after the data were disaggregated according to ability
level, students in the advanced level showed statistically significant
differences between the experimental and control groups. Results from the
survey indicated that the CHLS was particularly effective for those who are
motivated to voluntarily participate in academic activities and who have the
capability for self-initiated study. The CHLS can be considered a useful
supplement but not a replacement for secondary private tutoring. To better
address the needs of other learners, the English content of CHLS may need to
be further modified to match students’ varying proficiency levels and
learning styles.
LA- English
IS- 0826-435X
FT- Y
AN- EJ1083964
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2015
RV- Y

14.

TI- An Analysis of Pennsylvania’s Cyber Charter Schools. Issue Brief
AU- Jack, James
AU- Sludden, John
AU- Schott, Adam
AU- Research for Action
SO- Research For Action
DT- 20131101
YR- 2013
PG- 13
PT- Numerical/Quantitative Data
PT- Report
SU- Charter Schools; Online Courses; Virtual Classrooms; Electronic Learning;
Enrollment Trends; Enrollment Influences; Student Characteristics; Profiles;
Academic Achievement; School Effectiveness; Student Mobility; Scores;
Educational Indicators; Distance Education; Educational Policy; Elementary
Secondary Education; Public Schools; Achievement Gains; Traditional Schools;
Withdrawal (Education); Transfer Students; Racial Differences
SU- Pennsylvania
GE- Pennsylvania
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Pennsylvania’s first cyber charter school opened in 1998, enrolling 44
full-time students. From this modest beginning, Pennsylvania’s cyber charter
sector has grown to 16 schools enrolling 35,000 students from all but one
school district in the Commonwealth. Pennsylvania has one of the nation’s
most extensive cyber charter sectors, and six additional proposed schools are
before the Department of Education (PDE) for review. The recent growth in the
sector coincides with increasing attention from state policymakers. As of
this writing, there are at least 12 legislative proposals pending in the
Pennsylvania General Assembly addressing cyber authorization, funding, or
oversight. To help situate cyber charter schools within a state context,
Research for Action (RFA) examined the state’s recently-issued School
Performance Profile (SPP) scores for the 11 cyber charters for which complete
data are available. RFA then compared these scores to all public schools
statewide, including traditional public schools and brick-and-mortar
charters. RFA’s analysis is based on publicly-available data from PDE’s
School Performance Profile. Also, given the relationship between student
mobility and academic achievement, RFA examined enrollment into and out of
five cyber charters for which data were available during the 2010-11 and
2011-12 school years. RFA reviewed the demographics of the student
populations in cyber charter schools as compared to traditional public
schools and brick-and-mortar charters. Main findings for these anlyses are
reported here in tabulated form. A glossary of terms is included. Appendix A,
“Cyber Charter Enrollment Trends for the 2011 and 2012 School Years”, is
presented in table 6.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED553143
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2015

15.

TI- “Cyber” Reading in L2: Online Reading Strategies of Students in a
Philippine Public High School
AU- De Leon, John Angelo Vinuya
AU- Tarrayo, Veronico Nogales
SO- Journal on English Language Teaching, v4 n2 p8-17 Apr-Jun 2014
VI- 4
IP- 2
DT- 20140101
YR- 2014
SP- 8
EP- 17
PG- 10
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
PT- Tests/Questionnaires
SU- Foreign Countries; Public Schools; High School Students; Electronic
Learning; Educational Technology; Reading Strategies; English (Second
Language); Surveys; Problem Solving; Technology Uses in Education; Student
Surveys; Electronic Publishing; Computer Mediated Communication; Internet
SU- Philippines
GE- Philippines
SU- High Schools; Secondary Education
AB- This paper seeks to identify the online reading strategies employed by
students in a Philippine Public High School. In particular, the study
attempts to answer the following questions: (1) What are the online reading
strategies used by the respondents (i.e., global, problem-solving, and
support)?; (2) What is the frequency of use of the online reading strategies
of the respondents?; and (3) What are the implications of the study’s
findings for English language teaching and learning? By means of the adapted
Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS) by Sheorey and Mokhtari (2001), data were
obtained from 100 readers of a public high school in Quezon City, the
Philippines. The analysis of the results revealed that problemsolving
strategies were the most frequently used online reading strategies, followed
by global reading strategies and support reading strategies. Finally, the
results furnish a pedagogical perspective on how online reading strategies
can impact second-language or L2 teaching and learning.
LA- English
IS- 2231-3338
FT- Y
AN- EJ1068448
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2015
RV- Y

16.

TI- Exploring Online Learning at Primary Schools: Students’ Perspectives on
Cyber Home Learning System through Video Conferencing (CHLS-VC)
AU- Lee, June
AU- Yoon, Seo Young
AU- Lee, Chung Hyun
SO- Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology – TOJET, v12 n1 p68-76
Jan 2013
VI- 12
IP- 1
DT- 20130101
YR- 2013
SP- 68
EP- 76
PG- 9
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Student Attitudes; Teaching Methods; Elementary Schools; Foreign
Countries; Electronic Learning; Online Courses; Video Technology;
Videoconferencing; Elementary School Students; Investigations; Preferences;
Program Effectiveness; Synchronous Communication; Questionnaires
SU- South Korea
GE- South Korea
SU- Grade 4; Grade 5; Grade 6
AB- The purposes of the study are to investigate CHLS (Cyber Home Learning
System) in online video conferencing environment in primary school level and
to explore the students’ responses on CHLS-VC (Cyber Home Learning System
through Video Conferencing) in order to explore the possibility of using
CHLS-VC as a supportive online learning system. The subjects consisted of 96
primary school students from 4th to 6th grade in South Korea. The major
findings of the study are as follows. First, the students preferred CHLS-VC
over CHLS and showed positive perspectives toward CHLS-VC. Second, the
students preferred the combination of voice and text chat over using voice or
text chat, and the frequency of students’ questions was higher in online than
in offline classes. Finally, the students’ perspectives on the effectiveness
of CHLS-VC were positive in comprehension and increase in score. They thought
that scores have increased in the respective academic subjects as well. Based
on the results, it is concluded that CHLS-VC can fortify the learning process
and foster student to teacher interaction. It seems that CHLS-VC is a useful
supplementary online learning system for the formal curriculum, and
implications based on pedagogical consideration, and suggestions for further
studies are provided. (Contains 2 figures and 5 tables.)
LA- English
IS- 1303-6521
FT- Y
AN- EJ1008869
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2013
RV- Y

17.

TI- School Quality in the Cloud: Guidelines for Authorizing Virtual Charter
Schools. Authorizing Matters. Issue Brief. Cyber Series
AU- Lin, Margaret
AU- National Association of Charter School Authorizers
SO- National Association of Charter School Authorizers
DT- 20111001
YR- 2011
PG- 12
PT- Guides – Non-Classroom
PT- Report
SU- Charter Schools; Educational Assessment; Virtual Classrooms; Electronic
Learning; Elementary Secondary Education; Blended Learning; Enrollment;
Student Mobility; Special Education; Federal Legislation; Educational
Legislation; Individualized Education Programs; Academic Standards; Conflict
of Interest; Attendance Patterns; School Districts; Educational Quality;
Program Proposals
SU- Individuals with Disabilities Education Act; Rehabilitation Act 1973
(Section 504); Americans with Disabilities Act 1990; Fourteenth Amendment
SU- Americans with Disabilities Act 1990; Fourteenth Amendment; Individuals
with Disabilities Education Act; Rehabilitation Act 1973 (Section 504)
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- This Issue Brief, an update of “Authorizing Virtual Charter Schools:
Rules of the Road on the Digital Highway” by Gregg Vanourek, is part of
NACSA’s Cyber series, which addresses issues in policy and practice that
concern authorizing online schools and blended learning. It aims to improve
authorizer understanding and oversight of online charter schools generally,
with particular focus on strengthening authorizer practices in evaluating
proposals for virtual charter schools.The brief aims to improve authorizer
understanding and oversight of online charter schools generally, with
particular focus on strengthening authorizer practices in evaluating
proposals for virtual charter schools. Provided is guidance to authorizers in
evaluating proposals for online charter schools–including identifying key
application questions and review practices to evaluate virtual charter
applicants’ plans and capacities. The brief concludes with general
recommendations for overseeing and evaluating online charter schools. A list
of selected sources is included. (Contains 1 footnote and 9 endnotes.)
LA- English
AG- Policymakers
FT- Y
AN- ED544280
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2014

18.

TI- Successfully Authorizing Blended Charter Schools. Authorizing Matters.
Issue Brief. Cyber Series
AU- Ableidinger, Joe
AU- Hassel, Bryan C.
AU- National Association of Charter School Authorizers
SO- National Association of Charter School Authorizers
DT- 20120201
YR- 2012
PG- 8
PT- Report
SU- Charter Schools; Blended Learning; Models; Evaluation; School
Administration; Educational Finance; Special Education; Educational
Legislation; Best Practices
SU- California; Hawaii; Michigan
GE- California; Hawaii; Michigan
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- This issue brief is part of the National Association of Charter School
Authorizers’ (NACSA’s) “Cyber Series,” which addresses issues in policy and
practice that relate to authorizing online and blended charter schools. This
brief aims to improve authorizer understanding and oversight of blended
charter schools, which combine digital learning with instruction in
brick-and-mortar locations. It begins with an explanation of the variety of
blended charter school models, followed by a brief discussion of key issues
for authorizer awareness and consideration in the blended charter school
context, with attention to both initial approval and ongoing oversight. The
brief then provides more specific guidance on evaluating proposals for
blended charter schools. Finally, it provides general recommendations for
overseeing and evaluating blended charter schools. (Contains 1 table and 22
endnotes.)
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED544279
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2014

19.

TI- An (Updated) Primer on Virtual Charter Schools: Mapping the Electronic
Frontier. Authorizing Matters. Issue Brief. NACSA Cyber Series
AU- Vanourek, Greg
AU- National Association of Charter School Authorizers
SO- National Association of Charter School Authorizers
DT- 20110901
YR- 2011
PG- 16
PT- Report
SU- Charter Schools; Technology Uses in Education; Electronic Learning;
Blended Learning; Student Needs; Educational Trends; Governance; Virtual
Classrooms; Educational Administration; Student Characteristics;
Misconceptions; Educational Finance; Educational Quality
SU- Georgia; Texas; Alaska; Pennsylvania; Minnesota; Colorado; Ohio; Florida;
District of Columbia; Nevada; Wisconsin; Tennessee; Kansas; Idaho
GE- Alaska; Colorado; District of Columbia; Florida; Georgia; Idaho; Kansas;
Minnesota; Nevada; Ohio; Pennsylvania; Tennessee; Texas; Wisconsin
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- The Internet has had a profound effect on everyone’s lives, work,
politics, and commerce–and increasingly, on the schools. Virtual schools
have arrived, creating new opportunities for students, and also a set of
challenges to the notions about schooling and the policies that govern public
education. The potential application of technology in education may change
the way that current versions of schools and schooling are limited in time
and space. Will future technological innovations revamp educational
conceptions of time, like class periods, grade levels, six-hour school days,
and 180-day school years? These units of time, as well as physical school
buildings, classrooms, and district boundaries, still define “school” for the
vast majority of students. Will this change in the coming years? These are no
longer unusual questions. Online and blended schools challenge some of the
most basic assumptions about schooling. They no longer place groups of
children of the same age in an assigned grade with a teacher and chalkboard
in a room for 50-some minutes at a time in 180 six-hour days. With virtual
schools, there has been a move to learning that is not bound by time, space,
and pace, liberating education systems from the confines of rigid blocks of
time and uninspired configurations of space to better meet the needs of
students. While the potential for true educational transformation is great,
one must begin by creating a shared understanding of what online and blended
learning is, and how it is best implemented. This is the first in a series of
briefs aimed at improving authorizer practices for virtual charter schools.
This paper will define concepts in online learning, including full-time and
blended learning, and will discuss recent trends in growth and governance of
various types of online learning and virtual charter schools. (Contains 3
figures, 4 endnotes, and a glossary of key virtual school terms.)
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED544289
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2014

20.

TI- Cyber Charter Schools and Students with Dis/abilities: Rebooting the IDEA
to Address Equity, Access, and Compliance
AU- Collins, Kathleen M.
AU- Green, Preston C., III
AU- Nelson, Steven L.
AU- Madahar, Santosh
SO- Equity & Excellence in Education, v48 n1 p71-86 2015
VI- 48
IP- 1
DT- 20150101
YR- 2015
SP- 71
EP- 86
PG- 16
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Charter Schools; Disabilities; Virtual Classrooms; Electronic Classrooms;
Access to Education; Compliance (Legal); Equal Education; Inclusion; Social
Justice; Federal Legislation; Educational Legislation; State Legislation;
Conflict; Individualized Education Programs; Disability Identification;
Educational Environment; Progress Monitoring; Delivery Systems; Alignment
(Education); Educational Policy; Accessibility (for Disabled); Elementary
Secondary Education
SU- Individuals with Disabilities Education Act; Elementary Secondary
Education Act; No Child Left Behind Act 2001
SU- Elementary and Secondary Education Act; Individuals with Disabilities
Education Act; No Child Left Behind Act 2001
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- This article takes up the question of equity, access, and cyber charter
schools from the perspective of disability studies in education (DSE). DSE
positions inclusion and educational access as social justice concerns. In
doing so, we assert the importance of making visible the social justice
implications of the current laws that impact cyber charter schools and
students with disabilities. To this end we focus in particular on the
Individual with Disabilities Act (IDEA) because it is the central piece of
federal legislation that provides for the public education of students with
disabilities. Our analysis suggests several changes in the IDEA and state
level legislation in order for cyber charter schools to be an available and
equitable option for students with disabilities.
LA- English
IS- 1066-5684
AN- EJ1051947
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2015
RV- Y

21.

TI- Who Is Teaching? New Roles for Teachers and Parents in Cyber Charter
Schools
AU- Waters, Lisa Hasler
AU- Leong, Peter
SO- Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, v22 n1 p33-56 Jan 2014
VI- 22
IP- 1
DT- 20140101
YR- 2014
SP- 33
EP- 56
PG- 24
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Teacher Role; Parent Role; Charter Schools; Online Courses; Educational
Methods; Electronic Learning; Educational Technology; Parents as Teachers;
Coaching (Performance); Ethnography; Semi Structured Interviews;
Organization; Expectation; Motivation; Expertise; Facilitators (Individuals)
SU- Hawaii
GE- Hawaii
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- While teachers in cyber charter schools play the important role of
supporting students, many of these schools also rely heavily on the parents
or guardians of students to act as co-educators. Teachers are no longer the
sole providers of instruction. However, little is known about the roles of
parents or guardians, referred to as learning coaches, and there are concerns
over the quality of educational support they give students. The purpose of
this exploratory study was to elucidate the roles of teachers and parents in
a cyber charter school. The findings revealed that teachers traded in their
student management responsibilities to focus on being content “experts” and
“facilitators,” while learning coaches assumed responsibility for “managing”
their own children and for “guiding” them through the curriculum. Challenges
arose when their roles crossed paths, or when it was unclear who should be
ultimately accountable for the student’s academic progress. Implications from
this study suggested that (a) there is a need to better understand how to
articulate their roles to enable them to be more effective at supporting
their students and (b) that these co-educators may need training and support
specific to these dynamic roles.
LA- English
IS- 1059-7069
AN- EJ1025140
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2014
RV- Y

22.

TI- “The Case for City Cyber Schools”: Can Online Learning Make a Difference
in Baltimore City’s “Bricks and Mortar” Schoolhouses and Beyond? The Abell
Report. Volume 23, No.1
AU- Canzian, Eileen
AU- Abell Foundation
SO- Abell Foundation
DT- 20100301
YR- 2010
PG- 8
PT- Report
PT- Collected Works – Serial
SU- Urban Schools; Online Courses; Educational Technology; Public Schools; At
Risk Students; Low Income Groups; Minority Group Students; Technology Uses in
Education; Blended Learning; Computer Assisted Instruction; Kindergarten;
Charter Schools; Elementary Secondary Education; Elementary Schools; Middle
Schools; High Schools; Educational Methods; Academic Persistence; College
Students; Prevention; College Preparation
SU- Maryland; Ohio; California; Illinois; Pennsylvania
GE- California; Illinois; Maryland; Ohio; Pennsylvania
SU- Kindergarten; Primary Education; Early Childhood Education; Grade 1;
Elementary Education; Grade 2; Grade 3; Grade 4; Intermediate Grades; Grade
6; Middle Schools; Grade 5; Grade 7; Junior High Schools; Secondary
Education; Grade 8; Elementary Secondary Education; High Schools; Higher
Education; Postsecondary Education
AB- This report highlights the ongoing discussions between the believers of
“online learning” vs. the “not enough proven research” for K-8 cyber
schooling. Discussing successful processes and operations in states around
the country, the author focuses on Maryland and, in particular, Baltimore
schools, and reports that very little is being done to promote online
educational opportunities of any kind for K-12 students. Some possible
reasons for this are: (1) many principals are not comfortable with technology
and do not make online learning program purchases part of their budget needs;
(2) the perception that technology does not live up its promises; and (3)
poor children are not going to do well interacting with a computer and need
the in-person attention of a face-to-face teacher. On the question of whether
school systems should be doing more with online curriculum, the Maryland
opinions vary from “there is not a huge amount of very rigorous research on
the relative effectiveness of online education versus traditional education”
or “there is not a strong base of evidence that says this is a better way of
doing things.” Recommendations coming from the decision makers make it clear
that there is plenty of evidence that educators need to be thinking of new
ways of doing things in public education. So what is really important is to
begin experimenting with some of these ideas so that they can be evaluated.
Additionally, school systems need to encourage the development of blended
charter schools so that parents interested in this approach for their
children can try it. A second article in this issue discusses the
CollegeBound Foundation’s Retention Program, which couples an award of Last
Dollar Scholarship (up to $3,000 annually) with the personal support of a
retention counselor through graduation at nine Maryland colleges and
universities. Three college sophomores, Travis Willett, Natasha Fung, and
Andrew Williams, describe how CollegeBound made it possible for them to
continue their college education.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED547274
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2014

23.

TI- Virtual Schools in the U.S. 2017
AU- Molnar, Alex
AU- Miron, Gary
AU- Gulosino, Charisse
AU- Shank, Christopher
AU- Davidson, Caryn
AU- Barbour, Michael
AU- Huerta, Luis
AU- Shafter, Sheryl Rankin
AU- Rice, Jennifer King
AU- Nitkin, David
AU- University of Colorado at Boulder, National Education Policy Center
SO- National Education Policy Center
DT- 20170401
YR- 2017
PG- 103
PT- Report
SP- Great Lakes Center for Education Research and Practice
SU- Virtual Classrooms; Blended Learning; Public Schools; Traditional
Schools; Enrollment; School Demography; Proprietary Schools; Private Schools;
Charter Schools; Student Characteristics; Minority Group Students; Low Income
Students; Teacher Student Ratio; Educational Indicators; Federal Programs;
School Effectiveness; Elementary Secondary Education; Accountability;
Graduation Rate; Educational Policy; Educational Research; Educational
Finance; Governance; Educational Quality; Teacher Effectiveness; Special
Education; English Language Learners; Gender Differences; Supplementary
Education
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- In the five years since the first National Education Policy Center (NEPC)
“Annual Report on Virtual Education” was released in 2013, virtual education
has continued to be a focal point for policymakers. Proponents argue that
virtual education can expand student choices and improve the efficiency of
public education. In particular, full-time virtual schools (also sometimes
referred to as virtual charter schools, virtual academies, online schools or
cyber schools) have attracted a great deal of attention. Many believe that
online curriculum can be tailored to individual students more effectively
than curriculum in traditional classrooms, giving it the potential to promote
greater student achievement than can be realized in traditional
brick-and-mortar schools. Further, the promise of lower costs–primarily for
instructional personnel and facilities–makes virtual schools financially
appealing to both policymakers and for-profit providers. The assumption that
virtual schools are cost effective and educationally sound, coupled with
policies expanding school choice and providing market incentives attractive
to for-profit companies, continue to help fuel virtual school growth in the
U.S. There is, however, little high-quality systematic evidence that the
rapid expansion of the past several years is wise. Indeed, evidence presented
in the NEPC annual reports argues for caution. Nevertheless, the movement
toward virtual schools continues to gather steam, often supported by weak or
even dishonest data. For example, as a part of the confirmation hearings for
the current Secretary of Education, National Public Radio reported that
Secretary Betsy DeVos responded to a written question from Senator Patty
Murray using performance data provided by a for-profit corporation that
inflated the four-year graduation rates of virtual schools–in some cases by
as much as 300%.1 The 2017 NEPC Annual Report contributes to the existing
evidence related to virtual education, and so to debates surrounding it. It
provides objective analysis of the characteristics and performance of
full-time, publicly funded K-12 virtual schools; available research on
virtual school practices and policy; and an overview of recent state efforts
to craft new policy. In Section I–“Full-Time Virtual and Blended Schools:
Enrollment, Student Characteristics, and Performance,” Gary Miron, Charisse
Gulosino, Christopher Shank, and Caryn Davidson focus on two specific types
of K-12 online and blended learning: full-time virtual schools and blended
schools. The authors assigned schools in their study a unique identification
code that allowed them to gather complete data about each school from a
variety of sources (the National Center for Educational Statistics,
individual Departments of Education, and so on). The authors use the terms
“full-time virtual school” and “full-term blended school” because they want
to link these school types to data sets on school characteristics, student
demographics, and school outcomes. In Section II–“Still No Evidence,
Increased Call for Regulation: Research to Guide Virtual School Policy,”
Michael Barbour focuses on all forms of K-12 virtual and blended learning.
Barbour distinguishes among the different forms of virtual schooling–both
supplemental and full-time–and describes the limited reliable research on
blended learning programs and blended learning schools. In Section III–“Key
Policy Issues in Virtual Schools: Finance and Governance, Instructional
Quality, and Teacher Quality,” Luis Huerta, Sheryl Rankin Shafer, Jennifer
King Rice, and David Nitkin use the general term “virtual school” as an
umbrella term including all forms of K-12 online learning. When the National
Education Policy Center first began this annual examination in 2013, the
distinctions among K-12 online learning, virtual schooling and cyber
schooling were not as prominent within the academic literature. Additionally,
many of the K-12 online learning programs sponsored or supported by State
Departments of Education were referred to as virtual schools. Similarly, much
of the legislation and policy language used the term virtual (for example,
virtual charter school). For these reasons, this annual report was and will
continue to use the term Virtual Schools in its title. Therefore, unless they
are quoting specific language from a given piece of legislation or policy,
the authors of this third section will continue to use the term “virtual
schools.” (Each section contains a list of notes and references.) [For
“Virtual Schools Report 2016: Directory and Performance Review,” see
ED574701.]
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED574702
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2017
RV- Y

24.

TI- Investigation of a Special Education Program in a Public Cyber Charter
School
AU- Spitler, Carrie
AU- Repetto, Jeanne
AU- Cavanaugh, Cathy
SO- American Journal of Distance Education, v27 n1 p4-15 2013
VI- 27
IP- 1
DT- 20130101
YR- 2013
SP- 4
EP- 15
PG- 12
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Charter Schools; Special Education; Caring; Traditional Schools;
Graduation Rate; Investigations; Virtual Classrooms; Nontraditional
Education; Online Courses; Disabilities; Educational Technology; Public
Schools; Educational Environment; Curriculum; At Risk Students; Learner
Engagement; Distance Education
SU- United States (Northeast)
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- For students with disabilities who are at risk of leaving high school
without graduating, virtual schools have become a popular alternative to
traditional schools. One promising approach to increasing graduation rates is
to design learning environments that serve students with disabilities through
the 5 Cs framework designed to increase school completion: Connect, Climate,
Control, Curriculum, and Caring Community. A utilization-focused evaluation
guided our investigation to determine the presence of and application of the
5 Cs in a special education program in a public cyber charter school.
Specific examples are provided, and recommendations for practice and future
research are discussed. (Contains 1 table.)
LA- English
IS- 0892-3647
AN- EJ994778
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2013
RV- Y

25.

TI- Cyber Charter Schools in Indiana: Policy Implications of the Current
Statutory Language. Education Policy Brief. Volume 4, Number 3, Winter 2006
AU- Rapp, Kelly E.
AU- Eckes, Suzanne E.
AU- Plucker, Jonathan A.
SO- Center for Evaluation and Education Policy, Indiana University
DT- 20061101
YR- 2006
PG- 4
PT- Information Analyses
PT- Report
SU- Charter Schools; Virtual Classrooms; Educational Policy; School Law;
Enrollment; Accountability; Special Education; Court Litigation; State
Legislation
SU- Indiana; Pennsylvania
GE- Indiana; Pennsylvania
AB- In the seven years since former U.S. Secretary of Education William
Bennett helped develop “virtual charter schools” that provide educational
programs to charter school students via the Internet (Kafer, 2003), the
number of these schools has rapidly increased. At least 90 (or around 3%) of
the almost 3,000 charter schools in operation in 2004 were virtual charter
schools, also referred to as cyber charter schools (Hassel & Terrell, 2004),
and 16 states had at least one cyber charter school in operation during the
2004-05 school year (U.S. Department of Education, n.d.). Cyber charter
schools offer many benefits to the students they serve (Bogden, 2003; Cook,
2002), but without specific statutory language governing these schools,
complications can arise (e.g., Pennsylvania School Boards Association v.
Zogby, 2002). Indiana currently has no cyber charter schools, but proposals
for their creation have been submitted to potential sponsors. During the 2005
session of the Indiana General Assembly, a charter school bill passed that in
part addressed the concept of cyber charter schools. However, Indiana charter
school law remains vague regarding the establishment and funding of cyber
charter schools. This Education Policy Brief examines possible implications
of the current law regarding cyber charter schools. [This brief was produced
by the Center for Evaluation and Education Policy, Indiana University.]
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED490889
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2006

26.

TI- The Perceptions of District Leaders of Cyber Charter Schools in the
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
AU- Miller, Norman J.
SO- ProQuest LLC, D.Ed. Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University
DT- 20120101
YR- 2012
PG- 171
PT- Dissertation
SU- Charter Schools; Distance Education; Virtual Classrooms; Online Courses;
School Districts; Educational Change; Instructional Leadership;
Superintendents; Interviews; Principals; Teachers; Unions; Curriculum
Development; Specialists; Qualitative Research
SU- Pennsylvania
GE- Pennsylvania
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Given the growth of cyber charter schools in the Commonwealth of
Pennsylvania, more research is needed in this new wave of school reform. In
fact, little research currently addresses the perceptions that district
leaders have in regard to cyber charter schools and that is what this study
proposed to address. District leaders interviewed included superintendents,
curriculum specialists, building principals, and teachers’ union
representatives among others. This qualitative study explored the perceptions
of district leaders regarding the cyber charter schools through in-depth
studies of two districts located in the Intermediate Appalachia Unit 8.
Specifically, the two case studies sought to address each district’s current
involvement with cyber charter schools and the perceptions of district
leaders to be disposed either favorably or unfavorably toward cyber charter
schools. Finally, the study sought to explore the responses of districts to
the cyber charter school challenge. Data collection occurred over a three
month period and included conversational interviews with respondents from
both districts as well as analysis of a variety of relevant documents. The
researcher analyzed data through finding common themes among the research
responses. Thus, the research resulted in a thick, rich description of each
district in terms of their perceptions of cyber charter schools. Three
conclusions were drawn from the research. First, the cyber revolution has
brought significant challenges and lasting changes to traditional conceptions
of schooling. Second, public schools appear to be generally ill-prepared to
meet these new cyber charter challenges, relying on more reactive, imitative
responses rather than proactive, innovative initiatives. Third, school
leaders, on the whole, do not appear to perceive the cyber challenge as a
major threat and are preoccupied with other issues. Finally, there were a
number of recommendations for practice and for further research. [The
dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of
ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies
of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-267-50998-7
AN- ED545864
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2014

27.

