Virtual School Meanderings

April 25, 2022

AERA 2022 – Online Teaching in K–12 Education: A Systematic Review

The twenty-fifth of the K-12 Online Learning sessions from the 2022 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association that I am blogging is:

Online Teaching in K–12 Education: A Systematic Review

  • In Event: Supporting K–12 Teaching and Learning With Online Resources and Tools

Mon, April 25, 8:00 to 9:30am PDT (8:00 to 9:30am PDT), SIG Virtual Rooms, SIG-Online Teaching and Learning Virtual Paper Session Room


This study was a systematic review of literature regarding K-12 online teaching and learning was therefore conducted to begin to fill this gap and to inform the work of policy makers, researchers, teacher educators, teachers, and administrators as they negotiate the changing role of online instruction in our nation’s educational systems. The review revealed a set of contextual conditions that are foundational to student learning in K-12 online settings. The literature also pointed to seven pillars of instructional practice that support student learning in these settings (evidence-based course organization and design, connected learners, accessibility, supportive learning environment, individualization, active learning, and real-time assessment).


  • Carla C. Johnson, North Carolina State University
  • Janet Walton, North Carolina State University
  • Jennifer Brammer Elliott, North Carolina State University
  • Lacey Jean Strickler Eppard, University of Toledo

Which was part of this larger session:

Supporting K–12 Teaching and Learning With Online Resources and Tools

Mon, April 25, 8:00 to 9:30am PDT (8:00 to 9:30am PDT), SIG Virtual Rooms, SIG-Online Teaching and Learning Virtual Paper Session RoomSession Type: Paper Session


Preparation and support for K-12 teaching with online resources and tools is a growing area of interest. Supporting K-12 learners is also garnering increasing interest. This session will feature research research about K-12 online teaching and learning. Presentations feature international work as well as work from the United States.

Sub Unit

  • SIG-Online Teaching and Learning


  • Jacqueline Zweig, Education Development Center, Inc.


  • Online Teaching in K–12 Education: A Systematic Review – Carla C. Johnson, North Carolina State University; Janet Walton, North Carolina State University; Jennifer Brammer Elliott, North Carolina State University; Lacey Jean Strickler Eppard, University of Toledo
  • Timing of Enrollment and Online Course Completion – Jacqueline Zweig, Education Development Center, Inc.; Erin Stafford, Education Development Center, Inc.
  • A Novel Adoption of Two Online Teaching Self-Evaluation Instruments Among a Public Pre-K–12 Teacher Sample – Virginia Byrne, Morgan State University; Diane Jass Ketelhut, University of Maryland – College Park
  • Factors Influencing Chinese K–12 Teachers’ Intention to Teach Online During the Pandemic – Yu Qing, East China Normal University
  • Homeschooling in Norway During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Unequal Opportunities and Little Digital Innovation – Cecilie Pedersen Dalland, OsloMet – Oslo Metropolitan University; Marte Blikstad-Balas, University of Oslo; Kirsti Klette, University of Oslo; Astrid Roe, University of Oslo


  • Mary F. Rice, The University of New Mexico

This study was a IES-funded literature review that looked at what were the best practices for K-12 online teaching, which the presenters situated in light of the pandemic (without really making any distinction between online learning and remote learning).  The presenters used terms such as online, distance, virtual, cyber, and remote (emphasis added by me).  The search yielded 328 articles.

Based on their review of those 328 articles, they developed the framework below.

In terms of their two specific research questions, the presenters provided the following results.

These findings resulted in the following implications.

With respect to that third item, I have often said before how much literature is enough before we stop referring to our literature as scarce?  There is always room for more research, I mean there is still much to learn about direct instruction in the classroom which has been around for hundreds of years or Socratic questioning which has been around for thousands of years.  And other than heeding the warnings of a small group of researchers that suggested this might be something to focus on online learning as a way to address disruptions in the system, what exactly could have been done to prepare the education system for a complete shutdown for months and continued disruption for years – particularly when the political dynamic had everything from this being armageddon to this was just cold and flu season?

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