Virtual School Meanderings

March 2, 2017

K-12 Online & Blended Learning Articles – International Journal of Online Pedagogy and Course Design (IJOPCD)

I was looking through this journal the other day and took the time to review all of the K-12 distance, online and blended learning articles that had been published in this journal.

Integrating Blended Learning into Situational Writing for Vocational High School Students

Hsiu-Ling Yen (Kaohsiung Municipal San-Min Home Economics & Commerce Vocational High School, Kaohsiung, Taiwan), Shi-Jer Lou (National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, Taiwan) and Ru-Chu Shih (National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, Taiwan)

Copyright: © 2013 |Pages: 16

DOI: 10.4018/ijopcd.2013070106


This study aims to explore vocational high school students’ attitudes toward integrating blended learning into situational writing, and the learning effectiveness of that integration. A total of 84 vocational high students were divided into an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group received writing instruction through an online platform, whereas the control group received writing instruction in traditional classrooms. Attitude toward writing and writing performance were assessed before and after the experiment. Also, learning satisfaction survey was conducted afterwards. The findings of this study reveal that results of the post-test total scores and behavior are significantly higher than the pre-test total scores and behavior results for both the experimental and control groups. Particularly, organization, language usage, and the overall performance in the students’ writings are significantly improved. Scores for affection and behavior and total scores for attitude toward writing are significantly higher for the experimental group than for the control group. Both groups show significant satisfaction with the instructional method, interactivity, and total grades.

Teaching Virtually: Strategies and Challenges in the 21st Century Online Classroom

Leanna Archambault (Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA)

Copyright: © 2014 |Pages: 15

DOI: 10.4018/ijopcd.2014010101


Enrollment in K-12 online learning continues to grow at an exponential rate throughout the United States. With this increase, one of the key factors for ensuring quality educational experiences for students is the knowledge, skills, and dispositions of their teachers. To address issues of online pedagogy, this study reports practices from a group of K-12 online teachers from a cyber charter school located in the desert southwest of the United States. Results show that online teachers use web-based programs, internal communication systems, and/or a combination of these types of tools to provide clear instruction, while also encouraging student participation, engaging students, and clearly communicating learning goals. Challenges found with online teaching include dealing with a heavy workload, garnering parental support, coping with high student-teacher ratios, and learning “the job.” This article calls for additional support for virtual teachers, including coursework and field experiences within teacher education programs that address the needs of K-12 online educators.

The Forgotten Teachers in K-12 Online Learning: Examining the Perceptions of Teachers Who Develop K-12 Online Courses

Michael Kristopher Barbour (Isabelle Farrington College of Education, Sacred Heart University, Fairfield, CT, USA), David Adelstein (Instructional Technology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA) and Jonathan Morrison (Science Department, Urbana High School, Urbana, IL, USA)

Copyright: © 2014 |Pages: 16

DOI: 10.4018/ijopcd.2014070102


Like many K-12 online learning programs, the Illinois Virtual High School (IVHS) began by utilizing vendor content to populate its online courses. In its fourth year, the IVHS began a concerted effort to design more of its own online course content internals. The aim of this study was to examine the nature of the support needed and application of tools used by IVHS course developers. The data consisted of a two-part, web-based survey and telephone interviews that were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inductive analysis. The results showed these developers had a strong desire to use interactive elements in their course as well as working in cooperative teams. Further, developers were opposed to using a forced template, but indicated a need for general structural guidance and additional professional development. Finally, developers recommended that subject matter teacher-developers and multimedia specialists be split into two separate roles, and these individuals work together as a part of a design team. Further research should be conducted on the intended use of technology tools requested.

Online Learning at the K-12 Level: An Examination of Teacher Technology Use by Subject Area and Grade Level

Chris Sorensen (Ashford University, San Diego, CA, USA)

Copyright: © 2016 |Pages: 14

DOI: 10.4018/IJOPCD.2016040102


Technology integration has had a profound effect on K-12 education with research yielding positive results in student learning. Most research to date has been conducted in face-to-face settings. With the growth of online K-12 learning, an opportunity exists to examine technology use in the “new” K-12 classroom. The aim of this research was to investigate the potential relationships between specific technology and subject area and grade level and why online K-12 teachers use technology in their online classrooms. Results suggest that in an online K-12 learning environment, relationships may exist between what technology is used and the subject area and/or grade level it is used in.


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