TI- Exploring the Experiences of Learning Coaches in a Cyber Charter School:
A Qualitative Case Study
AU- Hasler Waters, Lisa
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawai’i at Manoa
DT- 20120101
YR- 2012
PG- 332
PT- Dissertation
SU- Coaching (Performance); Charter Schools; Online Courses; Electronic
Learning; Blended Learning; Parent Participation; Parents as Teachers;
Educational Strategies; Educational Environment; Distance Education; Web
Based Instruction; Qualitative Research; Case Studies
AB- The parents and guardians of students enrolled in cyber charter schools
are often relied upon to support the education of their children. Yet, little
is known about them and concern exists over their effectiveness as
educational facilitators. The purpose of this exploratory case study was to
discover the beliefs and behaviors of learning coaches as they supported
their children enrolled in a cyber charter school. Five practicing learning
coaches, who were the parents and guardians of cyber charter students, took
part in this qualitative case study. As a group, learning coaches believed
they and not their children’s teachers were ultimately responsible for
instructing their children. Results indicated that to support their children,
the learning coaches engaged in the four mechanisms of behavior as described
by the Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler Model of Parental Involvement
(Hoover-Dempsey, Walker, Sandler, Whetsel, Green, Wilkins & Closson, 2005a).
These behaviors included encouraging, reinforcing, modeling and instructing.
However, learning coaches also engaged in two additional behaviors not
described by the model: adapting and leveraging. Adapting was described as a
behavior in which learning coaches adjusted instructional strategies,
learning environments, daily schedules and even belief-systems to accommodate
their children’s learning needs. Leveraging resources was defined as the
behavior in which learning coaches would access support and materials from a
variety of sources to meet their children’s learning needs. Often, this
included resources from the Internet. Ultimately, the study revealed that
learning coaches created learner-centric environments. In such environments,
technology was absolutely instrumental in helping learning coaches perform
their roles and enabling them to provide flexible learning. Yet, these
coaches faced significant challenges including: shortage of time, complexity
of the role and lack of immediate access to teachers. Overall, the study
recommended that cyber charter schools: (a) investigate the needs of learning
coaches and their students, (b) improve systems to enable learning coaches to
engage in more effective teaching and learning, (c) provide differentiated
training and services to meet the unique needs of learning coaches, and (d)
study the roles of teachers and learning coaches to gain a better
understanding of how to appropriate their responsibilities to maximize
learning for students in cyber charters. [The dissertation citations
contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further
reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be
obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-303-03543-2
AN- ED554756
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2015

28.

TI- Policy, Technology, and Practice in Cyber Charter Schools: Framing the
Issues
AU- Ahn, June
SO- Teachers College Record, v113 n1 p1-26 2011
VI- 113
IP- 1
DT- 20110101
YR- 2011
SP- 1
EP- 26
PG- 26
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Electronic Learning; Charter Schools; Academic Achievement; Online
Courses; Virtual Classrooms; Educational Policy; Web Based Instruction; Case
Studies; Educational Practices; Policy Analysis; Governance; Student
Evaluation; Teacher Education; Stakeholders; Problems
SU- State Policy
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Background: Online learning in K-12 education has grown rapidly in the
past decade. Cyber charter schools (CCSs) have been a particularly
controversial form of online school, but there is very little scholarly
examination of these new organizations. As CCSs expand, policymakers and
stakeholders have a critical need to understand how to evolve the charter
school policies that govern these new school forms. Focus of Study: Through a
three-site case study, this paper (1) explores what current charter policies
govern CCSs and (2) outlines the practices in these schools that might
illuminate future policy needs. Specifically, the findings highlight how
cyber charters problematize existing charter school policies in the areas of
authorizers and governance, teacher policy, and student achievement. Research
Design: The study presents an exploratory, comparative case study. The
exploratory analyses illuminate implications for how policymakers understand
governance, teacher policy, and the evaluation of student achievement in
cyber charters. The comparative case design also highlights how different
state policy contexts might influence the practices of CCSs. Conclusions:
Cyber charter schools introduce new ways of delivering public schooling. The
study shows how state leadership is vital to coordinate student enrollment
across geographic boundaries, funding mechanisms, and conflicts between CCSs
and established stakeholders. This paper also illuminates how teaching and
learning practices differ in an online environment and introduces questions
of teacher preparation and professional practices. Finally, CCSs in this
study serve unique, niche student populations that opt out of the traditional
school system. These considerations are vital for evaluating student
achievement in cyber charters.
LA- English
IS- 1467-9620
AN- EJ913415
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2011
RV- Y

29.

TI- Cyber High School Students’ Transition to a Traditional University
AU- Gracey, Dorothy M.
SO- ProQuest LLC, D.Ed. Dissertation, Indiana University of Pennsylvania
DT- 20100101
YR- 2010
PG- 179
PT- Dissertation
SU- High Schools; Online Courses; High School Graduates; Student Attitudes;
Qualitative Research; Data Collection; Surveys; Focus Groups; Interviews;
Socialization; Social Life; Student Participation; College Preparation;
College Readiness; Self Efficacy; Academic Ability; Student Adjustment;
College Students
SU- National Survey of Student Engagement; Pennsylvania
GE- Pennsylvania
SU- National Survey of Student Engagement
SU- High Schools; Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
AB- This mixed-method study identifies cyber high school graduates’
perceptions of the effect of a cyber high school education on successful
transition to a traditional university. The study examined students’
perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages their cyber education
experience contributed to their academic and social transition to college. In
addition, the level of involvement of cyber high school graduates in
university-based social activities was compared to the similar involvement of
their university peers.    The study was conducted at four universities in
the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education. The analyses of
quantitative data from a survey of 32 cyber high school graduates’ academic
self-efficacy showed that cyber high school graduates believed they had the
academic abilities to succeed in college. Responses from participants for
select questions from the 2008 National Survey of Student Engagement were
compared to responses by a representative sample of the general student
population at study sites to the same questions. Results indicated that
involvement of cyber high school graduates in university-based social
activities was not significantly different than the involvement of their
university peers.    Qualitative analysis was applied to data from focus
group interviews involving 14 cyber high school graduates. Findings revealed
that unique features of cyber education, particularly related to pace and
learner independence, had an effect on cyber high school graduates’ early
college experiences. Negative academic transition experiences resulted from
adjustments to a loss of control over the flexibility and pace of their
learning. Negative social transition experiences resulted from the increased
daily interactions with peers that cyber graduates did not have during their
cyber high school experiences. However, students reported more positive than
negative effects. The majority of students believed their cyber education
adequately prepared them for transition to college. Participants perceived
they gained academic skills in cyber high school which enabled successful
transition. They also believed themselves to be socially well-adjusted.
[The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission
of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.
Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600.
Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-124-38980-6
AN- ED524780
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2011

30.

TI- Effectiveness of Cyber Charter Schools: A Review of Research on
Learnings
AU- Cavanaugh, Cathy
SO- TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, v53 n4
p28-31 Jul 2009
VI- 53
IP- 4
DT- 20090701
YR- 2009
SP- 28
EP- 31
PG- 4
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Charter Schools; Educational Change; Evaluation; Academic Achievement;
Elementary Secondary Education; Distance Education; Online Courses; Outcomes
of Education
SU- Louisiana; United States
GE- Louisiana; United States
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Cyber charter schools in the United States have attracted considerable
interest for students and families as alternatives to other public schools,
as well as from policymakers. As charter school laws are enacted
state-by-state, the climate for charter schools, including cyber charters
grows more favorable. As of 2008, over 4500 charter schools have opened in
the United States, and approximately 180 of them are cyber charter schools
located in 25 states, according to the Center for Education Reform (2009).
The increase in cyber charter schools since the first one opened in 1994 has
been steady and dramatic. Interest in cyber charter schools has far outpaced
research into their academic effectiveness. A recent review of virtual
schooling literature published between 1997 and 2008 resulted in 226 reports,
26% of which addressed cyber charter schools. Only five of those reports
described studies or evaluations of student learning in cyber charter
schools. After a review of the research, this article proposes a research
agenda for deeper understanding of student performance in cyber charter
schools. (Contains 2 figures.)
LA- English
IS- 8756-3894
AN- EJ851073
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2009
RV- Y

31.

TI- Cyber-Truancy: Addressing Issues of Attendance in the Digital Age
AU- Archambault, Leanna
AU- Kennedy, Kathryn
AU- Bender, Stacy
SO- Journal of Research on Technology in Education, v46 n1 p1-28 2013
VI- 46
IP- 1
DT- 20130101
YR- 2013
SP- 1
EP- 28
PG- 28
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Truancy; Attendance Patterns; Online Courses; Distance Education;
Educational Legislation; High Schools; School Policy; Law Enforcement; High
School Students; Middle School Students; Case Studies; Semi Structured
Interviews; Deans; Program Effectiveness
SU- Minnesota
GE- Minnesota
SU- High Schools; Secondary Education; Middle Schools; Junior High Schools
AB- Although mandatory attendance is easily determined in a traditional,
brick-and-mortar school, monitoring and enforcing attendance and truancy in
an online environment is less obvious. Despite this challenge, virtual
schools, especially those that are publicly funded, have a requirement to
ensure that students who are enrolled are actually logging on, completing
lessons, and “attending” classes in an online setting. This article describes
how attendance and truancy laws apply to online students and explores the
notion of cyber-truancy. Within the context of Minnesota Virtual High School,
one of the first schools to develop online attendance policies, we explore
the impact and significance of enforcing cyber-truancy policy.
LA- English
IS- 1539-1523
AN- EJ1090574
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2016
RV- Y

32.

TI- Cyber and Home School Charter Schools: Adopting Policy to New Forms of
Public Schooling
AU- Huerta, Luis A.
AU- Gonzalez, Maria-Fernanda
AU- d’Entremont, Chad
SO- Peabody Journal of Education, v81 n1 p103-139 2006
VI- 81
IP- 1
DT- 20060101
YR- 2006
SP- 103
EP- 139
PG- 37
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Charter Schools; Educational Policy; Internet; Accountability;
Educational Development; State Departments of Education; School Districts;
Nontraditional Education; Government School Relationship; Budgeting; Parent
Participation; Home Schooling
SU- California; Pennsylvania
GE- California; Pennsylvania
AB- Cyber and home school charter schools have silently become a prominent
part of the charter school movement. These alternative school models differ
from conventional schools by relying on parents and the Internet to deliver
much of their curriculum and instruction while minimizing the use of
personnel and physical facilities. This article examines how recent
developments in California and Pennsylvania have resulted in public scrutiny
of cyber and home school charters and led to considerable debate and demands
for public accountability. Our findings outline the need to modify regulatory
frameworks to accommodate cyber and home school charters, the consideration
of the differing financial allocations for schools that operate with reduced
personnel and facilities, and the division of financial responsibility
between state and local educational agencies.
LA- English
IS- 0161-956X
AN- EJ733814
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2006
RV- Y

33.

TI- Cyber Charter Schools: Can Accountability Keep Pace with Innovation?
AU- Huerta, Luis A.
AU- d’Entremont, Chad
AU- Gonzalez, Maria-Fernanda
SO- Phi Delta Kappan, v88 n1 p23-30 Sep 2006
VI- 88
IP- 1
DT- 20060901
YR- 2006
SP- 23
EP- 30
PG- 8
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Web Based Instruction; Enrollment Trends; Funding Formulas;
Accountability; Charter Schools; Virtual Classrooms; Online Courses; Distance
Education; Educational Policy; Educational Innovation; Educational
Technology; Computer Uses in Education
SU- Pennsylvania
GE- Pennsylvania
AB- The rapid growth of charter schools has encouraged innovation and led to
new models of schooling. Foremost among these are cyber charter schools where
students learn from computer-based lessons beyond the walls of the
traditional schoolhouse setting. The authors present the case of cyber
charter schools in Pennsylvania. They describe how cyber schooling has upset
traditional accountability structures and led politicians, educators, and
parents to challenge the organizational structures, enrollment patterns, and
per-pupil funding formulas that sustain cyber charters. They conclude by
advancing policy recommendations that address salient policy issues that
state and local policymakers will likely encounter as cyber- and home-school
charters continue to evolve.
LA- English
IS- 0031-7217
AN- EJ758050
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2007

Finally, the alert for K-12 online learning this week.

1.

TI- Accountability for Students in K-12 Online Learning: Perspectives from
Michigan Stakeholders and Beyond
AU- Archambault, Leanna
AU- Kennedy, Kathryn
AU- Freidhoff, Joseph R.
SO- Online Learning, v20 n3 p126-139 Sep 2016
VI- 20
IP- 3
DT- 20160901
YR- 2016
SP- 126
EP- 139
PG- 14
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Accountability; Stakeholders; Online
Courses; Educational Technology; Technology Uses in Education; State
Legislation; School Choice; Distance Education; Semi Structured Interviews;
Coding; Qualitative Research
GE- Louisiana; Michigan; Minnesota; Texas
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Policy surrounding K-12 online learning continues to evolve as the field
grows exponentially. In Michigan, Section 21f of the State School Aid Act
enacted in 2013 strengthened parents’ and students’ ability to request online
courses: “A student enrolled in a district in any of grades 6 to 12 is
eligible to enroll in an online course as provided for in this section.” The
passing of 21f raised concerns around accountability in a choice environment.
Examples of such concerns included a pervasive belief about the lack of rigor
or quality in online courses, an aversion to another district educating a
student for one or two courses yet remaining responsible for that student’s
growth, and uncertainty about how mentors and teachers would be evaluated on
their online students. Consequently, a legislative directive was issued to
the Michigan Virtual Learning Research Institute, the research arm of
Michigan Virtual University that centered on accountability. In response to
that directive, Michigan stakeholders, as well as experts from other course
access states and national organizations, were interviewed to better
understand the conversations surrounding accountability in K-12 online
learning in Michigan and beyond and to make key recommendations for moving
the field forward in an informed way. Data were analyzed using thematic
analysis. Implications for research, policy, and practice are shared.
LA- English
IS- 1939-5256
FT- Y
AN- EJ1113300
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2016
RV- Y

2.

TI- Incremental Progress: Re-Examining Field Experiences in K-12 Online
Learning Contexts in the United States
AU- Archambault, Leanna
AU- Kennedy, Kathryn
AU- Shelton, Catharyn
AU- Dalal, Medha
AU- McAllister, Laura
AU- Huyett, Sabrina
SO- Journal of Online Learning Research, v2 n3 p303-326 2016
VI- 2
IP- 3
DT- 20160101
YR- 2016
SP- 303
EP- 326
PG- 24
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Online Courses; Teacher Education Programs; Elementary Secondary
Education; Educational Research; Educational Change; Field Experience
Programs; Internet; Questionnaires; Enrollment Trends; Partnerships in
Education; Futures (of Society); Program Descriptions; Mixed Methods
Research
GE- Florida; Kansas; Louisiana; New York; Pennsylvania; Ohio; North Carolina;
Michigan; Georgia
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Despite the call for a transformation of teacher education in the 21st
century, surprisingly little has changed. This includes how the practical,
hands-on component, known as a field experience is structured. Previous
research, conducted in 2010, specifically examining how teacher education
programs address K-12 online learning through their field experiences found
that only seven programs nationally, or 1.3% of responding programs, offered
such an experience. In comparison, the current study found a small expansion
that includes 15 programs across nine states, representing 4.1% of responding
teacher education programs. Despite being limited, there appears to be slow,
targeted growth, particularly in contexts in which partnerships have formed
between teacher education programs and K-12 online providers. However, while
signs of progress are evident, significant work to move the field forward
with respect to K-12 online teacher preparation remains.
LA- English
IS- 2374-1473
FT- Y
AN- EJ1148603
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2017
RV- Y

3.

TI- Preparing Special Educators for the K-12 Online Learning Environment: A
Survey of Teacher Educators
AU- Smith, Sean J.
AU- Basham, James
AU- Rice, Mary F.
AU- Carter, Richard A., Jr.
SO- Journal of Special Education Technology, v31 n3 p170-178 Sep 2016
VI- 31
IP- 3
DT- 20160901
YR- 2016
SP- 170
EP- 178
PG- 9
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SP- Department of Education (ED)
SU- Online Courses; Technology Uses in Education; Educational Technology;
Disabilities; Online Surveys; Special Education Teachers; Teacher Education
Programs; Teacher Competencies; Standards; Elementary Secondary Education;
Teacher Educators
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Higher Education; Postsecondary
Education
AB- Pioneering research studies in teacher preparation in online settings
have taken place, yet little to no work has been done specifically focused on
teacher preparation for special education and learners with disabilities. In
the present study, researchers from the Center on Online Learning and
Students with Disabilities conducted a web-based survey of special education
teacher preparation faculty to determine the level to which they were
attending to online education preparation. The survey was developed with a
specific alignment to the International Association for K-12 Online Learning
(iNACOL) online teacher standards. The results of this survey pinpoint
several areas of need in the preparation of teachers who are will be working
in online education and attending to students with disabilities in these
settings.
LA- English
CN- H327U110011
IS- 0162-6434
AN- EJ1119798
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2016
RV- Y

4.

TI- K-12 Online Learning and Students with Disabilities: Perspectives from
State Special Education Directors
AU- Burdette, Paula J.
AU- Greer, Diana L.
AU- Woods, Kari L.
SO- Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, v17 n3 p65-72 Oct 2013
VI- 17
IP- 3
DT- 20131001
YR- 2013
SP- 65
EP- 72
PG- 8
PT- Report
PT- Academic Journal
SU- Special Education; State Officials; Elementary Secondary Education;
Online Courses; Electronic Learning; State Surveys; Accessibility (for
Disabled); Educational Policy; Educational Practices; Educational Technology;
Educational Development; Influences; Student Participation; Barriers; Public
Education
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- K-12 special education policies and practices that ensure students with
disabilities receive a free, appropriate public education in the least
restrictive environment are coming under pressure from the rapid expansion of
online learning. Forty-six state and non-state jurisdiction special education
directors responded to a brief survey about K-12 online learning. Findings
demonstrated an increase in the number of states providing online
instruction; indicated that students with many different types of
disabilities participate in online learning; and described the directors’
reflections on current issues as well as anticipated barriers to students
with disabilities participating in online learning. Ambiguity and variability
existed across state policies regarding online education as each state may
have been in a different stage of adopting this relatively new approach to
K-12 education. As a result, students bring to their undergraduate education
a wide array of perceptions, attitudes, and prior experiences that may affect
their learning outcomes.
LA- English
IS- 1939-5256
FT- Y
AN- EJ1018283
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2014
RV- Y

5.

TI- State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada
AU- Barbour, Michael K.
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20101101
YR- 2010
PG- 70
PT- Report
PT- Tests/Questionnaires
SU- Foreign Countries; Web Based Instruction; Educational Policy; Inservice
Teacher Education; Canada Natives; Regional Programs; Program Descriptions;
Educational Finance; Curriculum; Vignettes; Rural Schools; Synchronous
Communication; Questionnaires; Educational Resources; Electronic Learning;
Blended Learning; Private Schools; Elementary Secondary Education; Distance
Education; Online Courses; Collective Bargaining; Quality Control; Profiles;
Virtual Classrooms
SU- Canada; Government Regulation
GE- Canada
SU- Adult Education; Elementary Education; Elementary Secondary Education;
High Schools; Postsecondary Education; Secondary Education
AB- Two years ago, the then North American Council for Online Learning
released the initial “Snapshot State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in
Canada” report. This study was the first systematic examination of K-12
distance education policies and activities in each of the thirteen Canadian
provinces and territories. One year ago, the International Council for K-12
Online Learning released the more complete “State of the Nation: K-12 Online
Learning in Canada” report. This examination found that the regulation of
K-12 distance education varied from language in the Education Act or Schools
Act, Ministerial Directives, policy documents issued by the Ministry of
Education, agreements signed between the Ministry and the individual school
boards, and articles included in the collective bargaining agreement between
the Government and teachers’ union. The “2010 State of the Nation: K-12
Online Learning in Canada” has found similar trends in the regulation of K-12
distance education. This “State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in
Canada” report begins with a discussion of several issues related to the
design, delivery and support of K-12 distance education in Canada. The first
of these brief issue papers outlines the use of a provincial network to
provide online professional development for K-12 teachers in Quebec. The
second examines the provision of K-12 online learning to a group of
aboriginal youth in Northern Ontario. The third discusses how blended
learning is being used in one school district. Finally, the fourth describes
a model of quality assurance used by one province with its K-12 distributed
learning programmes. The remainder of the report is organised in a regional
fashion. The information begins with a national overview, which is followed
by a focus upon each of the four regions of Canada: Atlantic, Central,
Western, and Northern. Within each region is a general description and then
detailed provincial/territorial profiles based upon the information obtained.
Each profile is designed to look at the level of K-12 distance education
activity and regulations in that province or territory. The profiles in the
2009 report were organised to provide a detailed description of the distance
education programmes that were operating in each province and territory.
Additionally, there was a lengthy discussion of the provincial or territorial
policies from various legislative and regulatory documents (e.g., ministerial
directives, collective agreements, memorandums of understanding, and
departmental memorandum). Finally, there was a specific focus on the funding
of distance education, and issues related to quality assurance, teaching, and
curriculum in distance education offerings. This report provides a more
condensed examination of each province and territory. Information that has
not changed has been summarised, and in instances where information needed to
be updated a more descriptive discussion is provided. It should also be noted
that this information is simply a snapshot in time. As the field of K-12
online learning is rapidly changing, the currency of the information
contained in this report is limited to the realities of September 2010.
Finally, continuing a feature introduced in the previous report, when
possible there is a vignette included to provide a more personalised
perspective of students, teachers, schools, and programmes involved in K-12
distance education in that jurisdiction. These vignettes focus on various
aboriginal, private school, rural, and synchronous programmes across Canada.
Two questionnaires are appended. A bibliography and a list of resources are
included. (Contains 3 footnotes.) [For the 2009 report, “State of the Nation:
K-12 Online Learning in Canada”, see ED509619.]
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED519805
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2011

6.

TI- State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada
AU- Barbour, Michael K.
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20091101
YR- 2009
PG- 64
PT- Report
PT- Tests/Questionnaires
SU- Electronic Learning; Elementary Secondary Education; Distance Education;
Online Courses; Foreign Countries; Educational Legislation; Educational
Administration
SU- Canada
GE- Canada
SU- Elementary Education; Elementary Secondary Education; Grade 1; Grade 10;
Grade 11; Grade 12; Grade 2; Grade 3; Grade 4; Grade 5; Grade 6; Grade 7;
Grade 8; Grade 9; High Schools; Secondary Education
AB- The goal of the initial “Snapshot State of the Nation: K-12 Online
Learning in Canada” report was to provide an overview of the state of K-12
online learning in Canada. This was accomplished through the use of short
commentaries about the state of K-12 distance education for each province and
territory, along with more developed case studies for three of the provinces
that had very different provincial systems. The goal of this more complete
“State of the Nation: K-12 Online Learning in Canada” report is to continue
that examination of the K-12 distance education policies and activities in
each of the provinces and territories. This was done by examining the
legislation and regulations that govern K-12 distance education in each
jurisdiction and describing the various programmes that provide those K-12
distance education opportunities. A list of questions is appended. (Contains
a directory of online resources, and a bibliography.)
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED509619
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2010

7.

TI- A Summary of Research on the Effectiveness of K-12 Online Learning
AU- Patrick, Susan
AU- Powell, Allison
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20090801
YR- 2009
PG- 11
PT- Report
SU- Electronic Learning; Control Groups; Instructional Design; Elementary
Secondary Education; Online Courses; Measures (Individuals); Program
Effectiveness; Instructional Effectiveness; Educational Research
SU- Elementary Education; Elementary Secondary Education; High Schools;
Middle Schools; Secondary Education
AB- This paper examines the outcomes and descriptions of the existing studies
on K-12 online learning effectiveness and provides a literature review. There
are a number of rigorous studies that have examined the question, “Is online
learning effective?” However, there is not a single, large-scale, national
study comparing students taking online courses with traditional students,
using control groups in the instructional design. The most in-depth,
large-scale study to date is a meta-analysis and review of online learning
studies from the U.S. Department of Education. This paper contains three
sections: (1) a summary of the major study by the U.S. Department of
Education, (2) a brief literature review of online learning research and
studies, and (3) future research recommendations. The conclusion of the
meta-analysis of these studies is that online learning offers promising, new
models of education that are effective.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED509626
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2010

8.

TI- A National Primer on K-12 Online Learning. Version 2
AU- Wicks, Matthew
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20101001
YR- 2010
PG- 50
PT- Report
SP- Connections Academy
SU- Electronic Learning; Online Courses; Computer Uses in Education;
Educational Technology; Case Studies; Misconceptions; Educational
Environment; Teacher Role; Faculty Development; Science Laboratories; Course
Content; Academic Standards; Student Evaluation; Student Needs; Social
Isolation; Socialization; Computer Software; Computers; Access to Computers;
Program Effectiveness; School Districts; Blended Learning; Handheld Devices;
Telecommunications
SU- Illinois
GE- Illinois
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- The fact that online learning has been successful for many schools across
the country does not mean that it has been free of challenges. Indeed, there
are numerous issues and challenges in online learning. Few policymakers
anticipated that any space time, any space place learning was possible when
most education laws were authored over the past 50 years. The issues largely
center on determining when existing educational policies are appropriate for
this new model of learning and when new policies should be created. Educators
and policymakers are frequently striving to gain a deeper understanding of
how online education programs operate, what an online course looks like, and
most fundamentally, how students can learn online. This report aims to help
fill the gaps, to be a resource for anyone who is new to online learning and
wishes to quickly gain a broad understanding of the academics, operations,
policies, and other key issues in online education. The appendix contains
definitions. (Contains 3 figures and 55 footnotes.) [This report is sponsored
by Aventa Learning, Connections Academy, and Insight Schools. For Version 1,
see ED509633.]
LA- English
AG- Teachers; Policymakers
FT- Y
AN- ED514892
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2011

9.

TI- Review of “Overcoming the Governance Challenge in K-12 Online Learning”
AU- Barbour, Michael
AU- University of Colorado at Boulder, National Education Policy Center
SO- National Education Policy Center
DT- 20120322
YR- 2012
PG- 15
PT- Report
SP- Great Lakes Center for Education Research and Practice
SU- Evidence; Electronic Learning; Free Enterprise System; Elementary
Secondary Education; Academic Achievement; Online Courses; Governance;
Educational Policy; Educational Innovation; Achievement Gains; Virtual
Classrooms; Statistical Bias; Criticism; Research Methodology; Research
Problems; Administrative Organization; Research Reports; Influence of
Technology; Validity; Educational Practices; Experimenter Characteristics;
Performance Factors; Barriers
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- This fifth and final paper in the Fordham Institute’s series examining
digital learning policy is “Overcoming the Governance Challenge in K-12
Online Learning”. The purpose of this report is to outline the steps required
to move the governance of K-12 online learning from the local district level
to the less restrictive state level and to create a free market for corporate
innovation in K-12 online learning. Unfortunately, the report is based on an
unsupported premise that K-12 online learning will lead to increased student
achievement. The body of research to date suggests that there is no learning
advantage for virtual schools. Further, no evidence is presented that
supports the wisdom or efficacy of centralizing governance at the state level
or that moving to a market model is a superior, productive or economical
practice. The recommendation that virtual schools should be funded at the
same per-pupil amount traditional public schools raises the question of
profiteering, given Fordham’s claim that virtual schools operate more
economically (a claim for which there is limited evidence). This report
appears to be ideologically motivated and designed to open up the $600
billion market of K-12 education to for-profit corporations. (Contains 27
notes.) [This paper reviews the following document: “Overcoming the
Governance Challenge in K-12 Online Learning. Creating Sound Policy for
Digital Learning. A Working Paper Series from the Thomas B. Fordham
Institute” (ED530433).]
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED530436
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2012

10.

TI- Overcoming the Governance Challenge in K-12 Online Learning. Creating
Sound Policy for Digital Learning. A Working Paper Series from the Thomas B.
Fordham Institute
AU- Chubb, John E.
AU- Thomas B. Fordham Institute
SO- Thomas B. Fordham Institute
DT- 20120214
YR- 2012
PG- 19
PT- Report
SP- Charles and Helen Schwab Foundation
SU- Electronic Learning; Web Based Instruction; Blended Learning; Virtual
Classrooms; Charter Schools; Class Size; Elementary Secondary Education;
Online Courses; Educational Technology; Boards of Education; Governance;
School Districts; Educational Policy; Policy Formation; Policy Analysis;
Barriers; Resistance to Change; State Government; State School District
Relationship; School District Autonomy; Change Strategies; Educational
Change; Commercialization; Statewide Planning; Educational Finance; Teacher
Certification; School Choice; Accountability; Guidelines; Outcomes of
Education; Politics of Education; Teacher Effectiveness; Standards
SU- State Policy; No Child Left Behind Act 2001
SU- No Child Left Behind Act 2001
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Online learning and our current system of local education governance are
at odds with one another, to say the least. In this paper, John Chubb
examines how local school district control retards the widespread use of
instructional technologies. He argues that the surest way to break down the
system’s inherent resistance to technology is to shift control from the local
district–and thus the school board–and put it in the hands of states. He
then outlines ten steps to get us to this brave new governance system: (1)
Set K-12 Online-Learning Policy at the State Level; (2) Create a Public
Market for K-12 Online Learning; (3) Provide Students the Right to Choose
Online Learning Full Time; (4) Provide Students the Right to Choose Online
Learning Part Time; (5) Authorize Statewide Online Charter Schools, Overseen
by Statewide Charter Authorizers; (6) License Supplementary Online Providers;
(7) Fund All Learning Opportunities Equally Per Pupil; (8) Exempt Online and
Blended Teaching from Traditional Teacher Requirements Including
Certification and Class Size; (9) Establish Student Learning as the
Foundation of Accountability for Online Schools and Providers; and (10)
Address Market Imperfections by Providing Abundant Information to Students,
Families, Schools, and Districts. (Contains 42 endnotes.) [For a review of
this paper, “Review of ‘Overcoming the Governance Challenge in K-12 Online
Learning'”, see ED530436.]
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED530433
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2012

11.

TI- Improving K-12 Online Learning: Information Literacy Skills for Teacher
Candidates
AU- Ntuli, Esther
AU- Kyei-Blankson, Lydia
SO- International Journal of Information and Communication Technology
Education, v12 n3 Article 4 p38-50 2016
VI- 12
IP- 3
DT- 20160101
YR- 2016
SP- 38
EP- 50
PG- 13
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Internet; Educational Technology; Technology Uses in Education;
Elementary Secondary Education; Information Literacy; Preservice Teachers;
Search Strategies; Mixed Methods Research; Student Surveys; Assignments; Semi
Structured Interviews; Search Engines; Critical Thinking
GE- Idaho
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Research indicates the need for teachers to be able to locate, evaluate,
and use Internet resources in their teaching and learning processes. In
addition, the Common Core State Standards require that students are able to
think critically and know how to search and use alternative views and
perspectives in their assignments. These skills are imperative for teachers
and teacher candidates. This article reports the results of a study that
sought to examine strategies used by teacher candidates when using Internet
search engines, their ability to integrate the information they find into
their own assignments, and use the acquired skills for future classroom use.
The study employed a mixed-method approach in the collection and analysis of
data gathered from a sample of 45 teacher candidates. Data sources included a
survey, class assignments that required documentation of the search process
as well as the located sources, and semi-structured interviews. Findings from
the study revealed the need to teach teacher candidates how to conduct
searches effectively, critically evaluate the sources, and integrate the
information acquired from the online sources into professional and academic
writing that models such behavior for their students. Suggestions for
improvement of practice offered in this paper were piloted in one
instructional technology course.
LA- English
IS- 1550-1876
AN- EJ1167983
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2018
RV- Y

12.

TI- The Preparation of Teacher Candidates for K-12 Online Learning
Environments: A Case Study
AU- Williams, Nicole V.
SO- Mid-Western Educational Researcher, v27 n2 p142-151 2015
VI- 27
IP- 2
DT- 20150101
YR- 2015
SP- 142
EP- 151
PG- 10
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Qualitative Research; Case Studies; Online Courses; Teacher Educators;
Mathematics Instruction; Teacher Education Programs; Knowledge Base for
Teaching; Grade 6; Elementary Secondary Education; Teaching Methods;
Observation; Computer Simulation; Males; Beginning Teachers; Graduate
Students; Masters Programs; Discourse Analysis
SU- Higher Education; Postsecondary Education; Grade 6; Intermediate Grades;
Middle Schools; Elementary Education; Elementary Secondary Education
AB- The purpose of this study was to determine how teacher education programs
may better prepare teacher candidates to teach in K-12 online learning
environments. The primary research question addressed was: What specific
knowledge, skills, and dispositions should teacher education programs include
in their curriculum to better prepare teacher candidates to teach in K-12
online learning environments? To answer this question, the researcher
employed a qualitative case study methodological approach in which the
study’s participant was observed for three months as he taught multiple sixth
grade mathematics classes in a fully online learning environment. Findings
from this study indicate that teacher education programs should offer field
experiences in K-12 online learning environments and that teacher educators
must learn, develop, and model the necessary knowledge, skills, and
dispositions relevant to K-12 online learning environments. [This article was
written with Michael J. Casale.]
LA- English
IS- 1056-3997
AN- EJ1059781
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2015
RV- Y

13.

TI- Interview with Joe Freidhoff: A Bird’s-Eye View of K-12 Online Learning
AU- Pourreau, Leslie
SO- Online Learning, v19 n5 p16-17 Dec 2015
VI- 19
IP- 5
DT- 20151201
YR- 2015
SP- 16
EP- 17
PG- 2
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Opinion Papers
PT- Report
SU- Electronic Learning; Elementary Secondary Education; Scholarship;
Educational Trends; Interviews; Educational Research; Online Courses;
Individualized Instruction; Competency Based Education; Educational Policy;
Distance Education; Enrollment Trends; Educational Benefits; Technology
Integration; Researchers
SU- Michigan
GE- Michigan
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- The intent of this article is to introduce long-time “Online Learning”
readership to the field of K-12 online learning while also providing
direction for the K-12 online learning scholars about where the field is
going or should be going in terms of meeting the needs of K-12 stakeholders.
Recently an interview was conducted with Dr. Joe Freidhoff, executive
director of the Michigan Virtual Learning Research Institute, where he
provided his perspective on this ever-changing field. Dr. Freidhoff responded
to questions about his background and position at the Michigan Virtual
Learning Research Institute; defined the scope of the field; his thoughts on
three or four seminal pieces in the field and why they were important to the
field; challenges faced by K-12 online learning scholars; where K-12 online
learning might be in 20 years; and how research should help shape this
vision.
LA- English
IS- 1939-5256
FT- Y
AN- EJ1085789
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2016
RV- Y

14.

TI- Keeping Pace with K-12 Online Learning: An Annual Review of Policy and
Practice, 2011
AU- Watson, John
AU- Murin, Amy
AU- Vashaw, Lauren
AU- Gemin, Butch
AU- Rapp, Chris
AU- Evergreen Education Group
SO- Evergreen Education Group
DT- 20110101
YR- 2011
PG- 170
PT- Report
SP- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SP- Texas Education Agency
SP- PLATO Learning, Inc.
SP- Advanced Academics
SP- Florida Virtual School
SP- Michigan Virtual University
SP- Pearson Education
SP- Virtual High School Collaborative
SU- Electronic Learning; Schools; Elementary Secondary Education; State
Policy; Educational Policy; Profiles; Educational Quality; Accountability;
Educational Research; Educational Planning; Institutional Characteristics;
Reports; Access to Education; Supplementary Education; Barriers; Enrollment;
Blended Learning; School Districts; Consortia; Colleges; State Schools;
Costs; Educational Finance; Financial Support; Student Characteristics;
Preservice Teacher Education; Accreditation (Institutions); Online Courses;
Graduation Requirements; Armed Forces
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Higher Education; Postsecondary
Education
AB- This is the eighth annual “Keeping Pace” report. When the authors look
back on 2011 from some future year, it may be clear in retrospect that 2011
was the year that online and blended learning went digital, transcending
their distance-learning or computer-based instruction origins and taking root
in classrooms and schools across the country. As they have researched and
written this year’s “Keeping Pace,” the authors have found that four themes
appear repeatedly, across states and across policies. These themes provide a
lens to interpret the landscape: (1) Innovators sometimes overlook the
benefits, and challenges, of “traditional” online learning; (2) Many states
have created or allowed some online and blended learning opportunities, but
no state has yet created or allowed a full range of online learning options
for students. In many states, students still have few options; (3) Developing
an online or blended program requires a high level of investment to be
successful or a willingness to work with an experienced partner; and (4)
State must invest in planning for data tracking, transparency, and
accountability measures to ensure that online and blended learning provide
opportunities and positive outcomes. Methodology is appended. (Contains 10
figures, 16 tables, and 361 footnotes.) [Additional funding for this paper
was provided by Connections Education, LearningMate, National Repository of
Online Courses, Santa Cruz County Office of Education, and VLN Partners. For
“Keeping Pace with K-12 Online Learning: An Annual Review of Policy and
Practice, 2010,” see ED535910.]
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED535912
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2012

15.

TI- Keeping Pace with K-12 Online Learning: An Annual Review of Policy and
Practice, 2010
AU- Watson, John
AU- Murin, Amy
AU- Vashaw, Lauren
AU- Gemin, Butch
AU- Rapp, Chris
AU- Evergreen Education Group
SO- Evergreen Education Group
DT- 20100101
YR- 2010
PG- 150
PT- Report
SP- Connections Academy
SP- Donnell-Kay Foundation
SP- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SP- Texas Education Agency
SP- PLATO Learning, Inc.
SP- Wyoming Department of Education
SP- Advanced Academics
SP- Blackboard
SP- Florida Virtual School
SP- Insight Schools
SP- Michigan Virtual University
SP- Pearson Foundation
SP- Virtual High School Collaborative
SU- Electronic Learning; Schools; Elementary Secondary Education; State
Policy; Educational Policy; Profiles; State Schools; School Districts;
Colleges; Institutional Characteristics; Reports; Access to Education;
Supplementary Education; Barriers; Enrollment; School Role; Consortia;
Blended Learning; School Turnaround; Competency Based Education; Educational
Change; Individualized Instruction; Computer Uses in Education
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Higher Education; Postsecondary
Education
AB- “Keeping Pace” has several goals. First, it strives to add to the body of
knowledge about online education policy and practice, and make
recommendations for advances. Second, it serves as a reference source for
information about programs and policies across the country, both for
policymakers and practitioners who are new to online education, and for those
who have extensive experience in the field. Third, because there has been so
much online education activity in the past year, the report attempts to
capture new activity. Readers who have reviewed “Keeping Pace” in recent
years may note some changes to the organization of this year’s report. In
particular, with online learning growing in so many directions the authors
have decided to organize the opening sections of the report into online
program categories. The reason for this is that the key issues in online
learning (e.g. funding, student assessment) are so different for the
different categories that discussing funding across all the types of programs
has become confusing. In essence, the authors have changed from organizing by
topic (e.g. funding) to organizing by program type (e.g. state virtual
schools). After an Executive Summary, which provides a stand-alone summary of
key numbers, issues, and trends, Online Learning Background, Categories, and
Definitions is the report’s introductory section. It is meant for readers who
are relatively new to K-12 online learning. Because there are many terms in
online learning without commonly understood definitions, this section defines
the key terms used in this report. The State of K-12 Online Learning in 2010
begins with a snapshot of online learning in each state. It then reviews the
number of schools and students taking online courses in several categories:
state virtual schools, full-time statewide online schools, district programs,
and consortium programs. Emerging Issues and Trends reviews blended learning,
including use of blended learning in school turnarounds; competency-based
learning; and mobile learning. The Outlook and Conclusion looks at how
blended learning represents a synthesis of online learning and computer-based
instruction, and how that plays into future adoptions, particularly at the
district level. The State Policy Profiles contain online learning profiles of
all fifty states, in alphabetical order. Most state profiles include
footnotes that reference state laws and state policies. However, in some
cases, the information is general and was gathered through numerous website
reviews and phone interviews with state agencies; in these cases footnotes
are not included. The primary purpose of footnotes is to provide the source
documents that will be most valuable to readers. (Contains 9 figures, 18
tables, and 332 footnotes.) [Additional funding for this paper was provided
by North Carolina Virtual Public School. For “Keeping Pace with K-12 Online
Learning: An Annual Review of State-Level Policy and Practice, 2009,” see
ED535909.
LA- English
AG- Practitioners; Policymakers
FT- Y
AN- ED535910
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2012

16.

TI- Designer Librarian: Embedded in K12 Online Learning
AU- Boyer, Brenda
SO- TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, v59 n3
p71-76 May 2015
VI- 59
IP- 3
DT- 20150501
YR- 2015
SP- 71
EP- 76
PG- 6
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Technology Uses in Education; Librarians; School Libraries; Instructional
Design; Library Role; Online Courses; Electronic Libraries; Elementary
Secondary Education
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Over the past two decades, shifts in technology have altered the roles of
school librarians in a multitude of ways. New rigorous standards,
proliferation of devices, and steady growth of online and blended learning
for the K12 market now demand librarians engage with learners in online
environments. Taking an instructional design approach is the way one
librarian is meeting the challenge of further embedding her library’s
resources, instruction and services into online instruction. The article
chronicles how her thirty years of experience with shifting library roles
have changed her from a teacher librarian to a designer librarian. A
continuum of K12 online embedded librarianship is offered.
LA- English
IS- 8756-3894
AN- EJ1059192
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2015
RV- Y

17.

TI- Keeping Pace with K-12 Online Learning: An Annual Review of State-Level
Policy and Practice, 2009
AU- Watson, John
AU- Gemin, Butch
AU- Ryan, Jennifer
AU- Wicks, Matthew
AU- Evergreen Education Group
SO- Evergreen Education Group
DT- 20091101
YR- 2009
PG- 150
PT- Report
SP- Connections Academy
SP- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SP- Texas Education Agency
SP- Wyoming Department of Education
SP- Advanced Academics
SP- Florida Virtual School
SP- Insight Schools
SP- Michigan Virtual University
SP- Pearson Education
SP- Virtual High School Collaborative
SU- Electronic Learning; Schools; Elementary Secondary Education; State
Schools; Enrollment; Supplementary Education; Access to Education; Barriers;
State Policy; Educational Policy; Reports; Charter Schools; Colleges;
Institutional Characteristics; Online Courses; Educational Quality; Academic
Standards; Data; Educational Innovation; Student Characteristics; Science
Instruction; Secondary School Science; Science Laboratories; Educational
Finance; Financial Support; Profiles
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Higher Education; Postsecondary
Education
AB- “Keeping Pace” has several goals. First, it strives to add to the body of
knowledge about online education policy and practice and make recommendations
for advances. Second, it serves as a reference source for information about
programs and policies across the country, both for policymakers and
practitioners who are new to online education and for those who have
extensive experience in the field. Third, because there has been so much
online education activity in the past year, the report attempts to capture
new activity. A Definitions section immediately precedes the body of text.
Because there are many terms in online learning without commonly understood
definitions, this section defines the key terms used in this report. The
National snapshot and the year in review captures a picture of the state of
online learning in 2009 and provides a short summary of some key developments
over the past year. Key issues in online learning presents a more in-depth
summary of the information and data within the state policy profiles and the
online program profiles. This section contains most of the analysis within
the report; it provides more depth than the national snapshot without the raw
data in the profiles sections. For Notes from the field the authors invited
researchers and practitioners to contribute short articles on specific
subjects that in most cases were not major areas of focus for “Keeping Pace”.
The resulting articles raise several key issues that are not discussed in
depth elsewhere in the report. The Outlook and conclusion looks to the future
and explores the role of online learning within the context of educational
reform and other changes that are occurring across public schools. Following
the sections listed above are two sections that provide much of the data on
which the summaries and conclusions are based. The Program profiles describe
a subset of the programs that responded to the “Keeping Pace” program survey,
divided by program type. For each program type common attributes are
discussed, and exceptions to the common attributes are noted. The State
policy profiles contain online learning profiles of all fifty states, divided
into four geographic regions. Most state profiles include footnotes that
reference state laws, state policies, and websites of programs. However, in
some cases, the information is general and was gathered through numerous
website reviews and phone interviews with state agencies; in these cases
footnotes are not included. The primary purpose of footnotes is to provide
the source documents that will be most valuable to readers. Methodology is
appended. (Contains 6 figures, 6 tables, and 265 footnotes.)  For “Keeping
Pace with K-12 Online Learning: A Review of State-Level Policy and Practice,
2008,” see ED535908.]
LA- English
AG- Practitioners; Policymakers
FT- Y
AN- ED535909
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2012

18.

TI- Research and Practice in K-12 Online Learning: A Review of Open Access
Literature
AU- Cavanaugh, Cathy S.
AU- Barbour, Michael K.
AU- Clark, Tom
SO- International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, v10 n1
Feb 2009
VI- 10
IP- 1
DT- 20090201
YR- 2009
PG- 22
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Distance Education; Online Courses;
Content Analysis; Theory Practice Relationship; Literature Reviews; Virtual
Classrooms; Educational Assessment; Educational Indicators; Educational
Research; Educational Development; Thematic Approach
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- The literature related to online learning programs for K-12 students
dates to the mid-1990s and builds upon a century of research and practice
from K-12 distance education. While K-12 online learning programs have
evolved and grown over the past decade, the amount of published research on
virtual schooling practice and policy is limited. The current literature
includes practitioner reports and experimental and quasi-experimental
studies, both published and unpublished. This paper reviews open access
literature in K-12 online learning and reports on a structured content
analysis of the documents. Themes in the literature include steady growth and
a focus on the benefits, challenges, and broad effectiveness of K-12 online
learning. In addition, newly developed standards for K-12 online learning are
emerging in descriptions of effective practices. (Contains 9 tables and 1
endnote.)
LA- English
IS- 1492-3831
FT- Y
AN- EJ831713
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2009
RV- Y

19.

TI- K-12 Online Learning: A 2008 Follow-Up of the Survey of U.S. School
District Administrators
AU- Picciano, Anthony G.
AU- Seaman, Jeff
AU- Sloan Consortium
SO- Sloan Consortium
DT- 20090101
YR- 2009
PG- 37
PT- Numerical/Quantitative Data
PT- Report
PT- Tests/Questionnaires
SU- Electronic Learning; Blended Learning; Elementary Secondary Education;
Online Courses; School Districts; Barriers; School Surveys; Followup Studies;
Administrator Attitudes; Replication (Evaluation); Change Strategies;
Educational Change; Distance Education; Asynchronous Communication; Virtual
Classrooms; Public Schools; Mail Surveys; Educational Assessment; Educational
Indicators; Educational Development; Educational Technology; Technology
Integration; Technology Uses in Education
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- The literature and research on online learning has grown significantly in
the past decade. Many studies have been published that examine the extent,
nature, policies, learning outcomes, and other issues associated with online
instruction. Much of this literature focuses specifically on postsecondary
education. With almost 4 million students or 22 percent of the higher
education population presently enrolled in fully online courses, it would be
appropriate to consider that online instruction is maturing in postsecondary
education. However, the same cannot be said about online learning in primary
and secondary education where online instruction is still considered to be in
its nascent stages. There is also a growing need to examine issues related to
online instruction in K-12 schools in order to inform policymakers at
federal, state, and local governing agencies who are considering how to use
this technology to expand and maybe to improve instruction. Several major
state-level policy initiatives (e.g., Michigan, Alabama) have recently been
undertaken that require much greater use of online instruction in K-12
schools. In 2007, the Sloan Consortium issued a report on the extent and
nature of online learning in K-12 schools. Entitled, “K-12 Online Learning: A
Survey of U.S. School District Administrators”, this report was welcomed by
professional organizations and the popular media interested in the use of
online technology for instruction in the public schools. The report, which
will be referred to as the “original study” throughout this report, was one
of the first to collect data on and to compare fully online and blended
learning (part online and part traditional face-to-face instruction) in K-12
schools. It was based on a national survey of school district administrators
during the 2005-2006 academic year. The purpose of this current study was to
replicate the original study in order to substantiate its findings and to
examine what if any changes occurred in online learning in K-12 school
districts. The current study was conducted two years later and was based on a
national survey of school district administrators during the 2007-2008
academic year. [For the original report, “K-12 Online Learning: A Survey of
U.S. School District Administrators”, see ED530103.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-934505-08-3
FT- Y
AN- ED530104
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2012

20.

TI- A Snapshot State of the Nation Study: K-12 Online Learning in Canada
AU- Barbour, Michael K.
AU- Stewart, Robin
AU- North American Council for Online Learning
SO- North American Council for Online Learning
DT- 20081001
YR- 2008
PG- 38
PT- Report
SU- Electronic Learning; Elementary Secondary Education; Online Courses;
Foreign Countries; Distance Education; Educational Finance; Financial
Support; State Government
SU- United States; Canada
GE- Canada; United States
SU- Elementary Education; Elementary Secondary Education; Junior High
Schools; Middle Schools; Secondary Education
AB- To date, most of what is known about K-12 online learning from the media
and literature is focused upon experiences in the United States. However,
virtual schooling first began in Canada in 1994-95. Over the past fourteen
years, there has been little federal funding for the development and research
of K-12 online learning in Canada. This has largely been due to the fact that
education is a provincial jurisdiction and there is no federal department
with this responsibility in Canada. Therefore, there have been no federal
guidelines or standards for these programmes to meet through reporting or
external evaluations. With limited government, foundation, and private
support for education research, K-12 online learning programmes have not
received financial support for research and evaluation. Moreover, there has
been little activity in Canadian higher education towards research of K-12
online learning, compounded by the fact that there are fewer than five-dozen
Canadian universities, which limits the focus and scope of K-12 education
research. As such, K-12 online learning has continued to develop across
Canada quietly, and with little dissemination outside of the country and
between individual provinces. This report is the first of many steps that
researchers and the North American Council for Online Learning (NACOL) are
taking to begin to address the lack of information about K-12 online learning
in Canada. This report will provide an examination of online learning
activity at the K-12 level and how it is governed in each province and
territory. Thus the authors provide a brief overview of the national
landscape of K-12 online learning, with a more detailed focus on three
jurisdictions. A list of selected resources and bibliography are included.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED509635
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2010

21.

TI- K-12 Online Learning and the Training Needs for School Psychology
Practitioners
AU- Tysinger, P. Dawn
AU- Tysinger, Jeff
AU- Diamanduros, Terry
AU- Kennedy, Kathryn
SO- School Psychology Forum, v7 n3 p76-88 Fall 2013
VI- 7
IP- 3
DT- 20130101
YR- 2013
SP- 76
EP- 88
PG- 13
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Electronic Learning; Online Courses;
School Psychologists; Counselor Training; Training Objectives; Educational
Assessment; Intervention; School Counseling; Bullying; Prevention; Blended
Learning; Counselor Role
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- K-12 online learning is growing at an exponential rate in the United
States and around the world. Students and teachers are entering and embracing
the K-12 online learning environment. Thus, it becomes imperative for school
psychologists to follow. In order to offer the most productive learning
environment for all students, the services provided by the school
psychologist in the traditional face-to-face school setting are still
relevant and necessary within the medium of online learning. However, school
psychologists must be aware, prepared, and trained to deliver those services
in a new environment that both poses challenges to and offers opportunities
for expansion of service delivery. This article describes the status of K-12
online learning and the training needs of practitioners to effectively
address assessment, consultation, intervention, counseling, and cyberbullying
prevention.
LA- English
IS- 1938-2243
AN- EJ1147626
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2017
RV- Y

22.

TI- Types, Subjects, and Purposes of K-12 Online Learning Interactions
AU- Borup, Jered
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, Brigham Young University
DT- 20130101
YR- 2013
PG- 135
PT- Dissertation
SU- Online Courses; Educational Technology; Technology Uses in Education;
High Schools; High School Students; Interaction; Peer Relationship; Teacher
Student Relationship; Student Attitudes; Student Motivation; Correlation;
Grades (Scholastic); Parent Child Relationship; Parent Teacher Cooperation;
Surveys; Attitude Measures; Learner Engagement; Parent Participation;
Communities of Practice
SU- Utah
GE- Utah
SU- High Schools; Secondary Education
AB- Although K-12 online learning has experienced exceptional growth,
research in the area has lagged behind. This dissertation addressed this gap
in the literature using a multiple article dissertation format. The first
article used survey data from two online English courses at the Open High
School of Utah (OHSU) to examine students’ reported interactions with
content, peers, and instructors. The large majority of students viewed all
investigated types of interaction as educational and motivational. Students
perceived learner-instructor and learner-content interactions to have
significantly higher educational value than learner-learner interactions, and
viewed learner-instructor interaction to be significantly more motivational
than learner-content interaction. Furthermore, nine significant correlations
were found between the time students spent on human interaction and course
outcomes. The second article examined learner-parent and parent-instructor
interactions within the same context. Similar to the first article, survey
data was used to measure parents’ and students’ perceived quantity and
quality of parental interactions with students and teachers. It was found
that generally students and parents viewed parent-instructor and
learner-parent interactions as motivational. Students viewed learner-parent
interaction as significantly more motivational than did their parents. The
quantity of reported parental interactions tended to negatively correlate
with course outcomes. These negative correlations may be the result of
parents’ tendency to increase interaction levels following poor student
performance and may not reflect the actual impact of parental interactions on
individual student learning. When discussing the results in the second
article, the claim was made that future research should look beyond the
quantity of interactions and develop a theoretical framework that identifies
and categorizes the roles of individuals in improving student outcomes. The
third article of this dissertation presents such a framework that can help
guide K-12 online research and design. The Adolescent Community of Engagement
(ACE) framework consists of four main constructs that make up a K-12 online
learning community. The first three “(student engagement,” “teacher
engagement,” and “peer engagement”) build on previously established online
frameworks that originally emerged from higher education contexts. In
addition, the ACE framework recognizes the role of parents in their child’s
learning and introduces a fourth construct, parent engagement, which builds
on two previously established face-to-face frameworks. [The dissertation
citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC.
Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of
dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-303-39909-1
AN- ED560430
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2015

23.

TI- Keeping Pace with K-12 Online Learning: A Review of State-Level Policy
and Practice, 2008
AU- Watson, John
AU- Gemin, Butch
AU- Ryan, Jennifer
AU- Evergreen Education Group
SO- Evergreen Education Group
DT- 20081101
YR- 2008
PG- 165
PT- Report
SP- Connections Academy
SP- North American Council for Online Learning
SP- Texas Education Agency
SP- Wyoming Department of Education
SP- Florida Virtual School
SP- Michigan Virtual University
SP- Pearson Education
SP- Virtual High School Collaborative
SU- Online Surveys; Definitions; State Agencies; Computer Mediated
Communication; Interpersonal Communication; Program Evaluation; International
Education; Elementary School Students; Educational Change; Trend Analysis;
National Surveys; School Districts; Educational Trends; Teacher
Characteristics; Student Characteristics; Outcome Measures; Special
Education; Educational Policy; State Policy; Policy Analysis; State Programs;
Governance; Educational Legislation; Educational Finance; Educational
Practices; Accountability; Program Descriptions; Profiles; Teaching Methods;
Educational Resources; Elementary Secondary Education; Charter Schools;
Teacher Education; Academic Achievement; Dual Enrollment; State Surveys;
Interviews; Virtual Classrooms; Electronic Learning; Educational Technology;
Online Courses; Computer Assisted Instruction; Internet; Synchronous
Communication; Asynchronous Communication; Blended Learning; Distance
Education; Audits (Verification); Program Administration; Program
Effectiveness; Clearinghouses
SU- Elementary Education; Elementary Secondary Education; High Schools;
Middle Schools; Secondary Education
AB- “Keeping Pace” has several goals. First, it strives to add to the body of
knowledge about online education policy and make recommendations for
advances. Second, it serves as a reference source for information about
programs and policies across the country, for both policymakers and
practitioners who are new to online education as well as those who have
extensive experience in the field. Third, because there has been so much
online education activity in the past year, the report attempts to capture
new activity. A definitions section immediately precedes the executive
summary. There are many terms in online learning without commonly understood
definitions; this section defines some key terms in this report. The first
chapter, titled National snapshot and the year in review, captures a picture
of the state of online learning in 2008 and provides a short summary of some
key developments in the past year. Survey results: Online programs and
practices discusses some of the findings of the “Keeping Pace” survey of
online programs around the country. For Notes from the field the authors
invited sponsors and other researchers and practitioners to contribute short
articles on specific subjects that in most cases were not major areas of
focus for “Keeping Pace.” Key policy issues discusses important online
learning issues and is based on the research done for the state profiles that
appear near the end of the report. The Conclusion looks to the future and
explores some of the policy changes that, if implemented, will help expand
educational options for students. Following the above-listed chapters are two
long sections that provide much of the data on which the summaries and
conclusions are based. The first section describes a subset of the programs
that responded to the “Keeping Pace” program survey, divided by program type.
For each program type common attributes are discussed, and exceptions to the
common attributes are noted. The second section contains online learning
profiles of all fifty states, divided into four geographic regions. Although
presented first, the key issues chapter of the document builds on the program
and state profiles presented later in the report. Most state profiles include
footnotes that reference state laws, state policies, and websites of
programs. However, in some cases, the information is general and was gathered
through numerous website reviews and phone interviews with state agencies; in
these cases footnotes are not included. The primary purpose of footnotes is
to provide the source documents that will be most valuable to readers.
Methodology is appended. (Contains 9 figures, 4 tables, and 216 footnotes.)
[Additional funding for this paper was provided by the Illinois Virtual High.
For “Keeping Pace with K-12 Online Learning: A Review of State-Level Policy
and Practice, 2007,” see ED535913.]
LA- English
AG- Practitioners; Policymakers
FT- Y
AN- ED535908
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2012

24.

TI- Online Facilitators and Sense of Community in K-12 Online Learning
AU- Drysdale, Jeffery S.
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, Brigham Young University
DT- 20130101
YR- 2013
PG- 116
PT- Dissertation
SU- Facilitators (Individuals); Computer Mediated Communication; Sense of
Community; Elementary Secondary Education; Electronic Learning; Virtual
Classrooms; Case Studies; Blended Learning; High Schools; Teacher Role; Focus
Groups; Interviews; Scaffolding (Teaching Technique); Teacher Student
Relationship; Teacher Attitudes; Satisfaction; Student Attitudes; Comparative
Analysis
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; High Schools; Secondary Education
AB- Despite the continued growth of K-12 online learning, there remains a
need for additional research addressing roles of online facilitators and how
they can improve the sense of community at K-12 online schools. The first
article of this dissertation presents a case study illustrating how online
facilitators can provide the same level of support for their students that
on-site facilitators provide students in blended environments. Data was
gathered from teachers at Mountain Heights Academy (MHA), a fully online high
school. MHA implemented a “Shepherding Program” to provide student with
online facilitators. Each teacher, or shepherd, was responsible for 20 to 25
students. Teacher focus groups and one-on-one interviews were used to examine
the perceived effects of a shepherding program on shepherd-student
relationships. Additionally, the teacher roles in the shepherding program
were compared to the roles of on-site facilitators. Teachers were largely
satisfied with the perceived impact of the shepherding program on their
relationships with their students. Findings also highlighted strong
similarities between the support the shepherding program provided online
students and the support on-site facilitators provide blended learning
students. The second article was a continuation of the case study from the
first article. A key addition to the case study for the second article was
the inclusion of student interviews. This article examined how teachers and
students perceived that the shepherding program influenced instructor-student
relationships. The analysis exposing similarities and differences between
teacher and student perspectives of the shepherding program was conducted
based on the four dimensions of Rovai’s online sense of community: spirit,
trust, interaction, and learning. Findings illustrated shepherd-student
relationships consisting of all four elements of community in some degree.
[The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission
of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission.
Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600.
Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-303-76108-9
AN- ED566348
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2016

25.

TI- K-12 Online Learning: A Survey of U.S. School District Administrators
AU- Picciano, Anthony G.
AU- Seaman, Jeff
AU- Sloan Consortium
SO- Sloan Consortium
DT- 20070101
YR- 2007
PG- 30
PT- Numerical/Quantitative Data
PT- Report
SU- Electronic Learning; Blended Learning; Elementary Secondary Education;
Online Courses; School Districts; Educational Planning; Delivery Systems;
Barriers; Performance Factors; Distance Education; Asynchronous
Communication; National Surveys; Deans; Administrator Attitudes; Followup
Studies; Telephone Surveys; Public Education; Mail Surveys; Stakeholders;
Educational Practices; Institutional Characteristics; Change Strategies;
Educational Change; Technology Uses in Education; Educational Technology
SU- United States
GE- United States
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- The research literature on online learning has grown significantly in the
past decade. Many studies have been published that examine the extent,
nature, policies, learning outcomes, and other issues associated with online
instruction. While much of this literature focuses specifically on
postsecondary education with approximately three million students presently
enrolled in fully online courses, not as much has been published about
students enrolled in fully online and blended courses in primary and
secondary schools. This is one of the first studies to collect data on and to
compare fully online and blended learning in K-12 schools. The purpose of
this study was to explore the nature of online learning in K-12 schools and
to establish base data for more extensive future studies. Issues related to
planning, operational difficulties, and online learning providers were also
examined. This study does not necessarily answer all of the issues raised but
hopefully will promote further discussion and study of them. Appended are:
(1) K-12 Online Learning Survey; and (2) U.S. Dept of Education National
Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Common Core of Data (CCD) Locale Code.
[For the follow up report, “K-12 Online Learning: A 2008 Follow-Up of the
Survey of U.S. School District Administrators”, see  ED530104.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-934505-00-7
FT- Y
AN- ED530103
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2012

26.

TI- Keeping Pace with K-12 Online Learning: A Review of State-Level Policy
and Practice, 2007
AU- Watson, John
AU- Ryan, Jennifer
AU- Evergreen Education Group
SO- Evergreen Education Group
DT- 20071101
YR- 2007
PG- 148
PT- Report
SP- Connections Academy
SP- Texas Education Agency
SP- Clark County School District
SP- BellSouth Foundation, Inc.
SP- Florida Virtual School
SP- Virtual High School Collaborative
SU- State Agencies; School Districts; Educational Trends; Teacher
Characteristics; Student Characteristics; National Surveys; Outcome Measures;
Special Education; School Holding Power; Educational Policy; State Policy;
Policy Analysis; State Programs; Governance; Educational Legislation;
Educational Finance; Educational Practices; Accountability; Program
Descriptions; Profiles; Teaching Methods; Glossaries; Educational Resources;
Elementary Secondary Education; Charter Schools; Teacher Education; Academic
Achievement; Models; Dual Enrollment; State Surveys; Interviews; Virtual
Classrooms; Electronic Learning; Educational Technology; Online Courses;
Computer Assisted Instruction; Internet; Synchronous Communication;
Asynchronous Communication; Blended Learning; Distance Education; Audits
(Verification); Program Administration; Program Effectiveness
SU- Elementary Education; Elementary Secondary Education; High Schools;
Middle Schools; Secondary Education
AB- The goal of “Keeping Pace” is to to serve as a useful document for
policymakers and practitioners, and as such, it takes a journalistic approach
to research and writing. Most state and program profiles include footnotes
that reference state laws, state policies, and websites of programs. However,
in some cases, the information is general and was gathered through numerous
website reviews and phone interviews with state agencies; in these cases
footnotes are not included. The primary purpose of footnotes is to provide
the source documents that will be most valuable to readers. Research for this
year’s report was conducted from May through August of 2007, and every effort
has been made to ensure currency of information as of September 1, 2007. This
report’s second chapter, titled “National snapshot and the year in review,”
captures both a picture of the state of online learning in 2007 as well as a
sense of the rate and type of changes being implemented. Chapter three of the
report discusses findings categorized by key issues such as funding,
teaching, and accountability, including analysis and recommendations. This
analysis chapter integrates findings from the program survey and the state
profiles research. Chapter four presents 25 program profiles. Unlike previous
“Keeping Pace” reports, the program profiles are not limited to state-led
programs. Instead the profiles capture a cross-section of program types,
including state-led and district-led, supplemental and full-time, charter
schools, and both synchronous and asynchronous programs. Chapters five
through eight present state profiles of more than 40 states, divided into
southeastern, northeastern, central, and western regions. Although presented
first, the key issues chapter of the document builds on the program and state
profiles presented later in the report. The state profiles contain most of
the footnotes and references to source documents. Glossary of online learning
terms is appended. (Contains 8 figures, 1 table, and 126 footnotes.)
[Additional funding for this paper was provided by the Odyssey Charter
Schools and Illinois Virtual High School. For “Keeping Pace with K-12 Online
Learning: A Review of State-Level Policy and Practice, 2006,” see ED535911.
LA- English
AG- Practitioners; Policymakers
FT- Y
AN- ED535913
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2012

27.

TI- Offering Preservice Teachers Field Experiences in K-12 Online Learning: A
National Survey of Teacher Education Programs
AU- Kennedy, Kathryn
AU- Archambault, Leanna
SO- Journal of Teacher Education, v63 n3 p185-200 May-Jun 2012
VI- 63
IP- 3
DT- 20120101
YR- 2012
SP- 185
EP- 200
PG- 16
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Electronic Learning; Preservice Teacher Education; Preservice Teachers;
Teacher Education Programs; Elementary Secondary Education; Online Courses;
Field Experience Programs; Educational Technology; Computer Uses in
Education; State Legislation; National Surveys; Computer Literacy; Virtual
Classrooms
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Higher Education
AB- Enrollment in K-12 online learning is growing at an exponential rate
throughout the United States. Currently, all 50 states offer K-12 online
learning opportunities. Some states such as Michigan, Alabama, New Mexico,
and Idaho have passed legislative measures requiring K-12 students to
complete at least one online learning experience by the time they graduate
high school. Because of this growth, 21st century educators need to be
prepared to teach online. This study shares the results of a national survey
targeting teacher education programs’ efforts to help prepare preservice
teachers for K-12 online learning. Data show that only 1.3% of responding
teacher education programs are addressing this need via field experiences in
virtual schools. Implications for policy and practice in the field of teacher
education are examined. (Contains 5 tables and 5 figures.)
LA- English
IS- 0022-4871
AN- EJ963439
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2012
RV- Y

28.

TI- Washington State Superintendents and K-12 Online Learning: Leadership
Perceptions, Challenges, & Opportunities
AU- Malone, Glenn E.
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, Washington State University
DT- 20120101
YR- 2012
PG- 120
PT- Dissertation
SU- Mixed Methods Research; Correlation; Superintendents; Electronic
Learning; Surveys; Likert Scales; School Districts; Grounded Theory; Blended
Learning; Educational Quality; Administrator Attitudes; Scheduling
SU- Washington
GE- Washington
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine the perceptions,
interpretations, and reactions of K-12 superintendents in Washington in
response to the rapid growth of K-12 online learning. A survey instrument
with 43 Likert-type items and five open-ended items was sent electronically
to all superintendents in Washington during the 2010-11 school year. The
representative sample consisted of 201 superintendents in Washington State,
which represents 71% of those invited to participate. A Pearson’s
product-moment correlation coefficient was computed to assess the
relationship between each of five subscales (Fiscal Advantage, Instructional
Options, 21st Century Skills, Learner-Centered Environment and Alternate
Learning Environment) and district factors (District Size, Superintendent’s
Number of Years of Experience and Online Learning Status). Themes surfaced
from the open-ended survey items using the constant comparative method of
analysis. The results were organized into four areas to address the research
questions concerning issues, purposes, recommendations and demographic
impacts on perception. The findings suggest that Superintendents agree that
online learning is not for all students; instead they recommended blended
learning as an option, combining traditional face-to-face with online
instruction. The issues that emerged focused on financial impacts, quality
concerns, and the lack of regulation. Superintendents identified the key
purposes of K-12 online learning to be scheduling flexibility, expanding
options and individualization. Superintendent perception was most strongly
associated with degree of participation in online learning, that is,
superintendents in districts that currently provide online learning were more
likely to promote the benefits of online learning. [The dissertation
citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC.
Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of
dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-267-47684-5
AN- ED545714
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2014

29.

TI- Keeping Pace With K-12 Online Learning: A Snapshot of State-Level Policy
and Practice
AU- Watson, John F.
AU- Winograd, Kathy
AU- Kalmon, Stevan
AU- North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL)
SO- Learning Point Associates / North Central Regional Educational Laboratory
(NCREL)
DT- 20040501
YR- 2004
PG- 117
PT- Report
SP- Institute of Education Sciences (ED)
SP- Colorado Department of Education
SP- Learning Point Associates
SU- Electronic Learning; Elementary Secondary Education; Educational Policy;
State Legislation; Profiles; State Programs; Financial Support; Curriculum;
Access to Education; Equal Education; Accountability; Teacher Qualifications;
Teacher Evaluation; Student Characteristics; State Departments of Education
SU- Florida; Ohio; Idaho; Pennsylvania; Colorado; Minnesota; State Policy;
Illinois; Texas; California; Michigan; Wisconsin
GE- California; Colorado; Florida; Idaho; Illinois; Michigan; Minnesota;
Ohio; Pennsylvania; Texas; Wisconsin
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Online learning holds promise for providing new educational opportunities
to a wide range of students across the country. The rapid expansion of K-12
online learning, however, threatens to outpace the development of appropriate
state-level policies that serve to fulfill the promise. As the National
Association of State Boards of Education warned more than two years ago, “In
the absence of firm policy guidance, the nation is rushing pell-mell toward
an ad hoc system of education that exacerbates existing disparities and
cannot assure a high standard of education across new models of instruction.”
This study was undertaken to ascertain what states are doing to address the
need for policy guidance. The report provides information on specific topics
of K-12 online learning policy and practice as well as analysis and
discussion of the issues. References also provide listings of Legislation and
web sites. Appended are: (1) Glossary of Online Learning Terms 94; (2)
California Assembly Bill 294: Online Classroom Pilot Program 98; (3) Florida
2003 Statute: Florida Virtual School 1002.37 102; (4) Florida K-8 Virtual
School Pilot 107; (5) Minnesota Legislation 124D.095: On-line Learning Option
108; and (6) Ohio eCommunity School and eCourse Legislative Recommendations.
[Funding for “Keeping Pace With K-12 Online Learning: A Snapshot of
State-Level Policy and Practice” was also provided by Illinois Virtual High
School, and Wisconsin Virtual School.]
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED518634
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2011

30.

TI- A National Primer on K-12 Online Learning
AU- Watson, John F.
AU- North American Council for Online Learning
SO- North American Council for Online Learning
DT- 20070501
YR- 2007
PG- 42
PT- Report
SU- Definitions; Educational Resources; Student Evaluation; Educational
Assessment; Educational Trends; Misconceptions; Costs; Teacher Role; Science
Laboratories; Course Content; Disabilities; Special Education; Evaluation
Methods; Online Courses; Web Based Instruction; Electronic Learning; Virtual
Classrooms; Computer System Design; Technology Planning; Technical Support;
Instructional Design; Distance Education; Internet; Educational Technology;
Educational Strategies; Educational Policy; School Policy; Standards; Program
Development; Program Descriptions; Program Evaluation; Program Effectiveness;
Elementary Secondary Education; Institutional Characteristics; Teaching
Methods; Instructional Effectiveness; School Effectiveness; Academic Support
Services; Professional Development; Ethics; Cheating; Socialization;
Disadvantaged; Access to Computers; Computer Simulation; Integrated Learning
Systems; Computer Software; Computers; Decision Making; Data; Social
Isolation
SU- Illinois; State Policy; Ohio; Florida; No Child Left Behind Act 2001;
Americans with Disabilities Act 1990; Louisiana; Michigan
SU- Americans with Disabilities Act 1990; No Child Left Behind Act 2001
GE- Florida; Illinois; Louisiana; Michigan; Ohio
SU- Elementary Education; Elementary Secondary Education; High Schools;
Secondary Education
AB- Online learning is growing rapidly across the United States within all
levels of education, as more and more students and educators become familiar
with the benefits of learning unconstrained by time and place. Across most
states and all grade levels, students are finding increased opportunity,
flexibility, and convenience through online learning. Teachers are
discovering a new way to reach students, many of whom were not successful in
traditional schools and courses. Administrators are exploring ways to offer a
wider range of courses to students and professional development opportunities
to teachers. This report provides a comprehensive overview of online learning
by examining the basics–teaching and learning, evaluating academic success,
professional development, technology and other topics. Two appendices are
included: (1) Definitions; and (2) Additional resources. (Contains 34
footnotes.)
LA- English
AG- Parents; Teachers; Policymakers
FT- Y
AN- ED509633
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2010

31.

TI- An International Perspective of K-12 Online Learning: A Summary of the
2006 NACOL International E-Learning Survey
AU- Powell, Allison
AU- Patrick, Susan
AU- North American Council for Online Learning
SO- North American Council for Online Learning
DT- 20061101
YR- 2006
PG- 28
PT- Report
SU- Electronic Learning; Elementary Secondary Education; Online Courses;
Quality Control; Professional Development; Educational Finance; Teacher
Education; Instructional Design; Barriers; Educational Policy; Program
Descriptions; International Education; Comparative Education; Educational
Trends; Questionnaires; Profiles; Surveys; Virtual Classrooms; Web Based
Instruction
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- In the United States, there were more than 500,000 enrollments in online
courses in grades K-12 and more than one-third of public school districts
offered some type of eLearning during the 2005-2006 school year. Research has
been done on several virtual schools in North America; however, little
information is available about current K-12 e-Learning initiatives across the
world. The North American Council for Online Learning (NACOL) surveyed over
30 countries in order to highlight international trends in online learning,
identify online learning initiatives and projects in individual countries,
and to promote international dialogue for future collaboration. E-Learning
leaders from Ministries of Education and virtual schools provided NACOL with
the latest information on the following topics: current initiatives, funding,
student populations, content development and quality control, professional
development, and current trends and obstacles. A summary of each country’s
returned questionnaire is described in this paper.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED514433
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2011

32.

TI- Keeping Pace with K-12 Online Learning: A Review of State-Level Policy
and Practice, 2006
AU- Watson, John
AU- Ryan, Jennifer
AU- Evergreen Education Group
SO- Evergreen Education Group
DT- 20061001
YR- 2006
PG- 137
PT- Report
SP- Connections Academy
SP- Texas Education Agency
SP- North American Council for Online Learning
SP- Clark County School District
SP- Wyoming Department of Education
SP- BellSouth Foundation, Inc.
SP- Florida Virtual School
SP- Virtual High School Collaborative
SU- Educational Policy; State Policy; Policy Analysis; State Programs;
Governance; Educational Legislation; Educational Finance; Educational
Practices; Accountability; Program Descriptions; Profiles; Teaching Methods;
Glossaries; Educational Resources; Elementary Secondary Education; Charter
Schools; Teacher Education; Academic Achievement; Models; Dual Enrollment;
State Surveys; Interviews; Virtual Classrooms; Electronic Learning;
Educational Technology; Online Courses; Computer Assisted Instruction;
Internet; Synchronous Communication; Asynchronous Communication; Blended
Learning; Distance Education; State Agencies; National Surveys
SU- Elementary Education; Elementary Secondary Education; High Schools;
Middle Schools; Secondary Education
AB- This report is the third in a series of annual reports looking at the
state of online education across the country. The goal of “Keeping Pace” is
to be a useful document for policymakers and practitioners, and as such it
takes a journalistic approach to research and writing instead of an academic
approach. This report has two goals: first, to add to the body of knowledge
about online education policy and make recommendations for advances; and
second, to serve as a reference source for information about programs and
policies across the country. With these twin goals in mind, the report starts
with sections exploring key issues such as funding, teaching, and
accountability, including analysis and recommendations. The second part of
the report includes information on programs and policies across the country,
broken down by regions and states. Profiles are provided for over 80% of
states; for the remaining states, insufficient information did not warrant a
profile. Although presented first, the key issues section of the document
builds on the state profiles in the second section. The state profiles
contain most of the footnotes and references to source documents. Appended
are: (1) Glossary of online learning terms; and (2) Online learning policy
resources. (Contains 84 footnotes.) [Additional funding for this paper was
provided by the Illinois Virtual High School.]
LA- English
AG- Practitioners; Policymakers
FT- Y
AN- ED535911
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2012

33.

TI- Keeping Pace with K?12 Online Learning: A Review of State-Level Policy
and Practice
AU- Watson, John
AU- North Central Regional Educational Lab., Naperville, IL.
SO- Learning Point Associates / North Central Regional Educational Laboratory
(NCREL)
DT- 20051001
YR- 2005
PG- 131
PT- Information Analyses
PT- Report
SP- Institute of Education Sciences (ED), Washington, DC.
SP- Clark County School District, Las Vegas, NV.
SU- Learning Experience; State Boards of Education; Online Courses;
Educational Policy; Educational Technology; State Programs; Instructional
Effectiveness; Educational Quality; Costs; Teaching Methods
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; High Schools; Kindergarten
AB- This report explores policies and practices governing online education
with a particular focus on policies aiming to provide students with
high-quality online learning experiences. The report looks specifically at
two areas: state-level policies governing online education, and statewide
online programs (i.e., programs created by legislation or by a state-level
agency, and/or funded or administered by a state department of education or
another state-level agency to provide online learning opportunities across
the state). Online learning has developed explosively over the past five
years. As of July 2005, 21 states have statewide online learning programs,
and cyberschools and/or district-level online programs operate in almost
every state. Both statewide programs and cyberschools report rapid growth,
with registrations and enrollments typically experiencing double-digit
percentage annual increases.  Despite the explosive growth, relatively little
is known about the programs that conduct online learning. What percentage of
students passes the courses they take? What is the quality of their learning
experience? How much does it cost to provide online courses, and what are the
best methods for paying that cost? Questions like these raise complex issues
of policy, practice, and philosophy. While online-learning practitioners have
been grappling with such issues for years, state policymakers have moved much
more slowly; and the concern raised four years ago by the National
Association of State Boards of Education–that online learning developments
would outpace the capacity of policymakers to shape these developments in
constructive ways–has turned into an increasingly accurate prediction. [This
report was produced by Learning Point Associates. Additional writing by
Stevan Kalmon. Research also supported by Florida Virtual School Illinois
Virtual High School Virtual High School.]
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED489514
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2006

34.

TI- Student-Centered Learning: Functional Requirements for Integrated Systems
to Optimize Learning
AU- Glowa, Liz
AU- Goodell, Jim
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20160501
YR- 2016
PG- 129
PT- Report
SP- Nellie Mae Education Foundation
SU- Student Centered Learning; Transformative Learning; Electronic Learning;
Learning Processes; Elementary Secondary Education; Integrated Learning
Systems; Individualized Instruction; Information Systems; Educational
Technology; Feedback (Response); Concept Mapping; Scoring Rubrics; Portfolio
Assessment; Cooperative Learning
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- The realities of the 21st-century learner require that schools and
educators fundamentally change their practice. “Educators must produce
college- and career-ready graduates that reflect the future these students
will face. And, they must facilitate learning through means that align with
the defining attributes of this generation of learners.” Today, we know more
than ever about how students learn, acknowledging that the process isn’t the
same for every student and doesn’t remain the same for each individual,
depending upon maturation and the content being learned. We know that
students want to progress at a pace that allows them to master new concepts
and skills, to access a variety of resources, to receive timely feedback on
their progress, to demonstrate their knowledge in multiple ways and to get
direction, support and feedback from–as well as collaborate with–experts,
teachers, tutors and other students. The result is a growing demand for
student-centered, transformative digital learning using competency education
as an underpinning. International Association for K-12 Online Learning
(iNACOL) released this paper to illustrate the technical requirements and
functionalities that learning management systems need to shift toward
student-centered instructional models. This comprehensive framework will help
districts and schools determine what systems to use and integrate as they
being their journey toward student-centered learning, as well as how systems
integration aligns with their organizational vision, educational goals and
strategic plans. Educators can use this report to optimize student learning
and promote innovation in their own student-centered learning environments.
The report will help school leaders understand the complex technologies
needed to optimize personalized learning and how to use data and analytics to
improve practices, and can assist technology leaders in re-engineering
systems to support the key nuances of student-centered learning. Three
appendices are included: (1) Understanding Education Technology Standards
(Brandt Redd); (2) Data and Application Design for a Student-Centered
Learning Integrated System; and (3) Glossary.
LA- English
AG- Teachers; Administrators
FT- Y
AN- ED567875
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2016

35.

TI- Blending Learning: The Evolution of Online and Face-to-Face Education
from 2008-2015. Promising Practices in Blended and Online Learning Series
AU- Powell, Allison
AU- Watson, John
AU- Staley, Patrick
AU- Patrick, Susan
AU- Horn, Michael
AU- Fetzer, Leslie
AU- Hibbard, Laura
AU- Oglesby, Jonathan
AU- Verma, Sue
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20150701
YR- 2015
PG- 20
PT- Report
SU- Blended Learning; Technology Uses in Education; Elementary Secondary
Education; Conventional Instruction; Online Courses; At Risk Students;
Repetition; Required Courses; Governance; Educational Quality;
Accountability; Financial Support; Educational Legislation; Teaching Methods;
Models; Case Studies; Barriers; Elementary Schools; Middle Schools; High
Schools
SU- New York; Pennsylvania; Michigan; Utah; Washington; Nevada; North
Carolina
GE- Michigan; Nevada; New York; North Carolina; Pennsylvania; Utah;
Washington
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Elementary Education; Middle Schools;
Secondary Education; Junior High Schools; High Schools
AB- In 2008, the International Association for K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL)
produced a series of papers documenting promising practices identified
throughout the field of K-12 online learning. Since then, we have witnessed a
tremendous acceleration of transformative policy and practice driving
personalized learning in the K-12 education space. State, district, school,
and classroom leaders recognize that the ultimate potential for blended and
online learning lies in the opportunity to transform the education system and
enable higher levels of learning through competency-based approaches.
iNACOL’s core work adds significant value to the field by providing a
powerful practitioner voice in policy advocacy, communications, and in the
creation of resources and best practices to enable transformational change in
K-12 education. We worked with leaders throughout the field to update these
resources for a new generation of pioneers working towards the creation of
student-centered learning environments. This refreshed series, Promising
Practices in Blended and Online Learning, explores some of the approaches
developed by practitioners and policymakers in response to key issues in K-12
education, including: Blended Learning: The Evolution of Online and
Face-to-Face Education from 2008-2015; Using Blended and Online Learning for
Credit Recovery and At-Risk Students; Oversight and Management of Blended and
Online Programs: Ensuring Quality and Accountability; and Funding and
Legislation for Blended and Online Education. Personalized learning
environments provide the very best educational opportunities and personalized
pathways for all students, with highly qualified teachers delivering
world-class instruction using innovative digital resources and content.
Through this series of white papers, we are pleased to share the promising
practices in K-12 blended, online, and competency education transforming
teaching and learning today. Additional resources are provided. [“Blending
Learning: The Evolution of Online and Face-to-Face Education from 2008-2015.
Promising Practices in Blended and Online Learning Series” was originally
written by John Watson in May 2008.]
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED560788
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2015

36.

TI- Keeping Pace with K-12 Online Learning, 2016
AU- Gemin, Butch
AU- Pape, Larry
AU- Evergreen Education Group
SO- Evergreen Education Group
PG- 63
PT- Report
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Online Courses; Educational Technology;
Technology Uses in Education; Vendors; School Districts; State Agencies;
Educational History; Computer Assisted Instruction; Blended Learning; Virtual
Classrooms; Geographic Location; Enrollment; Instructional Program Divisions;
Intellectual Disciplines; Web Based Instruction; Public Schools; Distance
Education; Consortia
GE- Florida; Idaho; Montana; Michigan; Indiana; Massachusetts; Wisconsin;
Arizona; Ohio; Colorado; Georgia; Nevada; Maryland; Texas; Minnesota;
Washington
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- “Keeping Pace with K-12 Online Learning 2016” marks the thirteenth
consecutive year Evergreen has published its annual research of the K-12
education online learning market. The thirteen years of researching, writing
and publishing this report represents a time of remarkable change. There has
been a constant presence that has become the backbone, supporting the growth
and success of online learning–the array of organizations that supply online
courses, online teachers, digital content and tools to schools. The number
and breadth of types of suppliers has changed and grown as the demand for
broader and deeper services has increased. Suppliers range from schools that
supply regions or whole states, to stand-alone “intermediate” suppliers that
provide online courses and related services to schools, to vendors who
develop courses and content and deliver their courses directly to schools or
distribute them through intermediates. “Keeping Pace with K-12 Online
Learning 2016” focuses on these suppliers of online learning and reports on
levels and types of activity, including online course enrollments, types of
enrollments and number of students involved in online learning. [For “Keeping
Pace with K-12 Digital Learning” (2015 edition), see ED570125.]
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED576762
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2017

37.

TI- Planning and Designing for K-12 Next Generation Learning
AU- Edwards, Dave
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20150101
YR- 2015
PG- 33
PT- Report
PT- Guides – Non-Classroom
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Educational Planning; Instructional
Design; Educational Resources; Learning Modules; Social Networks; Educational
Technology; Strategic Planning; Goal Orientation; Models; Educational
Methods; Finance Reform; Staff Utilization; Appropriate Technology;
Educational Facilities; Student Evaluation; Educational Quality; Educational
Improvement; Communities of Practice; Professional Development; Ceremonies;
Teaching Methods; Common Core State Standards
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- The changing demands of the 21st century–and the students growing up in
it–are generating fundamental challenges to historical assumptions about
what education looks like. The challenge today is to provide a deeper level
of personalized learning to each and every student so that all can achieve
mastery of the Common Core standards and other skills and dispositions.
Because the field of next generation learning is still nascent,
practitioner-created tools and resources are sparse-and those that do exist
are not validated. This toolkit organizes the most helpful resources
currently available on pathways for district, charter, and school leaders to
use during the first stages of research and deliberation on how to proceed.
It will facilitate a better understanding of what questions to ask and how to
begin thinking through the next generation learning design. The toolkit will
serve as a decision-making guide for conceptualizing, designing, and
developing next generation learning in school, districts, or charter
management organization. It will streamline the process for planning and
engaging other stakeholders to design learning that will effectively and
efficiently lead to improved outcomes for students. The graphic charts the
key decisions necessary to make throughout the process and provides an
outline for the toolkit. [This report is produced in collaboration with Next
Generation Learning Challenges (NGLC). NGLC accelerates educational
innovation through applied technology to dramatically improve college
readiness and completion in the United States. NGLC is a partnership led by
EDUCAUSE and includes the League for Innovation in the Community College, the
International Association for K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL), and the Council
of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). Funding is provided by the Bill &
Melinda Gates Foundation and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation.]
LA- English
AG- Administrators; Policymakers; Practitioners
FT- Y
AN- ED561325
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2015

38.

TI- Transforming K-12 Rural Education through Blended Learning: Teacher
Perspectives
AU- Kellerer, Paula
AU- Kellerer, Eric
AU- Werth, Eric
AU- Werth, Lori
AU- Montgomery, Danielle
AU- Clyde, Rozella
AU- Cozart, Joe
AU- Creach, Laura
AU- Hibbard, Laura
AU- LaFrance, Jason
AU- Rupp, Nadine
AU- Walker, Niki
AU- Carter, Theresa
AU- Kennedy, Kathryn
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
AU- Idaho Digital Learning Academy (IDLA)
AU- Northwest Nazarene University (NNU), DOCEO Center
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20141201
YR- 2014
PG- 22
PT- Report
SU- Teacher Attitudes; Rural Education; Blended Learning; Semi Structured
Interviews; Knowledge Level; Educational Practices; Learner Engagement;
Individualized Instruction; Independent Study; Pacing; Student Motivation;
Student Centered Learning; Teacher Role; Professional Development;
Educational Benefits; Self Efficacy; Teacher Effectiveness; Academic
Achievement; Qualitative Research
SU- Idaho
GE- Idaho
AB- A qualitative study exploring rural teacher perspectives on the impact of
blended learning on students and teachers was conducted in Idaho during the
Fall of 2013. Researchers from Northwest Nazarene University’s DOCEO Center
in partnership with Idaho Digital Learning Academy (IDLA) and the
International Association for K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL) collaborated in
interviewing, transcribing and analyzing responses from rural Idaho teachers
on their perspectives of blended learning. Nineteen teachers were randomly
selected to participate in the study based on the knowledge that they had
participated in blended learning training provided by IDLA and were actively
using blended learning in their classrooms. Eight teachers consented and
participated in the semi-structured interview process conducted by members of
the iNACOL Research Committee. The study sought to solicit teacher
perceptions related to the following three questions: (1) What is your
understanding of blended learning; (2) How has blended learning changed the
way you teach; and (3) How has blended learning changed your students?
Researchers at NNU’s Doceo Center evaluated and analyzed the results of
participants’ responses. Eight significant themes emerged from the analysis,
with the most frequently reported theme related to an increased level of
student engagement in blended learning classrooms. Other significant themes
related to teacher perceptions of students’ experiences in the blended
learning classroom included a more personalized learning environment, the
ability for students to be self-directed, the opportunity for students to
create their own pace, and increased levels of student motivation.
Significant themes emerged related to the teaching experience in the blended
learning classroom. Teachers confirmed the role that blended learning plays
in cultivating a student-centered environment, describing their role as
facilitators of learning. In addition, teachers spoke to the importance of
professional development in improving their quality of experience in
implementing blended learning. Finally, teachers shared personal stories
about the significance of just starting, of diving into the experience of
creating blended learning classrooms. Results from this study were compared
to a previous study conducted in Idaho (Werth, Werth, & Kellerer, 2013).
Conclusions from this study supported many of the conclusions from the
previous study including the positive impacts on students in the areas of
motivation, student engagement, personalized learning and self-directedness.
In addition, several of the themes reflect the positive benefits of blended
learning on teachers as well, including an increased level of self-efficacy
after “jumping in” and being able to meet the needs of individual students.
“IDLA Blended Teaching Study- Interview Protocol” is appended.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED561327
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2015

39.

TI- A Roadmap for Implementation of Blended Learning at the School Level: A
Case Study of the iLearnNYC Lab Schools
AU- Darrow, Rob
AU- Friend, Bruce
AU- Powell, Allison
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20131001
YR- 2013
PG- 96
PT- Guides – Non-Classroom
PT- Report
SU- Urban Schools; Blended Learning; Elementary Secondary Education;
Technology Uses in Education; Educational Technology; Instructional
Leadership; Professional Development; Teaching Methods; Models; Laboratory
Schools; Online Courses; Program Development; Planning; Course Content;
Governance
SU- New York
GE- New York
SU- High Schools; Middle Schools
AB- This roadmap was designed to provide guidance to the New York City
Department of Education (NYCDOE) school administrators in implementing
blended learning programs in their own schools. Over the 2012-13 school year,
the International Association for K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL) worked with 8
NYCDOE Lab Schools, each with its own blended learning model, to create this
roadmap to improve blended learning implementation. This roadmap has the
following goals: (1) Provide an overview of current blended learning models;
(2) Provide an understanding of iLearnNYC program and its support system; (3)
Identify and define 6 elements of a successful blended learning program; (4)
Identify essential questions administrators should consider; (5) Share
promising practices; (6) Provide case studies; and (7) Share resources:
rubrics, timelines, and continuums. The following are appended: (1) Fordham
High School for the Arts Profile; (2) Francis Lewis High School Profile; (3)
Robert H. Goddard High School of Communication, Arts, and Technology Profile;
(4) High School of Economics and Finance (HSEF) Profile; (5) Marta Valle High
School Profile; (6) Mott Hall V Profile; (7) Olympus Academy Profile; (8)
Seth Low Profile; (9) iLearnNYC: Blended Learning Quality Review Rubric; (10)
Continuum from Textbook Enhanced to Online Teaching and Learning; and (11)
iLearnNYC Observation Form. [iLearnNYC is an initiative of iZone, which was
established by the New York City Department of Education.]
LA- English
AG- Administrators
FT- Y
AN- ED561320
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2015

40.

TI- iNACOL Research Agenda
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20131001
YR- 2013
PG- 4
PT- Report
SU- Agenda Setting; Research Needs; Elementary Secondary Education; Blended
Learning; Online Courses; Needs Assessment; Policy Analysis; Quality
Assurance; Labor Needs; Competency Based Education; Evaluation Methods;
Evidence Based Practice; Access to Education; Design Requirements;
Instructional Design; Teaching Methods; Best Practices; Educational Change;
Capacity Building; Educational Environment; Student Characteristics
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- The International Association for K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL) publishes
a research agenda on an ongoing basis to continue its work in field-building,
capacity-building and knowledge-building. Based on a 2013 survey of the field
to identify research needs, iNACOL developed a research approach, including
the following: (1) Build a collaborative research agenda, including: field
experts, the iNACOL Research Committee, the iNACOL Research Special Interest
Group, leadership experts, and communities of practice; (2) Identify research
needs for the field; and (3) Create the final national research agenda
report. The purpose of this research agenda is to evaluate broad needs across
the field and to prioritize future research needs. Browse this report to
explore iNACOL’s research agenda and needs across the field. Ten priorities
for the 2013-2018 research agenda are presented and describe in this
document: (1) Research is needed to identify the most effective learning
environments for different groups of students, with different
characteristics; (2) Research is needed to understand what designs are most
effective when it comes to data systems and technology infrastructure; (3)
Continued research is needed into promising practices for preparing all
education professionals to support learners in K-12 blended and online
learning environments; (4) Research for understanding what change management
practices are most effective when implementing breakthrough models in K-12
blended and online learning?; (5) Research is needed to explore the teaching
strategies that are most promising in K-12 blended and online learning
models; (6) There is a need for research in the area of instructional design
when it comes to discovering the promising practices for designing courses
for student learning; (7) Research is needed into what course and program
design elements are necessary when it comes to providing access and equity to
all K-12 learners in blended and online learning environments; (8) Research
is needed on the type and frequency of assessments that are most promising
for competency-based learning; (9) Research needs to be expanded regarding
the human capital needs in K-12 blended and online learning environments; and
(10) Research is needed to explore the effect of policy (national, state, and
local) on quality assurance in K-12 blended and online learning
environments.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED561314
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2015

41.

TI- Partnering for Success: A 21st Century Model for Teacher Preparation
AU- Kennedy, Kathryn
AU- Archambault, Leanna
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20131001
YR- 2013
PG- 45
PT- Collected Works – General
PT- Report
SU- Teacher Education; Electronic Learning; Online Courses; Elementary
Secondary Education; Educational Technology; Virtual Classrooms; Blended
Learning; Field Experience Programs; Preservice Teachers
SU- Idaho; Florida; Michigan; Arizona; Ohio; Utah
GE- Arizona; Florida; Idaho; Michigan; Ohio; Utah
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Higher Education; Postsecondary
Education
AB- This report studies the best practices necessary to rethink the skills,
methods, and pedagogical evolution that teacher education must address. If we
are to ensure great teachers are trained, mentored, and retained for our
students–the programs themselves must emulate 21st century skills. The
examples found in this report have unique elements and frameworks that others
may learn from and replicate. The partnerships highlighted in this report
provide guideposts to rethinking and modernizing educator preparation
programs for today’s schools. Following a foreword by Susan Patrick,
President and CEO of International Association for K-12 Online Learning
(iNACOL), and an introduction by Kathryn Kennedy, Director of Research of
iNACOL, this report contains the following contributions: (1) Boise State
University and Idaho Digital Learning Academy (Kerry Rice and Dazhi Yang);
(2) Florida State University and Florida Virtual School (Dina Vyortkina); (3)
Wayne State University (Michael Barbour); (4) Arizona State University and
Florence Virtual Academy (Leanna Archambault); (5) Mount Vernon Nazarene
University and TRECA Digital Academy (Dean Goon); (6) University of Central
Florida and Florida Virtual School (Michael Hynes, Bryan Zugelder, and Janet
Zajac); (7) Utah State University and Utah Virtual Academy (Robin Parent);
and (8) Conclusion (Leanna Archambault). Individual sections contain
references.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED561281
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2015

42.

TI- Transforming K-12 Rural Education through Blended Learning: Barriers and
Promising Practices
AU- Werth, Eric
AU- Werth, Lori
AU- Kellerer, Eric
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
AU- Idaho Digital Learning Academy (IDLA)
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20131001
YR- 2013
PG- 29
PT- Report
SU- Rural Education; Elementary Secondary Education; Educational Change;
Barriers; Educational Benefits; Educational Practices; Blended Learning;
Pacing; Mastery Learning; Teacher Attitudes; Teacher Surveys; State Surveys;
Electronic Learning; Experienced Teachers; Feedback (Response); Use Studies
SU- Idaho
GE- Idaho
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- This report describes the implementation of blended learning programs in
Idaho, and three key takeaways are apparent: (1) Blended learning has a
positive impact on teachers; (2) Self-pacing enables students to take
ownership and achieve mastery; and (3) Teachers must prepare with
comprehensive teacher training. The authors emphasize the need for the field
to conduct studies to challenge, adapt, and strengthen innovation. Review
this report to explore potential barriers and promising practices of K-12
blended learning. An appendix is included: (1) Blended Models from Idaho
Digital Learning Academy. [Researchers with Northwest Nazarene University’s
Doceo Center for Innovation in Teaching and Learning (CITL) partnered with
Idaho Digital Learning Academy (IDLA) and the International Association for
K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL) on this work.]
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED561276
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2015

43.

TI- Promising State Policies for Personalized Learning
AU- Patrick, Susan
AU- Worthen, Maria
AU- Frost, Dale
AU- Gentz, Susan
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20160501
YR- 2016
PG- 49
PT- Report
SU- State Policy; Educational Policy; Elementary Secondary Education;
Individualized Instruction; Student Needs; Policy Formation; Competency Based
Education; Teaching Methods; Educational Innovation; Pilot Projects;
Evaluation Methods; Capacity Building; State Legislation
GE- Arizona; Arkansas; Colorado; Idaho; Iowa; Kentucky; Louisiana; Maine; New
Hampshire; New York; Ohio; Oregon; Vermont; West Virginia
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Students, teachers, and school leaders are seeking flexibility and
supports to enable powerful, personalized learning experiences both inside
and outside of the traditional classroom. In personalized learning,
instruction is tailored to each student’s strengths, needs, and
interests–including enabling student voice and choice in what, how, when,
and where they learn–to provide flexibility and supports to ensure mastery
of the highest standards possible. This is in contrast to the
one-size-fits-all approach of the traditional K-12 education model, in which
learning is not differentiated and students are expected to progress through
the same curriculum at the same pace. This report is designed for
policymakers who want to advance policies that support personalized learning
in their states. This report provides examples of promising state policies to
scale and enable personalized learning. The intent is to inform and empower
the field with examples from states creating supportive policy environments.
A list of Key Resources and Key Definitions is included.
LA- English
AG- Policymakers
FT- Y
AN- ED567893
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2016

44.

TI- Online and Blended Learning: A Survey of Policy and Practice from K-12
Schools around the World
AU- Barbour, Michael
AU- Brown, Regina
AU- Waters, Lisa Hasler
AU- Hoey, Rebecca
AU- Hunt, Jeffrey L.
AU- Kennedy, Kathryn
AU- Ounsworth, Chantal
AU- Powell, Allison
AU- Trimm, Trina
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20111101
YR- 2011
PG- 130
PT- Report
SU- Electronic Learning; Online Courses; Blended Learning; Case Studies;
Elementary Secondary Education; Technology Integration; Teaching Methods;
Surveys; Foreign Countries; Educational Technology; Computer Uses in
Education; Conventional Instruction; Trend Analysis; Budgets; Educational
Finance; Educational Policy; Standards; Faculty Development
SU- Oceania; Asia; North America; Africa; South America; Middle East; Europe
GE- Africa; Asia; North America; South America
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- In 2006, the North American Council for Online Learning (NACOL) conducted
its first international survey, researching how other countries were
implementing online and blended learning opportunities for their primary and
secondary (K-12) students. As the pace of growth of online and blended
learning has grown at an average of over 30% each year for the past 10 years
across the United States, there have been several requests to update the
research done from “An International Perspective of K-12 Online Learning: A
Summary of the 2006 NACOL International E-Learning Survey.” As a result,
iNACOL undertook the project to produce a new report on the international
state of K-12 online learning with the assistance of several members of the
iNACOL Research Committee. This international survey of policy and practice
of schools around the world aims at adding to the body of knowledge about
online and blended education policy and practice for policymakers and
practitioners around the world. The report also serves as a reference source
for information about programs and policies for those who are new to online
and blended learning and for those who have extensive experience in the
field. After the introduction, which includes the methodology of the report,
a summary of online and blended learning is shared. It provides definitions
of the terms used in this report as well as the state of K-12 online and
blended learning for those new to the field. Key trends, issues, and
challenges found from the data reported in the survey are discussed in the
next section of the report. It begins with the current trends, followed by
the issues of those countries that are currently providing online and blended
learning opportunities for students in their primary and secondary schools.
The challenges facing the countries that have not yet started implementing
these opportunities are also discussed in this section. The next section of
the report provides summaries of the nine countries that provided a case
study for the book published by iNACOL, “Online and Blended Learning: Case
Studies of K-12 Schools Around the World.” These summaries will serve as an
introduction to the activities happening in these countries, which have an
established history of offering K-12 online and blended learning. The
conclusion gives a summary of what is happening in each major grouping of
countries, as well as a brief comparison of the state of online learning in
the United States of America as reported from the 2009-2010 school year. It
summarizes the impact of technology, staffing, legislation, policy, students,
and budget/finance. Finally, it presents a global vision for the future of
K-12 online and blended learning. (Contains 5 footnotes.)
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED537334
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2012

45.

TI- Chugach School District: A Personalized, Performance-Based System.
Insights from the Field. CompetencyWorks Report
AU- Sturgis, Chris
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20160301
YR- 2016
PG- 28
PT- Report
SU- School Districts; Educational Change; Competency Based Education;
Performance Based Assessment; Academic Achievement; Mastery Learning; Case
Studies; Student Empowerment; Individualized Education Programs; Information
Management; Culturally Relevant Education; Faculty Development; Teaching
Skills; School Culture; Home Schooling; Program Implementation
GE- Alaska
AB- This paper explores how an Alaskan school district shifted from a
traditional K-12 education system to a personalized, performance-based
system, embedded in the culture of the community, which led to increased
student achievement. Chugach School District (CSD) first implemented
competency education over twenty years ago, paving the way in developing a
system founded on student advancement upon demonstrated mastery. This case
study explores how CSD created the infrastructure to support a
performance-based system, expanding learning beyond the classroom, embracing
the culture of the community and developing educator growth.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED567873
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2016

46.

TI- Re-Engineering Information Technology: Design Considerations for
Competency Education. CompetencyWorks Issue Brief
AU- Glowa, Liz
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
AU- CompetencyWorks
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20130101
YR- 2013
PG- 49
PT- Report
SU- Information Technology; Competency Based Education; Instructional Design;
Instructional Effectiveness; Student Centered Learning; Academic Standards;
Educational Practices; Student Educational Objectives; Progress Monitoring;
Information Retrieval; Alignment (Education); Taxonomy; Technology
Integration; Management Systems; Information Systems; Common Core State
Standards; Profiles; Cognitive Style; Evaluation Methods; Curriculum
Evaluation; Elementary Secondary Education; Data Analysis; Mastery Learning
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Competency education is student-centric, personalizing student progress
so that every child has adequate time and support to reach proficiency every
step of the way. Competency education fundamentally changes the way the
educational enterprise is organized around student needs, and thus must have
a dynamic IT system to support it. Following an introductory essay, “Getting
Ahead: Mature IT for Competency Education” by Susan Patrick, President and
CEO of the International Association for K-12 Online Learning, this paper
demonstrates the importance of analyzing and examining our knowledge of what
makes up an effective competency-based information system. While designing
competency education systems, it is important to keep student learning at the
core, to incorporate interoperability principles, and to use an enterprise
architecture approach that enables schools and districts to effectively
manage their institutions. These systems need to be able to communicate, to
supply the data and support that administrators, educators, and students need
in order to know exactly how individual students are progressing based on
clear competencies. Based on interviews and research, the ideas in this
report build upon the information systems developed by competency education
innovators, best practices of systemic approaches to information management,
and emerging opportunities. This paper is designed for readers to find the
sections that are of most interest to them in their role and to be used to
catalyze strategies, support new competency-based instructional models, and
inform decision making for continuous improvement. Consider this paper as an
opportunity to catalyze conversations in your organization and networks about
how IT systems can be designed with student learning at their core. The
following are appended: (1) Multiple Initiatives Working on Interoperability,
Data Standards, and Technical Services; (2) Writing an RFI or RFP: Competency
Education Information Technology Considerations; and (3) Glossary.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED561304
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2015

47.

TI- Using Online Learning for Credit Recovery: Getting Back on Track to
Graduation. Promising Practices in Blended and Online Learning Series
AU- Powell, Allison
AU- Roberts, Verena
AU- Patrick, Susan
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20150901
YR- 2015
PG- 25
PT- Report
SU- Electronic Learning; Blended Learning; Graduation; Graduation Rate;
Repetition; Required Courses; Credits; Classification; Thinking Skills;
Critical Thinking; Online Courses; Educational Opportunities; Nontraditional
Education; Computer Software; Individual Instruction; Federal Legislation;
Educational Legislation; Elementary Secondary Education; Disabilities; Equal
Education; Virtual Classrooms; Charter Schools; Competence; Dropouts; At Risk
Students
SU- Elementary Secondary Education Act; Individuals with Disabilities
Education Act; New Hampshire; Florida; Tennessee; Kansas; Colorado; Illinois
SU- Elementary and Secondary Education Act; Individuals with Disabilities
Education Act
GE- Colorado; Florida; Illinois; Kansas; New Hampshire; Tennessee
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Our country has been trying to address the graduation crisis in many
ways. We are seeing the impact of the efforts to improve graduation rates
over the past twenty years including agreement among states to implement a
common cohort-based graduation rate, research-based efforts to improve the
transition to 9th grade, increased academic and social supports,
individualized instruction, effective use of educational technology and
building new capacity of districts to provide multiple pathways to graduation
including re-engagement centers so young people that had previously
disengaged from school can re-enroll in school to complete their diplomas.
Initially, when students were over-age and under-credited, school districts
had to depend on alternative schools designed for students that need more
support and/or flexibility, and used by students that may have disengaged
from school, seeking a different learning environment or pushed out through
disciplinary policies. With online and blended learning, districts are
beginning to develop flexibly paced credit recovery to help students stay on
track to graduation instead of finding themselves in senior year with no way
to graduate. Alternative schools like other schools have been integrating
online learning to create more options for students. Today, one of the root
issues is the older students who are missing a significant number of credits
do not have the time to sit in class again, thus competency-based programs
are a better option. Online learning is inherently modular. Allowing more
time to build mastery and experience smaller successes along the way would
also function to prevent huge gaps in their learning that ultimately requires
them to retake full courses today. At the heart of the issue, when students
have gaps in learning, competency-based education approaches can let kids
focus in more closely on where there are gaps in learning–rather than
waiting until students have to catch up by re-enrolling in entire credits.
Just focusing on making up credits may not help them strengthen their skills.
Adaptive learning and educational software can really help students
strengthen their basic foundational skills and increase fluency on the lower
levels of Bloom’s taxonomy on appropriate learning goals. But, that is not
enough. Students need to be able to engage in higher order thinking skills
and demonstrate deeper learning to build their analytical, evaluation,
synthesis and be able to apply their learning on the higher levels of Bloom’s
taxonomy. It is important for students to get to the higher levels of depth
of knowledge, and an especially critical issue for kids who are having
trouble in school. It is important that our system begin to transform around
the needs of students. To ensure success, the focus should be on how we help
students graduate with the skills to be successful in life. Credit Recovery
Resources are provided. [“Using Online Learning for Credit Recovery: Getting
Back on Track to Graduation” was originally written by John Watson, and Burch
Gemin in June 2008]
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED560789
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2015

48.

TI- Implementing Competency Education in K-12 Systems: Insights from Local
Leaders. CompetencyWorks Issue Brief
AU- Sturgis, Chris
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
AU- CompetencyWorks
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20150601
YR- 2015
PG- 80
PT- Report
SP- Carnegie Corporation of New York
SP- Nellie Mae Education Foundation
SP- Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
SU- Competency Based Education; Educational Change; Competence; School
Districts; Teacher Role; Change Strategies; Educational Improvement;
Interviews; Observation; Mastery Learning; Educational Objectives; Student
Evaluation; Student Needs; Knowledge Level; Skill Development; Instructional
Leadership; Administrator Role; Participative Decision Making; School
Culture; Inquiry; Governance; Student Participation; Community Involvement;
Instructional Design; Teaching Methods; Graduation Requirements; Elementary
Secondary Education; Teacher Empowerment; Student Empowerment; Faculty
Development; Personal Autonomy; Creativity; Teacher Competencies; Parent
Participation; Program Implementation
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Competency education, an educator-led reform, is taking root in schools
and districts across the country. In some states, state leadership has
cleared the path with policies to advance competency education. This paper
seeks to map out the terrain of the district implementation strategies being
used to convert traditional systems into personalized, competency-based ones.
Although not a detailed guide, the hope is that the discussion offered here
will prepare you to begin the transformational process. Four stages of
implementation are proposed in this paper: (1) Ramping Up for Transformation;
(2) Designing the Infrastructure for Learning; (3) Transitioning to a
Competency- Based System; and (4) Embracing Continuous Improvement and
Innovation. Schools and their district offices work in partnership during
this transformation, which means implementation issues at both levels will be
discussed. The findings in this paper are based on interviews and site visits
conducted over the past five years as well as the knowledge shared by leaders
in the field at CompetencyWorks.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED557750
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2015

49.

TI- The Online Learning Definitions Project
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20111001
YR- 2011
PG- 11
PT- Report
SU- Electronic Learning; Online Courses; Blended Learning; Elementary
Secondary Education; Definitions; Educational Opportunities; Educational
Improvement; Improvement Programs; Educational Research; Educational
Practices; Policy Formation; Guidance Programs; Vocabulary Development;
Research Projects
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- The mission of the International Association for K-12 Online Learning
(iNACOL) is to ensure all students have access to a world-class education and
quality online learning opportunities that prepare them for a lifetime of
success. “The Online Learning Definitions Project” is designed to provide
states, districts, online programs, and other organizations with a set of
definitions related to online and blended learning in order to develop
policy, practice, and an understanding of and within the field. The
initiative began with a thorough literature review of existing definitions,
followed by a research survey to iNACOL members and experts to ensure the
efficacy of the definitions adopted. These definitions should be implemented
and monitored by each state, district or organization, as they reserve the
right to apply the definitions according to the best interest of the
population for which they serve. A bibliography is included.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED537323
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2012

50.

TI- National Standards for Quality Online Courses: Version 2
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20111001
YR- 2011
PG- 46
PT- Report
SU- National Standards; Academic Standards; Educational Technology;
Instructional Design; Expertise; Elementary Secondary Education; Course
Content; Professional Associations; Student Evaluation; Scoring Rubrics;
Evaluation Criteria; Course Evaluation; Instructional Development;
Educational Quality; Standard Setting; Definitions; Web Based Instruction;
Electronic Learning; Online Courses; Blended Learning; Technology Planning;
Educational Policy; Guidelines
SU- Michigan; Texas
GE- Michigan; Texas
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- The mission of the International Association for K-12 Online Learning
(iNACOL) is to ensure all students have access to world-class education and
quality online learning opportunities that prepare them for a lifetime of
success. “National Standards for Quality Online Courses” is designed to
provide states, districts, online programs, and other organizations with a
set of quality guidelines for online course content, instructional design,
technology, student assessment, and course management. The original
initiative in version one of the standards began with a thorough literature
review of existing online course quality standards, followed by a survey
offered to representatives of the iNACOL network to ensure the efficacy of
the standards adopted. As a result of the research review, iNACOL had chosen
to fully endorse the work of the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB)
“Quality Online Course Standards” as a comprehensive set of criteria. The
standards as identified by SREB, already in use by 16 SREB states, proved to
be the most comprehensive and included guidelines set forth in the other
criteria from the literature review. Since the original standards were
released, other organizations have released quality standards for online
courses. iNACOL organized a team of experts in the area of course
development, instructional design, professional development, research,
education, and administration to review these new standards and new
literature around the topic and determined there was a need to refresh
version one of the iNACOL standards. In this new version of the standards,
reviewer considerations have been added for each indicator. Additionally, a
rubric has been included to assist in the review of online courses based on
this new version. (Contains 2 footnotes.)
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED537339
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2012

51.

TI- It’s Not a Matter of Time: Highlights from the 2011 Competency-Based
Summit
AU- Sturgis, Chris
AU- Patrick, Susan
AU- Pittenger, Linda
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20110701
YR- 2011
PG- 42
PT- Report
SU- Competence; Expertise; Elementary Secondary Education; Competency Based
Education; Educational Innovation; Conferences (Gatherings); Communities of
Practice; Alignment (Education); Change Strategies; Skill Analysis;
Accountability; Equal Education; Management Information Systems; State
Policy; Theory Practice Relationship; Partnerships in Education; Government
Role; Educational Opportunities; Learning Strategies
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- From Anchorage, Alaska, to Orlando, Florida, and from Gray, Maine, to
Yuma, Arizona, one hundred competency-based innovators gathered at the
Competency-Based Learning Summit in March 2011. Sponsored by the Council of
Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) and the International Association for
K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL), the Summit was developed in response to the
findings in the report “When Success Is the Only Option: Designing
Competency-Based Pathways for Next Generation Learning.” The 2010 scan of the
field of competency-based innovation found that the pockets of innovation
across the country were too often operating in general isolation. By bringing
together the leaders in the field, CCSSO and iNACOL set out to expedite
building the capacity to meet the growing demand for competency-based
approaches. The Summit, the first step toward building the infrastructure to
expedite competency-based approaches, was designed around three goals: (1)
Sharing expertise across and among innovators and policy leaders; (2)
Building a common working definition of competency-based learning; and (3)
Enhancing the strategies and skills for advancing the establishment of
competency-based options. Although it would be impossible to capture the
Summit’s cascade of ideas, this paper highlights the key issues raised to
support the advancement of competency-based learning. Participant List is
appended. (Contains 4 footnotes, 10 resources and 23 online resources.) [For
related report, “Cracking the Code: Synchronizing Policy and Practice for
Performance-Based Learning,” see ED537322.]
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED537332
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2012

52.

TI- Cracking the Code: Synchronizing Policy and Practice for
Performance-Based Learning
AU- Patrick, Susan
AU- Sturgis, Chris
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20110701
YR- 2011
PG- 33
PT- Report
SU- Competency Based Education; Elementary Secondary Education; State Policy;
Educational Policy; Educational Change; Individualized Instruction;
Accountability; Technology Uses in Education; Educational Finance;
Educational Cooperation; Federal State Relationship; Academic Standards;
State Standards; Student Evaluation; Faculty Development
SU- New Hampshire; Oregon; Florida; Alabama
GE- Alabama; Florida; New Hampshire; Oregon
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Performance-based learning is one of the keys to cracking open the
assumptions that undergird the current educational codes, structures, and
practices. By finally moving beyond the traditions of a time-based system,
greater customized educational services can flourish, preparing more and more
students for college and careers. This proposed policy framework, designed to
expedite state policy development in performance-based learning, may be
applied to all next generation learning. Building upon the 2011
Competency-Based Learning Summit convened by the International Association
for K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL) and the Council of Chief State School
Officers (CCSSO), this discussion explores how state policy can loosen the
regulatory environment that is handcuffing administrators and educators who
are ready to move toward student-centered, competency-based models of
learning. Transitioning to a competency-based system requires deep analysis
and wide-reaching creativity. Thus, chief state school officers will want to
work collaboratively, drawing on insights and innovations from other states
in order to expedite the process of constructing a set of policies that
promote innovation and breakthrough strategies, rather than the traditional
compliance model. (Contains 8 resources, 7 online resources and 3 footnotes.)
[Funding for this paper was provided by the Stupski Foundation. For related
report, “It’s Not a Matter of Time: Highlights from the 2011 Competency-Based
Summit,” see ED537332.]
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED537322
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2012

53.

TI- Maximizing Competency Education and Blended Learning: Insights from
Experts. CompetencyWorks Issue Brief
AU- Patrick, Susan
AU- Sturgis, Chris
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
AU- CompetencyWorks
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20150301
YR- 2015
PG- 48
PT- Report
SP- Nellie Mae Education Foundation
SP- Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
SP- Carnegie Corporation of New York
SU- Competency Based Education; Blended Learning; Educational Technology;
Technology Uses in Education; Competence; Technical Assistance; Role;
Teaching Methods; Learning Modalities; Community Involvement; Institutional
Autonomy; Administrator Role; Success; Standards; Leadership Training;
Professional Development; School Districts; Skill Development
SU- New Hampshire; Alaska; Michigan
GE- Alaska; Michigan; New Hampshire
AB- Students will face enormous challenges in the coming years–from an
economy shaped by ever-advancing technologies to the impact of
globalization–and need the strongest foundation of academic, technical, and
problem-solving skills we can offer. In an effort to improve their
educational experiences, schools across the country are exploring and
implementing new approaches, many of which share a common goal: to provide
greater personalization and ensure that each and every student has the
knowledge, skills, and competencies to succeed. Personalized learning,
blended learning, and competency-based learning are becoming of increasing
interest to district leaders at the front of transformation efforts. These
efforts rely on support and direction from a limited pool of technical
assistance providers in the field. Technical assistance providers are
individuals or organizations with expertise in their respective fields who
are charged with providing implementation assistance such as strategic
planning, training, resources, and direct assistance to schools and
districts. Each provider has expertise in some areas; few have expertise in
all of them. Thus, the implication for districts is that the transformation
process is staggered to allow for the implementation of one major strategy
and then another, rather than taking on a broad-sweeping comprehensive
approach. In May 2014, CompetencyWorks brought together twenty-three
technical assistance providers to examine their catalytic role in
implementing next generation learning models, share each other’s knowledge
and expertise about blended learning and competency education, and discuss
next steps to move the field forward with a focus on equity and quality. The
strategy maintains that by building the knowledge and networks of technical
assistance providers, these groups can play an even more catalytic role in
advancing the field. The objective of the convening was to help educate and
level set the understanding of competency education and its design elements,
as well as to build knowledge about using blended learning modalities within
competency-based environments. This paper attempts to draw together the
wide-ranging conversations from the convening to provide background knowledge
for educators to understand what it will take to transform from traditional
to personalized, competency-based systems that take full advantage of blended
learning. The primary focus is to address the key considerations that face
districts as they move forward. The authors consider the discussion offered
here as a first step in a very steep learning curve that they will be making
to fully maximize competency-based structures and blended learning
modalities.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED557755
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2015

54.

TI- Performance-Based Funding & Online Learning: Maximizing Resources for
Student Success
AU- Patrick, Susan
AU- Myers, John
AU- Silverstein, Justin
AU- Brown, Amanda
AU- Watson, John
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20150101
YR- 2015
PG- 54
PT- Report
PT- Numerical/Quantitative Data
SP- Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
SU- Electronic Learning; Online Courses; Academic Achievement; Educational
Finance; Tests; Outcome Measures; Interviews; Costs; Elementary Secondary
Education; Virtual Classrooms
SU- New Hampshire; Minnesota
GE- Minnesota; New Hampshire
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- There is a new conversation taking place in public education on creating
systemic incentives through school finance to encourage schools to innovate
and be rewarded for positive student outcomes and performance. What if
education funding was not based on seat-time, but on rewarding student
performance? Performance-based funding is a term that captures this new
concept. Performance-based funding means that funding is tied to an outcome-a
policy outcome. In higher education, institutions seek outcomes tied to
degree completion. In K-12 education, the performance-based funding outcomes
have historically been tied to course completion (as the outcome). As
students successfully develop competencies and complete courses, they would
trigger payment and performance-based funding incentives. It is important to
protect quality and ensure student performance outcomes are validated through
independent assessments and/or end-of-course exams. As interest in online
courses grows, many states are looking for guidance regarding costs, models
and performance-based funding policies. The research in this report is
focused on online learning to focus on the issues of equity and adequacy of
funding in the context of performance-based funding models. Appended are: (1)
K-12 Education Funding; (2) Examining Costs of Online Learning; (3)
Outcomes-Based Measures of Student Performance for Online Schools; (4)
Individuals Participating in Research Meetings and Phone Interviews (5)
Definitions; and (6) References and Resources.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED557775
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2015

55.

TI- Fast Facts about Online Learning
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20090301
YR- 2009
PG- 6
PT- Report
SU- Electronic Learning; Elementary Secondary Education; Online Courses;
Educational Technology; Computer Uses in Education; Professional
Associations; Virtual Classrooms; Educational Methods; Internet; Educational
Change
SU- Early Childhood Education; Elementary Secondary Education; Kindergarten
AB- The International Association for K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL) is a
non-profit 501(c)(3) membership association based in the Washington, DC area
with more than 2,900 members. This organization is unique in that the members
represent a diverse cross-section of K-12 education from school districts,
charter schools, state education  agencies, non-profit organizations,
research institutions, corporate entities and other content & technology
providers. iNACOL’s mission is to ensure all students have access  to
world-class education and quality online learning opportunities that prepare
them for a lifetime for success. iNACOL facilitates advocacy, research,
professional development and networking to expand the availability and
enhance the quality of K-12 online learning. In the area of Research Trends
and Statistics, the topics presenting fast facts in this report include: (1)
K-12 Online Learning and Virtual Schools: Expanding Options; (2) Online
learning in K-12 schools is growing explosively; (3) Research Reports “As
Good or Better”: Effective; (4) Today’s Students; (5) Highlights from the
National Center for Education Statistics at the U.S. Department of Education
Issue Brief on Rates of Computer and Internet Use by Children in Nursery
School and Students in Kindergarten Through Twelfth Grade; and (6) High
School Reform and Redesign.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED509627
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2010

56.

TI- Improving the K-12 Online Course Design Review Process: Experts Weigh in
on iNACOL National Standards for Quality Online Courses
AU- Adelstein, David
AU- Barbour, Michael K.
SO- International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, v18 n3
p47-82 May 2017
VI- 18
IP- 3
DT- 20170501
YR- 2017
SP- 47
EP- 82
PG- 36
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
PT- Tests/Questionnaires
SU- Online Courses; Educational Improvement; Standards; Advocacy;
Organizations (Groups); Instructional Design; Validity; Reliability;
Educational Quality; Feedback (Response); Elementary Secondary Education;
Kindergarten; Distance Education; Computer Simulation; Specialists; Course
Evaluation
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Kindergarten; Primary Education; Early
Childhood Education
AB- Within the K-12 online learning environment there are a variety of
standards that designers can utilize when creating online courses. To date,
the only research-based standards available are proprietary in manner. As
such, many jurisdictions have begun adopting online course design standards
from the leading advocacy organization, which that have yet to be validated
from a research perspective. This article reports on the second phase of a
three-stage study designed to examine the validity and reliability of the
iNACOL “National Standards for Quality Online Courses.” Phase two utilizes
two groups of expert reviewers to examine and provide feedback with goal of
further refining these standards (after the standards had been scrutinized
through the lens of the available K-12 online learning literature).
LA- English
IS- 1492-3831
FT- Y
AN- EJ1142281
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2017
RV- Y

57.

TI- Virtual Schools in the U.S. 2017
AU- Molnar, Alex
AU- Miron, Gary
AU- Gulosino, Charisse
AU- Shank, Christopher
AU- Davidson, Caryn
AU- Barbour, Michael
AU- Huerta, Luis
AU- Shafter, Sheryl Rankin
AU- Rice, Jennifer King
AU- Nitkin, David
AU- University of Colorado at Boulder, National Education Policy Center
SO- National Education Policy Center
DT- 20170401
YR- 2017
PG- 103
PT- Report
SP- Great Lakes Center for Education Research and Practice
SU- Virtual Classrooms; Blended Learning; Public Schools; Traditional
Schools; Enrollment; School Demography; Proprietary Schools; Private Schools;
Charter Schools; Student Characteristics; Minority Group Students; Low Income
Students; Teacher Student Ratio; Educational Indicators; Federal Programs;
School Effectiveness; Elementary Secondary Education; Accountability;
Graduation Rate; Educational Policy; Educational Research; Educational
Finance; Governance; Educational Quality; Teacher Effectiveness; Special
Education; English Language Learners; Gender Differences; Supplementary
Education
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- In the five years since the first National Education Policy Center (NEPC)
“Annual Report on Virtual Education” was released in 2013, virtual education
has continued to be a focal point for policymakers. Proponents argue that
virtual education can expand student choices and improve the efficiency of
public education. In particular, full-time virtual schools (also sometimes
referred to as virtual charter schools, virtual academies, online schools or
cyber schools) have attracted a great deal of attention. Many believe that
online curriculum can be tailored to individual students more effectively
than curriculum in traditional classrooms, giving it the potential to promote
greater student achievement than can be realized in traditional
brick-and-mortar schools. Further, the promise of lower costs–primarily for
instructional personnel and facilities–makes virtual schools financially
appealing to both policymakers and for-profit providers. The assumption that
virtual schools are cost effective and educationally sound, coupled with
policies expanding school choice and providing market incentives attractive
to for-profit companies, continue to help fuel virtual school growth in the
U.S. There is, however, little high-quality systematic evidence that the
rapid expansion of the past several years is wise. Indeed, evidence presented
in the NEPC annual reports argues for caution. Nevertheless, the movement
toward virtual schools continues to gather steam, often supported by weak or
even dishonest data. For example, as a part of the confirmation hearings for
the current Secretary of Education, National Public Radio reported that
Secretary Betsy DeVos responded to a written question from Senator Patty
Murray using performance data provided by a for-profit corporation that
inflated the four-year graduation rates of virtual schools–in some cases by
as much as 300%.1 The 2017 NEPC Annual Report contributes to the existing
evidence related to virtual education, and so to debates surrounding it. It
provides objective analysis of the characteristics and performance of
full-time, publicly funded K-12 virtual schools; available research on
virtual school practices and policy; and an overview of recent state efforts
to craft new policy. In Section I–“Full-Time Virtual and Blended Schools:
Enrollment, Student Characteristics, and Performance,” Gary Miron, Charisse
Gulosino, Christopher Shank, and Caryn Davidson focus on two specific types
of K-12 online and blended learning: full-time virtual schools and blended
schools. The authors assigned schools in their study a unique identification
code that allowed them to gather complete data about each school from a
variety of sources (the National Center for Educational Statistics,
individual Departments of Education, and so on). The authors use the terms
“full-time virtual school” and “full-term blended school” because they want
to link these school types to data sets on school characteristics, student
demographics, and school outcomes. In Section II–“Still No Evidence,
Increased Call for Regulation: Research to Guide Virtual School Policy,”
Michael Barbour focuses on all forms of K-12 virtual and blended learning.
Barbour distinguishes among the different forms of virtual schooling–both
supplemental and full-time–and describes the limited reliable research on
blended learning programs and blended learning schools. In Section III–“Key
Policy Issues in Virtual Schools: Finance and Governance, Instructional
Quality, and Teacher Quality,” Luis Huerta, Sheryl Rankin Shafer, Jennifer
King Rice, and David Nitkin use the general term “virtual school” as an
umbrella term including all forms of K-12 online learning. When the National
Education Policy Center first began this annual examination in 2013, the
distinctions among K-12 online learning, virtual schooling and cyber
schooling were not as prominent within the academic literature. Additionally,
many of the K-12 online learning programs sponsored or supported by State
Departments of Education were referred to as virtual schools. Similarly, much
of the legislation and policy language used the term virtual (for example,
virtual charter school). For these reasons, this annual report was and will
continue to use the term Virtual Schools in its title. Therefore, unless they
are quoting specific language from a given piece of legislation or policy,
the authors of this third section will continue to use the term “virtual
schools.” (Each section contains a list of notes and references.) [For
“Virtual Schools Report 2016: Directory and Performance Review,” see
ED574701.]
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED574702
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2017
RV- Y

58.

TI- iNACOL Blended Learning Teacher Competency Framework
AU- Powell, Allison
AU- Rabbitt, Beth
AU- Kennedy, Kathryn
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
AU- The Learning Accelerator
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20141001
YR- 2014
PG- 21
PT- Report
SU- Blended Learning; Teacher Competencies; Educational Experience; Teacher
Role; Educational Practices; Teaching Methods; Guidelines; Student Centered
Learning; Educational Research; Teacher Student Relationship; Modeling
(Psychology)
AB- In recent years there has been a dramatic rise in interest and early
adoption of blended learning to improve the educational experiences of
students. A great amount of work has been done to codify approaches, with
tools and resources emphasizing the structural components of new models, such
as the configuration of physical learning space, use of time, distribution of
staff, and applications of technology. While there is widespread recognition
that great in person teaching remains essential within these structures,
there has been less exploration of the human factors and effective practices
that make them successful. Schools and districts are asking for more support
for understanding teachers’ new roles and effectively supporting them in
transitioning to new models of teaching and learning. To respond to this
need, iNACOL and The Learning Accelerator (TLA), two organizations committed
to helping educators succeed at adopting and implementing blended learning at
scale, assembled a national committee of blended learning practitioners,
thought-leaders, and experts to explore one critical question: What are the
key characteristics of teachers in successful blended learning environments?
Over the last year, this committee worked together to review existing
practices and research (including an earlier framework developed by TLA), to
develop emerging hypotheses with each other and then field-test them with a
broader set of external stakeholders. This process culminated in the
development of the work presented here, the “iNACOL Blended Learning Teacher
Competency Framework.”
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED561318
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2015

59.

TI- Access and Equity for All Learners in Blended and Online Education
AU- Rose, Raymond
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20141001
YR- 2014
PG- 27
PT- Report
SU- Access to Education; Equal Education; Blended Learning; Electronic
Learning; Public Education; Federal Legislation; Educational Legislation;
Elementary Secondary Education; Disabilities; Civil Rights Legislation;
Educational Opportunities; Web Based Instruction; Academic Standards;
Instructional Design; Teacher Role; Administrator Role; Progress Monitoring;
Delivery Systems; Educational Policy; Gender Discrimination; Sex Fairness
SU- Civil Rights Act 1964 Title VI; Elementary Secondary Education Act;
Rehabilitation Act 1973 (Section 504); Americans with Disabilities Act 1990;
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act 2004; Equal
Educational Opportunities Act 1974; Lau v Nichols; Title IX Education
Amendments 1972
SU- Americans with Disabilities Act 1990; Civil Rights Act 1964 Title VI;
Education Amendments 1972; Elementary and Secondary Education Act; Equal
Educational Opportunities Act 1974; Individuals with Disabilities Education
Improvement Act 2004; Lau v Nichols; Rehabilitation Act 1973 (Section 504);
Title IX Education Amendments 1972
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Online education has become an accepted part of the educational landscape
over the past two decades. Digital resources are the norm in classrooms. The
expectation is that all students will benefit from technology some way. In
order for that to be the case, however, sometimes more overt action is needed
to ensure that all students do in fact get full benefit of digital resources
and online learning. Equity in education has been a basic tenet of public
education in the United States, made explicit by civil rights legislation
beginning with passage of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the
1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). Subsequently, Section 504
of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act,
and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act in 2004 ensured civil
rights protection for people with disabilities. Unfortunately, legislation
alone does not guarantee that all students will be provided with the access
and equity necessary to take full advantage of the educational opportunities
all students are entitled to. The increasing role of technology to deliver
content and instruction presents challenges for all educational programs,
including blended and online learning. The goal of this publication is to
raise awareness amongst educators, especially those in the blended and online
community, of the importance of ensuring that all students are able to take
advantage of all educational opportunities available to them. Its purpose is
to provide guidance, direction, and resources to help programs meet their
moral, ethical, and legal obligations to best ensure all students have access
to the educational opportunities provided for them in online and digital
learning. Four appendices are included: (1) Federal and State Legal
Requirements for Equal Education Opportunity and Access; (2) List of links to
guidance documents issued by OCR that provide detailed information about
issues of access (3) List of resources; and (4) Information on screen
readers.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED561307
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2015

60.

TI- The iNACOL State Policy Frameworks: 5 Critical Issues to Transform K-12
Education
AU- Worthen, Maria
AU- Patrick, Susan
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20141001
YR- 2014
PG- 13
PT- Report
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Educational Change; Educational
Improvement; Educational Quality; Educational Opportunities; State Policy;
Educational Policy; Competency Based Education; Access to Education; Equal
Education; Guidelines; Blended Learning; Online Courses; Teaching Methods;
Quality Assurance
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Over the last decade, the American education system has seen
unprecedented transformation of teaching and learning as educators have
grasped the power of new learning models to close achievement gaps and extend
access to high-quality learning opportunities. The availability of adaptive
digital tools that use data to improve student learning has exploded as
technology and innovation advance. The next few years hold great potential to
continue the incredible progress we have achieved–with new learning models
that allow personalization of instruction for each student and a shift
towards competency education that will ensure teaching and learning are built
on a foundation of true mastery. However, this shift cannot be sustained
without changes in state policy. This policy brief provides concrete,
actionable recommendations for state policymakers. There are five key issues
in the iNACOL State Policy Frameworks: (1) Create Competency-Based Education
Systems; (2) Improve Student Access and Equity; (3) Ensure Quality with
Standards and Performance Metrics; (4) Modernize Educator and Leader
Development; and (5) Build New Learning Models Infrastructure. We provide
background and specific policy recommendations for each of these issues in
this policy brief. Taken as a whole, the recommendations that follow present
a framework for sustainable, systemic change. However, we present them with
the understanding that each state starts from a different place, with its own
unique context in its education system and its policy landscape.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED561296
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2015

61.

TI- Course Access: Equitable Opportunities for College and Career Ready
Students
AU- Worthen, Maria
AU- Patrick, Susan
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20141001
YR- 2014
PG- 17
PT- Report
SP- Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation
SU- Equal Education; Access to Education; Courses; Public Schools; Elementary
Secondary Education; College Readiness; Career Readiness; STEM Education;
State Policy; Educational Policy; Educational Legislation; Financial Support;
State Legislation; Accountability; Quality Assurance
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Imagine a high school student who does not have the opportunity to take
all of the courses she needs to get into college. Today, for far too many
young people, this is a sobering reality. Public schools around the country
may lack the resources, staff, or demand to offer a full catalog of courses.
According to recent data from the U.S. Department of Education, many students
do not have access to all the courses that will prepare them for college and
careers. The learning opportunities a student has in grades K-12 provide a
vital foundation for success in college and career, and these early
competencies particularly matter in the STEM (science, technology,
engineering, and math) fields. Course Access provides an incredible
opportunity to end once and for all the inequitable barriers to college and
career-ready coursework. Thanks to Course Access, a student attending a
school that does not offer high-level math course work will be able to access
the courses he needs to be prepared for and succeed in college through the
free, public education system. Course Access courses can be core, advanced,
career and technical education courses, credit-bearing internships, online
courses, or traditional courses offered in settings outside the school
building. Course Access provides an opportunity to meet the challenge of
ensuring that all students have equitable opportunities to become college and
career ready. The following are appended: (1) Model Legislative Principles
for Course Access Legislation; (2) Comparison of State Course Access
Policies; and (3) Authorizing State Legislation and Guidance.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED561295
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2015

62.

TI- An International Study in Competency Education: Postcards from Abroad.
CompetencyWorks Issue Brief
AU- Bristow, Sara Frank
AU- Patrick, Susan
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
AU- CompetencyWorks
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20141001
YR- 2014
PG- 36
PT- Report
SP- Carnegie Corporation of New York
SP- Nellie Mae Education Foundation
SP- Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
SU- Foreign Countries; Comparative Education; Competency Based Education;
Definitions; Global Approach; Educational Trends; Trend Analysis; Academic
Standards; Curriculum Development; Student Centered Curriculum;
Individualized Instruction; Formative Evaluation
SU- Finland; British Columbia; New Zealand; Scotland; Sweden; England;
Singapore; China (Shanghai); United States; Program for International Student
Assessment
GE- Canada; China (Shanghai); Finland; New Zealand; Singapore; Sweden; United
Kingdom (England); United Kingdom (Scotland); United States
SU- Program for International Student Assessment
AB- “An International Study in Competency Education: Postcards from Abroad”
seeks to highlight components of competency education in international
practice, to inform US policymakers and decision makers seeking to implement
high-quality competency pathways at the state or local level. Other countries
are studying our innovations, and we are studying theirs. This report first
reviews the definition of competency-based learning. A brief lesson in the
international vocabulary of competency education is followed by a review of
global trends that complement our own efforts to improve performance and
increase equitable outcomes. Next, we share an overview of competency
education against a backdrop of global education trends (as seen in the
international PISA exams), before embarking on an abbreviated world tour. We
pause in Finland, British Columbia (Canada), New Zealand and Scotland, with
interludes in Sweden, England, Singapore and Shanghai, all of which have
embraced practices that can inform the further development of competency
education in the United States.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED561280
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2015

63.

TI- Laying the Foundation for Competency Education: A Policy Guide for the
Next Generation Educator Workforce
AU- Pace, Lillian
AU- Worthen, Maria
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
AU- KnowledgeWorks Foundation
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20141001
YR- 2014
PG- 18
PT- Guides – Non-Classroom
PT- Report
SU- Competence; Teacher Competencies; Faculty Development; Teacher
Improvement; Barriers; Educational Policy; Teacher Education Programs;
Teaching Skills; Competency Based Teacher Education; Elementary Secondary
Education; Teacher Certification; Competency Based Education; Federal
Government; State Government; Government Role; Educational Improvement;
Federal Legislation; Educational Legislation
SU- Utah; New Hampshire; Elementary Secondary Education Act
SU- Elementary and Secondary Education Act
GE- New Hampshire; Utah
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- This paper provides a vision and set of policy recommendations to help
federal, state, and local leaders develop the workforce necessary to support
teaching and learning in a competency-based K-12 education system. Part One,
Pre-service and Credentialing for K-12 Competency-Based Learning
Environments, provides policymakers with a framework and set of actions to
build educator competency, focusing on the alignment of pre-service
preparation and credentialing programs with K-12 competency-based learning
environments. Part Two, Continuous Improvement of Instruction: Professional
Development and Evaluation, reveals strategies for integrating and
strengthening professional development and evaluation systems to ensure
educators have the personalized and ongoing support needed to excel in
competency-based environments. Both sections also include an analysis of
current policy barriers and a case study of an early adopter that has taken
bold steps to integrate competency-based principles into the preparation and
continuous improvement of the educator workforce. The authors hope this paper
advances the national dialogue about education reform, inspiring policymakers
to implement a new vision for teaching and leading that elevates the rigor
and performance of our education system. They also hope that this
conversation refocuses the national dialogue in favor of policies that
support teachers and leaders so they are empowered to focus on what matters
most for student learning.
LA- English
AG- Policymakers
FT- Y
AN- ED557752
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2015

64.

TI- National Standards for Quality Online Programs
AU- Pape, Liz
AU- Wicks, Matthew
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20091001
YR- 2009
PG- 34
PT- Guides – Classroom – Teacher
PT- Report
SU- Electronic Learning; Elementary Secondary Education; National Standards;
Online Courses; Guidelines; Leadership; Instructional Leadership; Educational
Opportunities; Instructional Design; Surveys; Course Content; Course
Objectives; Educational Philosophy; Governance; Academic Achievement; Student
Evaluation; Teacher Competencies; Educational Planning; Professional
Personnel; Educational Resources; Access to Education; Educational
Improvement; Educational Assessment
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- The mission of the International Association for K-12 Online Learning,
iNACOL, is to ensure all students have access to a world-class education and
quality online learning opportunities that prepare them for a lifetime of
success. This document, the International Association for K-12 Online
Learning’s (iNACOL) “National Standards for Quality Online Programs”, is the
third of iNACOL’s online education standards, following the “National
Standards of Quality for Online Courses” and “National Standards for Quality
Online Teaching”. The standards in this document address what is needed for a
quality online program, elements of which include quality course design and
quality online teaching. However, this set of standards is more than the
third of a series–it is intended that these Standards for Quality Online
Programs provide the encompassing and over-arching set of standards program
leaders need to assure a quality online program. “National Standards for
Quality Online Programs” is designed to provide states, districts, online
programs, and other organizations with a set of quality guidelines for online
program leadership, instruction, content, support services, and evaluation.
The initiative began with a thorough literature review of existing online
program standards, including accreditation standards, a cross-reference of
standards, followed by a survey to iNACOL members and experts to ensure the
efficacy of the standards adopted. These guidelines should be implemented and
monitored by each district or organization, as they reserve the right to
apply the guidelines according to the best interest of the population for
which they serve. These standards start by addressing the foundation of the
program: its mission, goals and objectives and its underlying beliefs and
philosophy. Leadership is also addressed: the program’s governance, the role
of the governing body and how the relation between the governing body and
organizational/program leadership work together to support the achievement of
the mission. Beyond the foundation of what the program has as its mission,
goals and objectives, are the standards that address how the program
operates, its teaching and learning standards and support standards. In this
document, the authors have provided an overview of the most critical of the
course design and teaching standards. In addition, a program needs to provide
the support mechanisms for student and teacher success in online courses.
This document describes the necessary support standards needed for programs
designed to supplement schools’ course offerings as well as those programs
designed for full-time students. (Contains 1 footnote.)
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED509638
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2010

65.

TI- A K-12 Federal Policy Framework for Competency Education: Building
Capacity for Systems Change. CompetencyWorks Issue Brief
AU- Worthen, Maria
AU- Pace, Lillian
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
AU- CompetencyWorks
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20140201
YR- 2014
PG- 37
PT- Report
SU- Competency Based Education; Elementary Secondary Education; Educational
Policy; Public Policy; Federal Legislation; Educational Legislation;
Educational Change; Barriers; Educational Benefits; Program Implementation;
Case Studies; Holistic Approach; Accountability; Educational Assessment;
Intervention; State Policy; Data
SU- Elementary Secondary Education Act; New Hampshire; Rhode Island;
Michigan; Georgia
SU- Elementary and Secondary Education Act
GE- Georgia; Michigan; New Hampshire; Rhode Island
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- This paper provides federal policymakers and advocates with
comprehensive, big-picture ideas for transforming federal policy to support
the transition to competency-based learning. It is meant to start a dialogue
on these issues, posing important questions to explore as policymakers
contemplate a new vision for federal education policy through the next
reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). This
paper is divided into four chapters; each addresses a different federal
policy domain: (1) Accountability; (2) Systems of Assessments; (3) Supports
and Interventions; and (4) Data Systems. Each chapter in this paper follows a
similar structure, opening with a big idea to help the reader envision its
relationship to a new policy framework for competency education. It then
frames the issue, enhanced by a sidebar with a more detailed vision of what
the issue would look like in a transformed federal system. The core of each
chapter includes a list of federal policy barriers and a menu of policy
actions to support the transition to competency education. These policy
recommendations include immediate actions that stakeholders at the local,
state, and federal levels can implement under current law. The chapters
conclude with case studies of early adopters who are finding ways to
implement competency education in states, districts, and schools thanks to,
or often in spite of, federal policy. Each chapter ends with a list of
questions for further discussion. As policymakers and stakeholders at all
levels of the system collaborate on a plan for scaling this work, they should
commit to three important goals: (1) To address the system holistically, not
one issue or piece of the system at a time; (2) To embed strategies for
continuous improvement into every level of the system, investing in the
research, dissemination, and scale of best practices; and (3) To design a
system that puts students at the center so every program helps produce
graduates who will excel in college, careers, and beyond. Adherence to these
goals will ensure that policy and practice work together to build a system
that will sustain the workforce for generations to come. Contains a list of
recommended readings and resources.
LA- English
AG- Policymakers
FT- Y
AN- ED561316
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2015

66.

TI- Progress and Proficiency: Redesigning Grading for Competency Education.
CompetencyWorks Issue Brief
AU- Sturgis, Chris
AU- CompetencyWorks
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20140101
YR- 2014
PG- 42
PT- Report
SP- Carnegie Corporation of New York
SP- Donnell-Kay Foundation
SU- Grading; Competency Based Education; Evaluation Methods; Evaluation
Research; Educational Change; Testing Programs; Testing Problems; Error of
Measurement; Evaluation Criteria; Accountability; Academic Achievement;
Academic Standards; Feedback (Response); Progress Monitoring; Timed Tests;
Community Involvement; Classroom Techniques; College Admission; Admission
(School); Human Capital; State Policy; Credentials; Change Strategies; High
Schools
SU- Maine; New Hampshire; Oregon; Michigan
GE- Maine; Michigan; New Hampshire; Oregon
SU- Higher Education; Postsecondary Education; High Schools; Secondary
Education
AB- This paper is part of a series investigating the implementation of
competency education. The purpose of the paper is to explore how districts
and schools can redesign grading systems to best help students to excel in
academics and to gain the skills that are needed to be successful in college,
the community, and the workplace. In order to make the discussions most
useful, the paper is divided into four sections. “Understanding the
Weaknesses of the Traditional Grading System” provides a review of the
inherent weaknesses and the implications of A-F grading policies.
“Redesigning Grading” looks at six elements essential to grading in
competency-based environments. “Lessons from the Field” offers insights from
innovators into the lessons learned and ongoing efforts in leading states,
districts, and schools. “Going Forward” explores several issues that are
likely to emerge, requiring creativity and stakeholder engagement to address.
As in all CompetencyWorks briefing papers, there is an exploration of what
needs to be in place to address the inequity that challenges the nation’s
schools and communities.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED561319
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2015

67.

TI- Mean What You Say: Defining and Integrating Personalized, Blended and
Competency Education
AU- Patrick, Susan
AU- Kennedy, Kathryn
AU- Powell, Allison
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20131001
YR- 2013
PG- 37
PT- Report
SP- Carnegie Corporation of New York
SU- Individualized Instruction; Blended Learning; Competency Based Education;
Electronic Learning; Literature Reviews; Academic Standards; Definitions;
Instructional Design; Models; Student Centered Learning; Equal Education;
Academic Achievement; Technology Uses in Education; Cost Effectiveness;
Benchmarking
AB- This paper provides a scan of the literature to expand the knowledge base
for the field of online, blended, and competency-based education. Authors
seek to integrate the core ideas of personalized learning, blended learning,
competency education, and standards. The goal of the paper is to explain the
nuances of key terms used across the field of K-12 education related to
personalized, blended and competency education, and how the ideas integrate
in order to create new learning models. Read this paper to make sense of
these terms and discover how they fit together.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED561301
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2015

68.

TI- iNACOL’s New Learning Models Vision
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20131001
YR- 2013
PG- 5
PT- Report
SU- Electronic Learning; Online Courses; Elementary Secondary Education;
Educational Technology; Competency Based Education; Individualized
Instruction; Learner Engagement; Academic Achievement; Educational
Attainment
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- This brief summarizes iNACOL’s New Learning Models, which personalize
learning using competency-based approaches. Supported by blended and online
learning modalities, teachers use technology to differentiate instruction and
engage students in deeper learning. By adapting instruction to reflect a
student’s level of mastery, blended and online models have the potential to
keep students engaged and supported as they progress at their own pace.
Browse this brief to explore new learning models that lead to higher levels
of student learning and attainment.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED561300
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2015

69.

TI- Fast Facts about Online Learning
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20131001
YR- 2013
PG- 4
PT- Report
SU- Electronic Learning; Blended Learning; Access to Education; Online
Courses; Educational Policy; Educational Indicators; Statistical Analysis;
Funding Formulas; Educational Trends; Educational Technology; Strategic
Planning
AB- This report explores the latest data concerning online and blended
learning, enrollment, access, courses, and key policies indicators. It also
reviews online learning statistics, trends, policy issues, and iNACOL
strategic priorities. This report provides a snapshot view of state funding
models for both full-time and supplemental online learning programs. This
report allows the reader to stay connected with the most recent facts
regarding the online learning field.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED561297
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2015

70.

TI- Necessary for Success: Building Mastery of World-Class Skills–A State
Policymakers Guide to Competency Education. CompetencyWorks Issue Brief
AU- Patrick, Susan
AU- Sturgis, Chris
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
AU- CompetencyWorks
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20130101
YR- 2013
PG- 38
PT- Report
PT- Guides – Non-Classroom
SP- Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO), Innovation Lab Network
(ILN)
SU- Competency Based Education; State Policy; Guidelines; Success; Elementary
Secondary Education; Educational Change; Educational Policy; Educational
Practices; Strategic Planning; Alignment (Education); Educational Facilities;
Organizational Culture; State Agencies; Common Core State Standards
SU- Maine; New Hampshire; Oregon; Iowa; Alabama; Colorado; Arizona; Kentucky;
Florida; Michigan
GE- Alabama; Arizona; Colorado; Florida; Iowa; Kentucky; Maine; Michigan; New
Hampshire; Oregon
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- After two decades of major education reforms without seeing major gains
for low-income students, state leadership is coming to the conclusion that
there is something inherently wrong with America’s K-12 system. States have
called into question the time-based system built around the Carnegie unit and
are now rapidly advancing an alternative. By establishing proficiency-based
diplomas, credit flexibility, or seat-time waivers, 36 states are moving
toward competency education. In some cases comprehensive policy is being
implemented, in others investments in pilots are used to engage districts,
and in all of them innovation space is being created by lifting time-based
policies. It is firmly in the hands of state leadership to redesign policies
for a student-centered system, rather than a time-based system. This paper
offers an opportunity for state leadership to reflect upon their efforts and
share their insights into re-engineering the policy and practices of our K-12
systems that were built over hundreds of years. “Necessary for Success”
introduces the concept of competency education, explains why the traditional
time-based system is holding back our children and our nation, and discusses
the important initial steps taken by states in introducing competency
education. Interviews with state leadership about their strategies, lessons
learned, and the emerging policy infrastructure that is needed for full
alignment with competency education are included. The paper contains
recommendations for creating a culture of competency within state education
agencies.
LA- English
AG- Policymakers
FT- Y
AN- ED561282
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2015

71.

TI- The Learning Edge: Supporting Student Success in a Competency-Based
Learning Environment. CompetencyWorks Issue Brief
AU- Shubilla, Laura
AU- Sturgis, Chris
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
AU- CompetencyWorks
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20121201
YR- 2012
PG- 25
PT- Report
SP- Nellie Mae Education Foundation
SP- Donnell-Kay Foundation
SU- Competency Based Education; Student Needs; Individualized Instruction;
Interviews; Observation; Teacher Role; Student Role; Educational Environment;
Student Development; Interpersonal Relationship; Student Evaluation; Design;
School Culture; Peer Teaching; Educational Practices; Intervention; Blended
Learning; Educational Opportunities; School Districts
AB- State by state, our country is revamping our education system to ensure
that each and every one of our young people is college and career ready. To
ensure high-quality competency education, in 2011 one hundred innovators
created a working definition to guide the field. This paper delves into the
fourth element of the definition: “Students receive timely, differentiated
support based on their individual learning needs”. Through a series of
interviews and site visits, an understanding of how support in a
competency-based school differs from traditional approaches emerged. Learning
in a competency-based environment means pushing students and adults to the
edge of their comfort zone and competence–the learning edge. Common themes
that were drawn from the wide variety of ways schools support students became
the basis for the design principles introduced in this report. The aim of
this paper is to provide ideas and guidance so that innovators in competency
education can put into place powerful systems of supports for students in
order to eradicate, not replicate, the inequities and variability in quality
and outcomes that exist in our current system. This paper is an initial
exploration into what it means to provide support for the individual learning
needs of students. It is designed to generate reflection, analysis, and
feedback. Contains endnotes and an about the authors section.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED566865
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2016

72.

TI- The Art and Science of Designing Competencies. CompetencyWorks Issue
Brief
AU- Sturgis, Chris
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
AU- CompetencyWorks
AU- MetisNet
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20120701
YR- 2012
PG- 16
PT- Report
SP- Nellie Mae Education Foundation
SP- Donnell-Kay Foundation
SU- Competency Based Education; Competence; Instructional Design; Educational
Innovation; Course Content; Faculty Development; Mastery Learning; Student
Evaluation; Cognitive Processes; Problem Solving; Learning Processes;
Lifelong Learning; Skill Development
AB- At the heart of competency education is the assumption that by
maintaining a laser focus on learning, allowing time to be a variable, and
powerful competencies to set the bar, an education system can be created that
produces high achievement for students from all income levels and across all
racial and ethnic communities. However, the transition from an education
system relying on a time-based Carnegie unit to competency-based education is
not a silver bullet–it must be implemented with attention to quality so that
both students and educators are fully supported in the learning process. The
purpose of this paper is to discuss how innovators in competency education
develop competencies. Often this is referred to as a tuning process or
reengineering process–mapping from what you want students to know and be
able to do all the way backwards to the choices for curricular tasks and
assessments. This paper provides insights into the orientation and processes
that innovators use.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED566877
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2016

73.

TI- Innovation Zones: Creating Policy Flexibility for Personalized Learning.
Issue Brief
AU- Patrick, Susan
AU- Gentz, Susan
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20160301
YR- 2016
PG- 2
PT- Report
SU- Educational Innovation; Educational Policy; Student Needs; State
Legislation; State Policy; Student Centered Learning; Models; Agency Role;
Capacity Building
AB- There is a new state education policy concept termed either innovation
zones or districts of innovation. State education agencies interested in
shifting their role from enforcing compliance to one of supporting innovation
and building capacity in districts are working to spur new innovative
instructional models and create space for competency-based pathways in
student-centered learning models. States set up an innovation zone by passing
enabling legislation to set up a program and/or offering certain waivers or
exemptions from administrative regulations and statutory provisions. Explore
this issue brief to learn more about innovation zones or districts of
innovation, why they are so important to catalyze the development of new
learning models and examples of legislative language.
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED567870
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2016

74.

TI- When Success Is the Only Option: Designing Competency-Based Pathways for
Next Generation Learning
AU- Sturgis, Chris
AU- Patrick, Susan
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20101101
YR- 2010
PG- 42
PT- Report
SP- Nellie Mae Education Foundation
SU- Competency Based Education; Competence; Educational Innovation;
Interviews; Program Implementation; Observation; Educational Resources;
Definitions; Educational Assessment; Educational Policy; Educational
Technology; Integrated Learning Systems; Total Quality Management; Mastery
Learning; Educational Objectives; Online Courses; Web Based Instruction;
Government Role; Credits; Graduation Requirements; Investment; Program
Descriptions; Alignment (Education)
SU- New Hampshire; Massachusetts; State Policy; Alabama; Utah; Oregon; Ohio;
Illinois; Florida; Kentucky; Elementary Secondary Education Act; Alaska;
Colorado
SU- Elementary and Secondary Education Act
GE- Alabama; Alaska; Colorado; Florida; Illinois; Kentucky; Massachusetts;
New Hampshire; Ohio; Oregon; Utah
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Higher Education; Postsecondary
Education
AB- This exploration into competency-based innovation at the school,
district, and state levels suggests that competency-based pathways are a
re-engineering of this nation’s education system around learning–a
re-engineering designed for success in which failure is no longer viable.
This discussion draws on interviews and site visits with innovators and the
limited literature that has been developed on the topic of competency-based
approaches. The first section introduces a working definition for
competency-based pathways that hopefully will be the beginning of creating
consensus on the characteristics of a high-quality approach to guide policy.
The second section explores the driving forces behind competency-based
innovations and implementation issues. The last section highlights a number
of challenges facing states and districts as they explore competency-based
approaches. This paper has been designed to generate a deeper understanding,
as it is critically important that competency-based pathways be implemented
effectively with a vigilant focus on student learning. Appendices include:
(1) Descriptions of Innovators; (2) Resources; and (3) Interviews. (Contains
14 resources and 23 endnotes.)
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED514891
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2011

75.

TI- When Failure Is Not An Option: Designing Competency-Based Pathways for
Next Generation Learning
AU- Sturgis, Chris
AU- Patrick, Susan
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20101101
YR- 2010
PG- 42
PT- Report
SP- Nellie Mae Education Foundation
SU- Competency Based Education; Teaching Methods; Educational Innovation;
Futures (of Society); Integrated Learning Systems; Educational Change
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- This exploration into competency-based innovation at the school,
district, and state levels suggests that competency-based pathways are a
re-engineering of this nation’s education system around learning–a
re-engineering designed for success in which failure is no longer an option.
Competency-based approaches build upon standards reforms, offering a new
value proposition for the education system. Frequently, competency-based
policy is described as simply flexibility in awarding credit or defined as an
alternative to the Carnegie unit. Yet, this does not capture the depth of the
transformation of the education system from a time-based system to a
learning-based system. Competency-based approaches are being used at all ages
from elementary school to graduate school level, focusing the attention of
teachers, students, parents, and the broader community on students mastering
measurable learning topics. This discussion draws on interviews and site
visits with innovators and the limited literature that has been developed on
the topic of competency-based approaches. The first section introduces a
working definition for competency-based pathways that hopefully will be the
beginning of creating consensus on the characteristics of a high-quality
approach to guide policy. The second section explores the driving forces
behind competency-based innovations and implementation issues. The last
section highlights a number of challenges facing states and districts as they
explore competency-based approaches. This paper has been designed to generate
a deeper understanding, as it is critically important that competency-based
pathways be implemented effectively with a vigilant focus on student
learning. Appendices include: (1) Descriptions of Innovators; (2) Resources;
and (3) Interviews. (Contains 23 endnotes and 14 resources.)
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED514435
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2011

76.

TI- Research Committee Issues Brief: An Exploration of At-Risk Learners and
Online Education
AU- Archambault, Leanna
AU- Diamond, Daryl
AU- Brown, Regina
AU- Cavanaugh, Cathy
AU- Coffey, Marla
AU- Foures-Aalbu, Denise
AU- Richardson, Jared
AU- Zygouris-Coe, Vassliki
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20100401
YR- 2010
PG- 24
PT- Report
SU- Foreign Countries; Online Courses; Web Based Instruction; Electronic
Learning; Virtual Classrooms; Educational Strategies; Program Descriptions;
Elementary Secondary Education; Teaching Methods; Instructional
Effectiveness; Academic Support Services; Educational Trends; Research Needs;
School Surveys; Individualized Instruction; Vignettes; Charter Schools;
English (Second Language); Coaching (Performance); At Risk Students
SU- Turkey; Canada; Colorado; Pennsylvania; Minnesota
GE- Canada; Colorado; Minnesota; Pennsylvania; Turkey
SU- Elementary Education; Elementary Secondary Education; High Schools;
Secondary Education
AB- The purpose of this issues brief was to obtain a better understanding of
how online programs are dealing with students who have been identified as
at-risk. The first section, “Strategies for Working with At-Risk Student
Populations in Online Environments,” documents a sampling of K-12 online
programs currently working with at-risk student populations by examining the
strategies these programs were implementing. The second section, “Trends and
Instructional Practices for Teaching At-Risk Students in Virtual Courses,”
surveyed online schools to determine the online delivery and design methods
employed to assist at-risk students. The authors conclude this issues brief
with specific recommendations for future research into the experience of
at-risk learners in virtual school environments. (Contains 1 figure.)
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED509620
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2010

77.

TI- A Parent’s Guide to Choosing the Right Online Program. Promising
Practices in Online Learning
AU- Watson, John
AU- Gemin, Butch
AU- Coffey, Marla
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20100201
YR- 2010
PG- 23
PT- Guides – Non-Classroom
PT- Report
SU- Parent Materials; Elementary Secondary Education; Athletes; Learning
Experience; Guides; Guidelines; Evaluation Criteria; Check Lists;
Accreditation (Institutions); Governance; Curriculum; Social Environment;
Online Courses; Web Based Instruction; Electronic Learning; Virtual
Classrooms; Teaching Methods; Academic Support Services; School
Effectiveness
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Online learning continues to grow rapidly across the United States and
the world, opening new learning opportunities for students and families.
Informed estimates put the number of K-12 students in online courses at over
1 million, as parents and students are choosing online courses and schools
for a variety of reasons that grow out of their individual needs. They may
seek courses that otherwise would be unavailable at the local school; options
to learn at the student’s own pace; or accelerated coursework or a class to
make up for lost credit. Students who have benefited from virtual schooling
include those who have not had success in the traditional school setting,
those who wish to learn in a manner that is individualized to their own
learning style and pace, with medical conditions that make traditional
schooling difficult, teen parents, student athletes, performers and children
of military personnel who move frequently. In addition, some states now
require an online learning experience as a condition for high school
graduation, and even absent this requirement, online courses help prepare
students for college and career. Most universities have embraced online
learning and many employers use web-based technologies to teach workplace
skills. With this growing interest from students and parents, the number of
online learning providers continues to grow as well, ranging from state
virtual schools, to online charter schools, to the student’s district of
residence. These options may be public or private, full-time or supplemental,
fully online or a blend of online and classroom instruction, creating a
potentially bewildering array of options from which students and parents can
choose. This guide will assist parents in understanding what online learning
is and in selecting the right online school, program or course. (Contains 8
footnotes and 1 figure.)
LA- English
AG- Parents
FT- Y
AN- ED509621
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2010

78.

TI- Research Committee Issues Brief: Examining Communication and Interaction
in Online Teaching
AU- Cavanaugh, Cathy
AU- Barbour, Michael
AU- Brown, Regina
AU- Diamond, Daryl
AU- Lowes, Susan
AU- Powell, Allison
AU- Rose, Ray
AU- Scheick, Amy
AU- Scribner, Donna
AU- Van der Molen, Julia
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20090901
YR- 2009
PG- 24
PT- Report
SU- Interaction; Teacher Effectiveness; Teacher Student Relationship;
Communication Strategies; Educational Practices; School Surveys; Models;
Foreign Countries; Online Courses; Web Based Instruction; Electronic
Learning; Virtual Classrooms; Instructional Design; Distance Education;
Blended Learning; Web Sites; Educational Strategies; Program Descriptions;
Elementary Secondary Education; Institutional Characteristics; Teaching
Methods; Computer Mediated Communication; Peer Relationship; Parent School
Relationship; Synchronous Communication; Asynchronous Communication;
Electronic Publishing; Internet; Educational Policy; School Policy; Program
Administration
SU- Florida; Massachusetts; Nevada; Alabama; Canada
GE- Alabama; Canada; Florida; Massachusetts; Nevada
SU- Elementary Education; Elementary Secondary Education; High Schools;
Secondary Education
AB- Online teaching is a complex professional practice. In addition to their
content knowledge and pedagogical skill, online teachers must be qualified in
methods of teaching the content online and have experience in online
learning. This document examines some of the aspects of online teaching,
specifically those related to communication and interaction. This examination
draws guidance from the literature on quality online teaching, school
policies regarding online teaching practices, and professional development
programs for online teachers. An overview of policy and practice related to
communication and interaction in teaching online is provided. Because each
virtual school was established in unique educational climates and to address
specific missions, the policies and practices vary widely around a central
core of common practices. This document represents an initial description of
policies and practices that were  developed to inform schools about the
range. (Lists 5 school resources.)
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED509630
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2010

79.

TI- Policy and Funding Frameworks for Online Learning. Promising Practices in
Online Learning
AU- Watson, John
AU- Gemin, Butch
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20090701
YR- 2009
PG- 22
PT- Report
SU- Educational Finance; Educational Change; Barriers; Policy Analysis;
Definitions; Educational Principles; Policy Formation; Online Courses; Web
Based Instruction; Electronic Learning; Virtual Classrooms; Distance
Education; Blended Learning; Educational Technology; Educational Policy;
School Policy; Standards; Program Development; Elementary Secondary
Education; Institutional Characteristics; School Effectiveness; Accreditation
(Institutions); Teacher Certification; Guidelines
SU- Florida; South Dakota; No Child Left Behind Act 2001; Michigan; Hawaii;
State Policy; Idaho; North Dakota; Wisconsin; Oklahoma; Kansas; Colorado;
Washington
SU- No Child Left Behind Act 2001
GE- Colorado; Florida; Hawaii; Idaho; Kansas; Michigan; North Dakota;
Oklahoma; South Dakota; Washington; Wisconsin
SU- Elementary Education; Elementary Secondary Education; High Schools;
Secondary Education
AB- In at least 44 states across the country, students are logging in to
learn at all times of the day and night–accessing courses they might
otherwise be unable to take, interacting with students they might otherwise
never know, and working with highly qualified teachers they otherwise could
not access. In these and countless other ways, online learning provides new
and remarkable educational opportunities and student outcomes. While the
viability and popularity of online learning is gaining widespread acceptance,
the policy needed to support its growth is lagging. The continued success and
sustained growth of online learning requires state education policy
frameworks to be adjusted. The issues are varied and sometimes complex, but
as people delve into them, what emerges is quite interesting: by creating
frameworks for online learning policy development, exciting possibilities
arise for positive policy change that promotes reform and benefits education
as a whole. To lay the groundwork, though, it might be useful to consider why
online learning is even worth the trouble. The authors also consider the kind
of policy problems that have arisen as online learning has taken hold. What
do strong policy and funding frameworks look like, and what specific benefits
do they afford? Finally, which online learning policy and funding structures
hold promise for all modes of learning? (Contains 1 figure and 12
footnotes.)
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED509634
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2010

80.

TI- Management and Operations of Online Programs: Ensuring Quality and
Accountability. Promising Practices in Online Learning
AU- Watson, John
AU- Gemin, Butch
AU- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
SO- International Association for K-12 Online Learning
DT- 20090401
YR- 2009
PG- 28
PT- Report
SU- Program Evaluation; Curriculum Development; Quality Control;
Accountability; Best Practices; Standards; Professional Development; Check
Lists; Educational Resources; Online Courses; Web Based Instruction;
Electronic Learning; Virtual Classrooms; Educational Strategies; Program
Descriptions; Elementary Secondary Education; Teaching Methods; Instructional
Effectiveness; School Effectiveness; Academic Support Services; Program
Administration; School Administration; Teacher Supervision; Institutional
Characteristics; Computer System Design; Technology Planning; Technical
Support; Instructional Design
SU- Florida
GE- Florida
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; High Schools; Secondary Education
AB- Online learning is growing rapidly as states and districts are creating
new online schools, and existing programs are adding new courses and
students. The growth reflects the spreading understanding that online courses
and programs can serve a wide variety of students and needs. These include:
(1) Creating opportunities for small and rural school districts to offer
varied course subjects and highly qualified teachers to their students; (2)
Allowing students to blend high school and post-secondary learning options;
(3) Reducing class size; (4) Helping students recover credits in an
alternative learning environment; (5) Providing individualized instruction
and unique learning options; (6) Allowing students the opportunity to
interact with students far beyond their school or town boundaries; and (7)
Meeting the needs and expectations of today’s millennial students. Many
school leaders are excited about the possibilities of online learning. When
they start an online school, however, they quickly confront all the
challenges of managing a high-quality, successful online program: creating
online courses; finding, hiring, and managing teachers; supporting students;
managing technology; and evaluating their programs to determine if they are
successful. Fortunately, many online schools have years of operating
experience, have developed and revised formal operations and management
structures, and provide examples of successful management. This paper
explores emerging practices in online program management and operations that
can be used by many people working with an online learning program, from
executive-level school leaders to department managers to teachers trying to
find ways to improve their effectiveness with online students. Although it
does not address state or district policy issues, legislators and
policymakers will find it useful to understand the varied approaches that
online schools are embracing to ensure quality as they determine the best
ways to create oversight while allowing innovation to meet the needs of
students and schools. Appendices include: (1) Online Learning: The
Opportunities It Can Provide; The Problems It Can Solve; and (2) Resources.
(Contains 5 footnotes and 9 resources.)
LA- English
AG- Teachers; Administrators; Policymakers
FT- Y
AN- ED509622
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2010

81.

TI- Teachers’ Perceptions of K-12 Online: Impacting the Design of a Graduate
Course Curriculum
AU- Barbour, Michael K.
AU- Harrison, Kelly Unger
SO- Journal of Educational Technology Systems, v45 n1 p74-92 Sep 2016
VI- 45
IP- 1
DT- 20160901
YR- 2016
SP- 74
EP- 92
PG- 19
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Teacher Attitudes; Elementary Secondary Education; Online Courses;
Curriculum Design; Teacher Education Programs; Educational Change; Electronic
Learning; Misconceptions; Graduate Students
SU- Michigan
GE- Michigan
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Higher Education; Postsecondary
Education
AB- While K-12 online learning in the United States has increased
exponentially, the ability of teacher education programs to adequately
prepare teachers to design, deliver, and support has been deficient. A small
number of universities have begun to address this deficit through the
introduction of graduate certificates in online teaching. This article
examines curricular changes focused on introducing in-service teachers to
K-12 online learning. This design-based research study examined changes in
teacher perceptions after having completed a systematic curriculum focused on
K-12 online learning, as well as track revisions to that curriculum based on
the data collected. The results indicate that even in a jurisdiction where
online learning has become a graduation requirement, teachers often have many
misconceptions about K-12 online learning. Further, planned exposure to K-12
online learning content can have significant impact on student understanding
of and interest in the design, delivery, and support of K-12 online
learning.
LA- English
IS- 0047-2395
AN- EJ1110363
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2016
RV- Y

82.

TI- Emerging State Policy in Online Special Education
AU- Basham, James D.
AU- Carter, Richard A., Jr.
AU- Rice, Mary Frances
AU- Ortiz, Kelsey
SO- Journal of Special Education Leadership, v29 n2 p70-78 Sep 2016
VI- 29
IP- 2
DT- 20160901
YR- 2016
SP- 70
EP- 78
PG- 9
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SP- Department of Education (ED)
SU- Educational Policy; State Policy; Online Courses; Special Education;
Elementary Secondary Education; Technology Uses in Education; Educational
Technology; Literature Reviews; Documentation; Teamwork; Partnerships in
Education; Individualized Education Programs
SU- Kansas
GE- Kansas
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- There has been a dramatic increase and acceptance of online learning in
the last decade. In its various forms, online learning has begun to disrupt
the status quo of K-12 education and, in turn, special education. The growing
prevalence of K-12 online learning provides a grounded opportunity to reflect
on traditions and redesign policies, systems, and practices. The most recent
report by the Evergreen Education Group (2015), the annual status report for
online learning in the United States, found that online learning exists in
some form across every district in the country. Yet, even with the tremendous
increase in online learning, it is impossible to identify how many students,
including students with disabilities, are participating in some form of
online learning. This lack of understanding, alongside the involved nature
associated with the various forms of online learning, provides complexities
in researching as well as evaluating the impact of online learning in
practice. The concern is that districts across the United States may be
adopting various forms of online learning without considering the
complexities that online learning introduces to the teaching practice and how
these changes may be impacting students. The purpose of this article is to
provide education leaders and educators with a basic understanding of online
learning policies in the United States. As the current adoption rates for
online learning continue, state and district leaders should be aware of the
nuanced models as well as individual practices that might impact student
learning. All systems and models in online learning are not equal. Thus, it
is critical to ask questions on behalf of students with disabilities. Through
collaborative partnerships, data can be gathered to support relevant
research, technical assistance, and overcome challenges and barriers to
success. Finally, there is an urgent need to consider policy and guidance to
support parents and professionals serving students with disabilities across
the various online environments.
LA- English
CN- H327U110011
IS- 1525-1810
FT- Y
AN- EJ1118526
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2016
RV- Y

83.

TI- Hispanic or Latino Student Success in Online Schools
AU- Corry, Michael
SO- International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, v17 n3
p251-262 Apr 2016
VI- 17
IP- 3
DT- 20160401
YR- 2016
SP- 251
EP- 262
PG- 12
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Graduation Rate; Dropout Rate; Hispanic American Students; Elementary
Secondary Education; Online Courses; Blended Learning; Public Schools;
Distance Education; Multivariate Analysis; Institutional Characteristics;
Charter Schools; Delivery Systems; Comparative Analysis; Student Records
SU- Arizona
GE- Arizona
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- The purpose of this study is to examine graduation and dropout rates for
Hispanic or Latino K-12 students enrolled in fully online and blended public
school settings in Arizona. The independent variables of school type (charter
vs. non-charter) and delivery method (fully online vs. blended) were examined
using multivariate and univariate methods on the dependent variable’s
graduation and dropout rates for Hispanic or Latino students. The results of
this research study found a statistically significant difference when using
multivariate analysis to examine school type (charter vs. non-charter) and
delivery method (fully online vs. blended) on graduation and dropout rates.
This finding warranted further univariate examination which found a
statistically significant difference when examining delivery method on
dropout rates. A comparison of mean dropout rates shows that Hispanic or
Latino students involved in K-12 online learning in Arizona are less likely
to drop out of school if they are in a fully online learning environment
versus a blended learning environment. Students, parents, teachers,
administrators, instructional designers, and policy makers can all use this
and related research to form a basis upon which sound decisions can be
grounded. The end result will be increased success for Hispanic or Latino
online K-12 students not only in Arizona schools, but in many other important
areas of life.
LA- English
IS- 1492-3831
FT- Y
AN- EJ1102722
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2016
RV- Y

84.

TI- Factors Influencing Teacher Satisfaction at an Online Charter School
AU- Borup, Jered
AU- Stevens, Mark A.
SO- Journal of Online Learning Research, v2 n1 p3-22 2016
VI- 2
IP- 1
DT- 20160101
YR- 2016
SP- 3
EP- 22
PG- 20
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Charter Schools; Online Courses; Teacher
Attitudes; Interviews; Job Satisfaction; Educational Technology; Technology
Uses in Education; Shared Resources and Services; Teacher Student
Relationship; Teacher Influence; Administrator Role; Adjustment (to
Environment); Teaching Conditions; Case Studies; Rating Scales
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- As K-12 online programs mature, it is increasingly important that they
work to retain their effective teachers. However, there is little research
that has examined teacher satisfaction in K-12 online learning environments.
Our analysis of 22 interviews with 11 teachers at an online charter school
identified three primary factors that influenced teacher satisfaction. First,
teachers enjoyed having flexibility in when, where, and how they taught. The
use of open educational resources was especially important because it enabled
teachers to make modifications to meet student needs. Second, teachers were
most satisfied when they were provided with time to interact individually
with students. Third, teachers appeared most satisfied when their efforts
positively impacted student performance. Similarly, teachers appreciated
administrative support that increased teachers’ capacity to impact student
performance. We also discuss possible tensions that school administrators may
experience as they attempt to balance these factors with other–sometimes
competing–forces.
LA- English
IS- 2374-1473
FT- Y
AN- EJ1148380
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2017
RV- Y

85.

TI- Building Better Courses: Examining the Content Validity of the iNACOL
National Standards for Quality Online Courses
AU- Adelstein, David
AU- Barbour, Michael
SO- Journal of Online Learning Research, v2 n1 p41-73 2016
VI- 2
IP- 1
DT- 20160101
YR- 2016
SP- 41
EP- 73
PG- 33
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Online Courses; Comparative Analysis; National Standards; Elementary
Secondary Education; Educational Quality; Instructional Design; Teaching
Methods; Scoring Rubrics; Educational Research; Content Validity; Construct
Validity; Audience Awareness; Student Evaluation; Management Systems;
Information Systems; Faculty Development; Teacher Certification
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- In 2011, the International Association for K-12 Online Learning released
the second iteration of the “National Standards for Quality Online Courses.”
These standards have been used by numerous institutions and states around the
country to help design and create K-12 online courses. However, there has
been no reported research on the validity of the standards or the
accompanying rubric. This study compares all elements under the five main
standards to contemporary K-12 or higher education online course literature.
The research concludes with suggested changes and additions, as well as an
explanation as to how the research connects to a larger study on K-12 online
course design.
LA- English
IS- 2374-1473
FT- Y
AN- EJ1148378
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2017
RV- Y

86.

TI- A Facilitator’s Guide for the Online Course: What Education Leaders
Should Know about Virtual Education
AU- Rukobo, Emily Zyko
AU- Penfold, Angela
AU- Adler, C. Ralph
AU- Larson, Heidi
AU- Peterson, Kirsten
AU- Center on Instruction
SO- Center on Instruction
DT- 20120101
YR- 2012
PG- 61
PT- Guides – Non-Classroom
PT- Tests/Questionnaires
SU- Educational Strategies; Electronic Learning; Online Courses; Elementary
Secondary Education; Facilitators (Individuals); Web Based Instruction;
Guides; Instructional Design; Courseware; Integrated Learning Systems;
Educational Policy; Policy Formation; Student Diversity; Federal Aid;
Surveys; Glossaries; Instructional Materials; Records (Forms); Leadership
Training; Administrators; State Departments of Education; School Districts;
Synchronous Communication; Distance Education; Computer System Design; Course
Content; Course Descriptions; Web Sites; Video Technology; Multimedia
Materials
SU- New England; New York; Alabama
GE- Alabama; New York
SU- Adult Education; Elementary Secondary Education
AB- This Facilitator’s Guide is based on What Education Leaders Should Know
about Virtual Education, an online course designed by the Center on
Instruction and the New England Comprehensive Center. The Facilitator’s Guide
demonstrates step-by-step how to build the course on a learning management
system (LMS) and provides instructions on all phases of course
implementation. The three-module course includes: (1) Module One: Introduces
the national landscape of K-12 online learning at both the research and
programmatic levels; (2) Module Two: Focuses on how online content
presentation and instructional strategies can be used to meet the needs of
diverse learners; and (3) Module Three: Invites participants to consider
their local policy needs through the exploration of existing K-12 online
learning policies and programs. A glossary of terms is included. [This paper
was co-created with the New England Comprehensive Center (NECC).]
LA- English
FT- Y
AN- ED541792
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2013

87.

TI- Toward Culturally Responsive Online Pedagogy: Practices of Selected
Secondary Online Teachers
AU- Lawrence, April Dawn
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, The College of William and Mary
DT- 20170101
YR- 2017
PG- 310
PT- Dissertation
SU- Culturally Relevant Education; Electronic Learning; Secondary School
Teachers; High Schools; Grounded Theory; Online Courses; Observation;
Interviews; Teacher Student Relationship; Context Effect; Educational
Practices
SU- Secondary Education
AB- Proponents of K-12 online learning claim that it can provide more
equitable learning opportunities by offering access to courses that might not
otherwise be available to students, and by providing personalized learning
experiences. Despite the growth of online learning in K-12 public schools,
very little is known about what constitutes good online teaching. The purpose
of this interpretivist investigation was to learn about some of the ways in
which culturally responsive teaching can occur online. This study focused on
the practices of four full-time online high school teachers. Using the
methods of grounded theory research, I analyzed data generated through
observations of online courses, interviews with teachers, and teacher-written
narratives in order to learn how four instructors practiced culturally
responsive online pedagogy in one state-supported online program. Results
indicated that the teachers engaged in frequent and ongoing dialogue with
their students. The teachers used multiple strategies to get to know their
students, to build class community, to adapt instruction to students’
learning needs and preferences, and to make learning relevant. Teachers also
discussed contextual factors (e.g., program structure and student enrollment)
that impacted their practice. However, some characteristics of culturally
responsive pedagogy, including infusing students’ cultures into the
curriculum and helping students to challenge power and hegemony, did not
emerge. A discussion of these results includes potential implications for
educational leaders at the state, district, and program levels, as well as
recommendations for future research on culturally responsive online pedagogy
(CROP). [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the
permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without
permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800)
1-800-521-0600. Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-0-355-23803-7
AN- ED579743
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2018

88.

TI- Preparing Teacher Candidates for Virtual Field Placements via an Exposure
to K-12 Online Teaching
AU- Luo, Tian
AU- Hibbard, Laura
AU- Franklin, Teresa
AU- Moore, David Richard
SO- Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, v16 p1-14 2017
VI- 16
DT- 20170101
YR- 2017
SP- 1
EP- 14
PG- 14
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Online Courses; Educational Technology; Technology Uses in Education;
Teaching Methods; Student Attitudes; Preservice Teachers; Elementary
Secondary Education; Blended Learning; Technological Literacy; Mixed Methods
Research; Focus Groups; Student Surveys
SU- Higher Education; Postsecondary Education; Elementary Secondary
Education
AB- Aim/Purpose: The goal of this project was to determine what effects
exposure to online K-12 teaching and learning activities had on teacher
candidates’ perceptions of K-12 online learning, how the exposure allowed
teacher candidates to reach greater understanding of online pedagogy, and
what effect such exposure had on teacher candidates’ aspirations to complete
virtual field experiences. Background: With an increasing number of K-12
students learning online within full-time online schools and in blended
learning environments, universities must prepare future educators to teach in
virtual environments including clinical practice. Before engaging in online
field placement, preservice teachers must be oriented to online K-12 teaching
and learning. Methodology: Using a design-based, mixed-method research
methodology, this study drew samples from four sections of a hybrid
technology integration course. Preservice teachers’ papers detailing their
perceptions, focus groups, and surveys were used to gauge changes in
perceptions of online learning after participating in online teaching and
learning activities. Contribution: The study demonstrated that an exposure to
online K-12 classrooms stimulated preservice teachers’ interest in online
teaching as they began to feel that online education could be equivalent to
traditional education. Findings: Students’ perceptions positively improved
the equivalency of online learning to traditional schooling, the possibility
of positive relationships between teachers and students, and the ability to
create interactive learning. Students also reported being more knowledgeable
and showed increased interest in participating in virtual field experiences.
Future Research: Future research may continue to examine if the exposure
course, combined with a short-term clinical experiences and long-term online
apprenticeships may serve to prepare graduates with the skills necessary to
teach in classrooms of the future.
LA- English
IS- 1547-9714
AN- EJ1125983
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2017
RV- Y

89.

TI- Teachers Using Designerly Thinking in K-12 Online Course Design
AU- Gyabak, Khendum
AU- Ottenbreit-Leftwich, Anne
AU- Ray, Joanna
SO- Journal of Online Learning Research, v1 n3 p253-274 2015
VI- 1
IP- 3
DT- 20150101
YR- 2015
SP- 253
EP- 274
PG- 22
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Instructional Design; Online Courses; Elementary Secondary Education;
Case Studies; Secondary School Teachers; High Schools; Barriers; Technology
Uses in Education; Educational Strategies; Communities of Practice; Decision
Making; Feedback (Response); Coordinators; Qualitative Research; Focus
Groups; Semi Structured Interviews
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Secondary Education; High Schools
AB- Teachers are typically abstracted from the design process and not
referred to as instructional designers. However, they are constantly
designing instruction or adapting instructional materials on a daily basis.
Teachers provide a unique perspective as instructional designers:
instructional design, content experts, and instruction delivery. Thus,
describing their design process is important to help support teachers as they
design online courses. This case study examined and described the design
process of eleven high school teachers as they designed, developed, and
implemented their first online courses. Findings from this study present the
online course design processes of these high school teachers and highlight
the resources perceived as valuable when embarking on their first online
courses. Among the key findings are that teachers face constraints, use a
variety of technological tools, and use a variety of pedagogical strategies.
Belonging to a community of practice helps online teachers, who report
valuing the support of an Online Learning Coordinator. Although given similar
guides and resources, they make independent design decisions and rely on
feedback from a variety of sources. Recommendations are made for K-12 online
learning coordinators, school administrators, and for first-time online
teachers/designers related to the processes involved in designing online
courses.
LA- English
IS- 2374-1473
FT- Y
AN- EJ1148829
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2017
RV- Y

90.

TI- Teacher and Student Perspectives on Facilitating a Sense of Community
through an Online High School’s “Shepherding” Program
AU- Drysdale, Jeffery
AU- Graham, Charles
AU- Borup, Jered
SO- International Journal on E-Learning, v15 n2 p149-178 May 2016
VI- 15
IP- 2
DT- 20160501
YR- 2016
SP- 149
EP- 178
PG- 30
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Sense of Community; Teacher Attitudes; Student Attitudes; Charter
Schools; Online Courses; Mentors; Facilitators (Individuals); Teacher Student
Relationship; Focus Groups; Qualitative Research; Interaction; Self
Disclosure (Individuals); Friendship; Trust (Psychology); Safety; Motivation;
Helping Relationship; Case Studies; Semi Structured Interviews
AB- Student disconnectedness remains a serious concern in K-12 online
learning–especially in programs where students take most or all of their
coursework online. In this research we examined a “shepherding program”
designed to encourage a sense of community among teachers and students at an
online charter school. Every online teacher served as a “shepherd” for 20 to
25 students and worked to establish close relationships with each student.
Data was collected through 5 teacher focus groups, 5 one-on-one teacher
interviews, and 10 one-on-one student interviews. A qualitative analysis
using Rovai’s sense of community framework examined how the shepherding
program influenced shepherd-student relationships. The analysis found that
the program was successful in establishing a sense of community and students
and teachers shared experiences highlighting feelings of spirit, trust,
interaction, and learning.
LA- English
IS- 1537-2456
AN- EJ1099992
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2016
RV- Y

91.

TI- Approaching Authentic Assessment: Using Virtual School Teachers’
Expertise to Develop an Understanding of Full Time K-8 Virtual School Teacher
Practices
AU- Seamster, Christina Lambert
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ph.D. Dissertation, Florida Atlantic University
DT- 20160101
YR- 2016
PG- 243
PT- Dissertation
SU- Performance Based Assessment; Virtual Classrooms; Elementary School
Teachers; Secondary School Teachers; Expertise; Educational Practices;
Teacher Effectiveness; Teacher Evaluation; Mixed Methods Research;
Technological Literacy; Pedagogical Content Knowledge; Electronic Learning;
Focus Groups; Telecommunications; Meetings; Teacher Student Relationship;
Feedback (Response); Computer Mediated Communication; Electronic Mail;
Interpersonal Communication; Faculty Development; Teacher Collaboration;
Communities of Practice; Curriculum Based Assessment; Family School
Relationship; Individualized Instruction; Educational Technology; Predictor
Variables; Scoring Rubrics
SU- Elementary Education
AB- According to Molnar (2014), full time virtual school education lacks a
measurement tool that accurately measures effective virtual teacher practice.
Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, the current study sought to
understand the common practices among full time K-8 virtual school teachers,
the extent to which teachers believed such practices impacted student
learning, as well as the methods in which current standards, recommendations
and practices were implemented in the full time K-8 virtual school setting.
The relationship between virtual school teacher practices and their
Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) was also explored.
Using the standards, practices and recommendations developed for online
learning from International Association for K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL),
National Education Association (NEA), Southern Regional Education Board
(SREB), and the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) a
team of focus group members gave input on the common practices for teaching
students in the full time K-8 virtual school environment. The results
included 11 general virtual school teacher practices, 12 teacher practices
relating to evaluation and three practices relating to special needs and
diverse learners. Qualitative and quantitative findings indicated that
teachers most frequently meet the established practices through the following
strategies: phone conferences, live sessions with students, feedback on
assessments, webmail communication, professional development, collaborating
with peers/teacher collaboration, professional learning communities,
curriculum based assessments on the phone, communicating with family
stakeholders, and determining students in the bottom quartile. A framework
for K-8 full time virtual school pedagogy which includes evaluating student
learning and individualizing instruction through technology tools and
collaborative methods was developed. Finally, the quantitative findings
indicated that of the three virtual school teacher practice categories
(teacher practice, evaluation and special needs and diverse learners),
evaluation was the leading predictor of teacher TPACK scores. Specifically,
collaboration, having an online voice and presence, and using data from
assessments to modify instruction were found to significantly predict a
teacher’s Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge. Using virtual
school teachers’ expertise on the practices which most impact student
learning and the methods for implementing virtual school teacher practices,
the researcher created a draft full time K-8 virtual school teacher
evaluation rubric. [The dissertation citations contained here are published
with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited
without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone
(800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-369-61308-7
AN- ED575824
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2017

92.

TI- Online Teaching in K-12: Models, Methods, and Best Practices for Teachers
and Administrators
AU- Bryans-Bongey, Sarah
AU- Graziano, Kevin J.
SO- Information Today, Inc.
DT- 20160101
YR- 2016
PG- 352
PT- Book
PT- Collected Works – General
PT- Guides – Classroom – Teacher
SU- Electronic Learning; Elementary Secondary Education; Elementary School
Teachers; Secondary School Teachers; Online Courses; Models; Best Practices;
Administrators; Technology Integration; Pedagogical Content Knowledge;
Technological Literacy; Assistive Technology; Blended Learning; Educational
Technology
SU- Elementary Secondary Education; Elementary Education; Secondary
Education
AB- “Online Teaching in K-12” is the essential hands-on reference and
textbook for education professionals seeking success in the planning, design,
and teaching of K-12 online courses and programs. This skillfully edited book
brings together more than two dozen experts and practitioners to present an
array of innovative models and methods, successful programs and practices,
useful tools and resources, and need-to-know information on diverse aspects
of online teaching and learning. Organized in three parts–Foundations,
Supporting Diverse Learners, and Implementation Strategies–“Online Teaching
in K-12” will be welcomed for its clear and timely coverage geared to
supporting teachers, administrators, professional trainers, colleges, and
schools in their quest for excellence in online primary education. Following
a Foreword (Norman Vaughn) chapters include: Part 1–Foundations: (1) The
Online Course Environment: Learning Management Systems (LMSs) (Xavier Gomez);
(2) The Online Teacher: Skills and Qualities to be Successful (Steven C.
Moskowitz); (3) Building Community in K-12 Online Courses: The Community of
Inquiry (CoI) (Sarah Bryans-Bongey); (4) Online Constructivism: Tools and
Techniques for Student Engagement and Learning (Michael Kosloski and Diane
Carver); (5) TPACK as Mediated Practice (Rolin Moe and Linda Polin); (6)
Captivating the Online Learner: Frameworks and Standards for Effective
Technology Integration (Chery Takkunen-Lucarelli); and (7) Online Student
Teaching: From Planning to Implementation (Lori Feher and Kevin J. Graziano).
Part 2–Supporting Diverse Learners: (8) Flipped Learning: Making the
Connections and Finding the Balance (Kevin J. Graziano); (9) Virtual
School-Home Communication (Dianne L. Tetreault); (10) Universal Design for
Learning (UDL) and Online Learning (Luis Pérez, Kendra Grant, and Elizabeth
Dalton); (11) Helping Special Education Teachers Transition to K-12 Online
Learning (Richard Allen Carter, Jr., James D. Basham, and Mary Frances Rice);
and (12) Assistive Technology in the 21st Century Online Classroom
(Jacqueline Knight). Part 3–Implementation Strategies: (13) Teacher-Created
Online Content: Two Teachers’ Tech Tales (Christopher Rozitis and Heidi
Weber); (14) Student-Centered Digital Learning Through Project-Based Learning
(Andrew Miller); (15) Open and Free Educational Resources for K-12 Online and
Face-to-Face Classrooms (John Elwood Romig, Wendy J. Rodgers, Kat D. Alves,
and Michael J. Kennedy); (16) Tools and Strategies for Assessment in an
Online Environment (Kim Livengood and Lesley Casarez); and (17) Mobile Apps
and Technology Integration for Virtual and Hybrid Learning Spaces (Gregory
Shepherd). Abbreviations are appended. A section about the editors, about the
contributors, and an index is included.
LA- English
AG- Teachers; Administrators
IB- 978-1-57387-527-1
AN- ED573521
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2017

93.

TI- Odyssey of the Mind: Social Networking in Cyberschool
AU- Barbour, Michael K.
AU- Plough, Cory
SO- International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, v13 n3
p1-18 Jun 2012
VI- 13
IP- 3
DT- 20120601
YR- 2012
SP- 1
EP- 18
PG- 18
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Charter Schools; Interpersonal Communication; Electronic Learning; Online
Courses; Elementary Secondary Education; Social Networks; Socialization; High
Schools; Pilot Projects; Teaching Methods; Safety
SU- High Schools
AB- K-12 online learning and cyber charter schools have grown at a tremendous
rate over the past decade. At the same time, these online programs have
struggled to provide the social spaces where students can interact that K-12
schools are traditionally able to provide. Social networking presents a
unique opportunity to provide these kinds of social interactions in an online
environment. In this article, we trace the development and use of social
networking at one cyber charter school to extend the space for online
instruction and provide opportunities for social interaction that online
schools are often unable to provide.
LA- English
IS- 1492-3831
FT- Y
AN- EJ1001009
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2013
RV- Y

94.

TI- It’s Not That Tough: Students Speak about Their Online Learning
Experiences
AU- Barbour, Michael K.
AU- McLaren, Angelene
AU- Zhang, Lin
SO- Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, v13 n2 p226-241 Apr 2012
VI- 13
IP- 2
DT- 20120401
YR- 2012
SP- 226
EP- 241
PG- 16
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Student Attitudes; Foreign Countries; Electronic Learning; Online
Courses; Course Content; Educational Technology; Secondary School Students;
Attitude Measures; Computer Uses in Education; Asynchronous Communication;
Synchronous Communication; Interviews; Interpersonal Communication
SU- Canada
GE- Canada
SU- Secondary Education
AB- K-12 online learning is growing in Canada and elsewhere in the world.
However, the vast majority of literature is focused on practitioners and not
on systematic inquiry. Even the limited published research has largely
excluded the perspectives of students engaged in virtual schooling. This
study examines secondary student perceptions of components of virtual
schooling that were beneficial and challenging. Students largely enjoyed
their virtual school courses and found the synchronous classes, the
technology, and the ability to control their own learning as positive aspects
of their experience. Students also found the lack of a sense of community,
working during their asynchronous class time, and the asynchronous course
content to be challenging; and made suggestions for improvement to each,
along with advice to future virtual school students. (Contains 1 table.)
LA- English
IS- 1302-6488
FT- Y
AN- EJ983658
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2012
RV- Y

95.

TI- “Everybody Is Their Own Island”: Teacher Disconnection in a Virtual
School
AU- Hawkins, Abigail
AU- Graham, Charles R.
AU- Barbour, Michael K.
SO- International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, v13 n2
p123-144 Apr 2012
VI- 13
IP- 2
DT- 20120401
YR- 2012
SP- 123
EP- 144
PG- 22
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Electronic Learning; Online Courses; Secondary School Teachers;
Educational Technology; Virtual Classrooms; Teacher Role; Teacher Attitudes;
Teacher Student Relationship; Peer Relationship; Teacher Collaboration; High
Schools; Barriers
SU- Utah
GE- Utah
SU- High Schools
AB- Virtual schooling is a recent phenomenon in K-12 online learning. As
such, the roles of the online teachers are emerging and differ from those of
the traditional classroom teacher. Using qualitative interviews of eight
virtual high school teachers, this study explored teachers’ perceptions of
their online teaching role. Teachers expressed a sense of disconnection from
their students, the profession, and their peers as a result of limited
interactions due to significant institutional barriers. Researchers discuss
the implications of this disconnection as well as future avenues for
research. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)
LA- English
IS- 1492-3831
FT- Y
AN- EJ983276
TY- EJ
LV- Available online
EM- 2012
RV- Y

96.

TI- The Promise and the Reality: Exploring Virtual Schooling in Rural
Juristictions
AU- Barbour, Michael K.
SO- Education in Rural Australia, v21 n1 p1-19 2011
VI- 21
IP- 1
DT- 20110101
YR- 2011
SP- 1
EP- 19
PG- 19
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Foreign Countries; Distance Education; Educational History; Web Based
Instruction; Electronic Learning; Rural Schools; Elementary Secondary
Education; Online Courses; Rural Education; Virtual Classrooms; Educational
Research; Research Problems; Comparative Education
SU- Canada; Australia; New Zealand; United States
GE- Australia; Canada; New Zealand; United States
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- The history of online learning at the K-12 level is almost as long as its
history at the post-secondary level, with the first virtual school programs
beginning in the early 1990s. While these opportunities were designed as a
way to provide rural students with access to more specialized courses, as
opportunities have become organized into virtual or cyber schools the nature
of students served by these institutions have broadened. Unlike online
learning in general, much less is known about virtual schooling–even less of
which is based on systematic research. Regardless, the growth and practice of
virtual schooling has far out-paced the production of reliable and valid
research. This paper will focus upon describing the evolution of K-12 online
learning in Canada and the United States, how that evolution has impacted
rural schools, and what lessons can be learned from the experiences with K-12
online learning in these two countries. (Contains 5 tables and 1 figure.)
LA- English
IS- 1036-0026
AN- EJ931414
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2011
RV- Y

97.

TI- A Case Study of E-Learning Initiatives in New Zealand’s Secondary
Schools
AU- Powell, Allison
SO- ProQuest LLC, Ed.D. Dissertation, Pepperdine University
DT- 20110101
YR- 2011
PG- 281
PT- Dissertation
SU- Electronic Learning; Blended Learning; Secondary Schools; Elementary
Secondary Education; Online Courses; Educational Change; Foreign Countries;
Educational Opportunities; Educational Innovation; Case Studies; Qualitative
Research; Interviews; Measures (Individuals); Principals; Educational
Environment
SU- New Zealand
GE- New Zealand
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- There is a shift occurring in education systems around the world, which
could change the face of education as we have known it through blended and
online learning. E-Learning offers opportunities and possibilities that were
unknown to educators over a decade ago. Countries, states, and school
districts are implementing online and blended learning environments to offer
world class educational opportunities to all students no matter their zip
code or socio-economic status.    In general, research in the field of K-12
online learning has focused on the United States and Canada. However, an
international survey of online learning in initiatives conducted by the
International Association of K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL) in 2006 showed
that other countries were implementing online learning initiatives with
different approaches.    This survey provided a snapshot of 15 countries
e-learning initiatives; however, there is very little research that further
describes what is happening in each of these countries, validating the need
for further research in the area of K-12 online learning initiatives.    The
purpose of this study will be to describe the current e-learning initiatives
and projects for students in secondary schools in New Zealand. The research
looked at both the policy and practices happening within New Zealand’s
education system as the iNACOL survey showed them to be one of the most
innovative countries in the area of K-12 online learning, which may help
other countries implement their own e-learning initiatives.    The research
design was based on a case study format, with qualitative data. A total of 19
people participated in interviews for the study. The data collection
instrument was an interview protocol to guide face-to-face and online
learning of Ministry of Education officials and secondary school principals
and teachers.    The findings of the research indicate that New Zealand has
been successful in implementing online learning initiatives because it
started with schools and educators needing to fulfill basic needs in order to
survive. These grassroots movements are now reforming the way they educate
students in all learning environments in New Zealand.    [The dissertation
citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC.
Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of
dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:
http://www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.]
LA- English
IB- 978-1-124-53692-7
AN- ED526325
TY- ED
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2011

98.

TI- Authorizing Online Learning. Viewpoint
AU- Patrick, Susan
AU- Vander Ark, Tom
AU- National Association of Charter School Authorizers
SO- National Association of Charter School Authorizers
DT- 20110101
YR- 2011
PG- 5
PT- Report
SU- Online Courses; Electronic Learning; Distance Education; State Programs;
Educational History; Educational Trends; Charter Schools; Educational
Legislation; Enrollment; Educational Finance; Educational Innovation;
Educational Quality; Educational Opportunities; Educational Administration;
Elementary Secondary Education
SU- Arizona; Florida; Arkansas
GE- Arizona; Arkansas; Florida
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- During this decade, American education will shift from print to digital,
fromflat and sequential content to engaging and adaptive, and from
batchprocessing to personalized learning. There will also be a slow
enrollment shift from traditional district-operated schools to schools and
programs operated by organizations authorized under contracts or charter. As
chief executive officer and chair of the International Association for K-12
Online Learning (iNACOL), the authors believe that one of the most important
drivers of this historic shift is online learning. It is growing by more than
40 percent annually and creating new full- and part-time options for students
and families. This paper refers specifically to online schools where
instruction is delivered remotely by live teachers on a full- and part-time
basis, also known as virtual or cyber learning. In many states, online
learning began as a state-sponsored program with dedicated line item funding
that became unsustainable with growth (because students were being double
funded). To provide scalable, quality full- and part-time options, more than
half of the states have authorized statewide charter or contract schools.
However, most charter school legislation was drafted in the early 1990s and
did not contemplate online opportunities. This paper deals with the three key
questions that state policymakers and authorizers need to answer: (1) Who
will operate and authorize online schools? (2) How will students be enrolled?
and (3) How will they be funded? It concludes with advice on innovation and
quality in online learning.
LA- English
AG- Policymakers
FT- Y
AN- ED544283
TY- ED
LV- Available online
EM- 2014

99.

TI- Mapping the Terrain: Educational Leadership Field Experiences in K-12
Virtual Schools
AU- LaFrance, Jason A.
AU- Beck, Dennis
SO- Educational Administration Quarterly, v50 n1 p160-189 Feb 2014
VI- 50
IP- 1
DT- 20140201
YR- 2014
SP- 160
EP- 189
PG- 30
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Electronic Learning; Blended Learning; Administrator Education; Virtual
Classrooms; Certification; Field Experience Programs; Internship Programs;
Educational Change; Standards; Surveys; College Curriculum; Student
Evaluation; Teacher Student Relationship; Interpersonal Communication
SU- Elementary Secondary Education
AB- Opportunities for K-12 students to choose virtual and blended learning
experiences continue to grow. All 50 states including Washington, D.C., now
offer some virtual experience in K-12 education. Of these, 40 states have
state virtual schools or state-led online learning initiatives. In addition,
federal and state support for this type of learning continues to expand.
Field experiences are beginning to be available for virtual school teachers;
however, little information is available on field experiences for pre-service
administrators in virtual K-12 settings. This study provides a status report
on the state of school administrator preparation for K-12 online and blended
learning programs in the United States. This research was conducted by
surveying initial certification Educational Leadership programs regarding the
extent that pre-service administrators are exposed to K-12 online learning
environments. Results indicate that very few Educational Leadership programs
provide any administrator preparation for leading a K-12 virtual school or
teachers of online courses. Important ramifications exist for Educational
Leadership programs preparing educators to lead fully online and blended
learning programs.
LA- English
IS- 0013-161X
AN- EJ1019087
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2014
RV- Y

100.

TI- Online Learning and Students with Disabilities: Parent Perspectives
AU- Burdette, Paula J.
AU- Greer, Diana L.
SO- Journal of Interactive Online Learning, v13 n2 p67-88 Win 2014
VI- 13
IP- 2
DT- 20140101
YR- 2014
SP- 67
EP- 88
PG- 22
PT- Academic Journal
PT- Report
SU- Disabilities; Online Courses; Parent Attitudes; Electronic Learning;
Parent Surveys; Parent Role; Barriers; Online Surveys; Instruction;
Evaluation; Grade 8; Grade 9; Grade 12; Student Characteristics; Parent
School Relationship; School Support; Parent Participation
SU- Grade 8; Junior High Schools; Middle Schools; Elementary Education;
Secondary Education; Grade 9; High Schools; Grade 12
AB- While research has been conducted on parental involvement in K-12 online
learning, none of this research relates specifically to the parents of
students with disabilities. Thus, researchers developed a survey around the
following constructs: parental roles, instruction and assessment,
communication and support from the school, and parental challenges.
Researchers then distributed the survey to parents who had a child with a
disability enrolled in an online setting. This article describes the survey
findings based on 119 qualified responses from across the United States. In
general, parents were pleased with the outcomes that their children were
experiencing in online learning, but some issues still exist for educating
students with disabilities within this environment.
LA- English
IS- 1541-4914
AN- EJ1048616
TY- EJ
LV- Not available from ERIC
EM- 2015
RV- Y

March 25, 2018

EBSCO Alerts

ebscoFirst, I did not receive the alert for virtual school.

Next, I received the alert for cyber school, but there were no relevant items.

Finally, I also did not receive the alert for K-12 online learning this week.

So nothing to report.

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