Virtual School Meanderings

July 28, 2014

EDTECH537 – List Entry: History Of K-12 Online Learning Programs

A while ago, an online Advanced Placement teacher who was in attendance for the Virtual Advanced Placement Conference that was held last month at Binghamton University contacted me to ask me about the history of K-12 online learning programs in the United States, and specifically if there was a listing of the programs and when they first began.  To the best of my knowledge, there isn’t a comprehensive list and I sent him some sources to get him started.  Having said that, the idea has been in my head since, so I began to pick and poke at creating my own such list based on what I know on the topic.  And since I’ve got as much done on it as I figure I’ll get done, I thought that it would make good fodder for my first entry – topic of my choosing – for Week 8 of my EDTECH537 – Blogging In The Classroom course.  So here is the list and the specific references that I have for them.

Private Online Schools

Full-Time, Public Online Schools

Supplemental Online Schools

For-Profit Content Provider


Laurel Springs School (Barbour, 2011)


Choice 2000 (Darrow, 2010)

Utah Electronic High School (Clark, 2003)


Christa McAuliffe Academy (Clark, 2001)


Apex Learning (Clark, 2001)

Basehor-Linwood Virtual Charter School – Kansas (Clark, 2000, Clark, 2001)

Florida Virtual School (Friend & Johnston, 2005)

Virtual High School Global Consortium (Pape, Adams, & Ribeiro, 2005)


Alabama Online High School (Clark, 2001) (Clark, 2000)

University of California UC College Prep Initiative (Clark, 2001; Watson, Winograd, & Kalmon, 2004)

University of Nebraska Independent Study High School Online Diploma Program (Clark, 2000)


Arkansas Virtual High School (Clark, 2001)

Hawaii E-School (Clark, 2001)

Kentucky Virtual High School (Clark, 2000)

Louisiana Virtual Classroom (Clark, 2001)

North Dakota Division of Independent Study (Clark, 2001)

West Virginia Virtual School (Clark, 2001)

Pre-2000 (first referenced in a 2000 publication, but could have began operating earlier)

Babbage Net School (Clark, 2000)

Internet Academy – Federal Way, Washington Public Schools (Clark, 2000)

Mindquest – Bloomington, Minnesota Public Schools (Clark, 2000)

ZipStar Academy (Clark, 2000)


Hawaii E-Charter (Clark, 2001)

Idaho Virtual High School (Clark, 2001)

Illinois Virtual High School (Clark, 2000)

Pennsylvania Virtual Charter School (Clark, 2001; Watson, Winograd, & Kalmon, 2004)

Michigan Virtual High School (Clark, 2000)

New Mexico Virtual School (Clark, 2001)

Wisconsin Virtual School (Winograd, & Kalmon, 2004)

Pre-2001 (first referenced in a 2001 publication, but could have began operating earlier)

Abbington Hill School (Clark, 2001)

Academic Systems (Clark, 2001)

Alpha-Omega Academy On (Clark, 2001)

Birdville Virtual School (Clark, 2001)

Brigham Young University Independent Study (Clark, 2001)

CAL Online – Clovis Unified Schools, CA (Clark, 2001)

ChildU – Weston, FL (Clark, 2001)

Clintondale Virtual High School (Clark, 2001)

Clonlara Compuhigh (Clark, 2001)

Compuhigh Online High School (Clark, 2001)

Cumberland County Schools Web Academy (Clark, 2001)

Cyberschool – Lane County Schools, Eugene, OR (Clark, 2001)

Delta Cyber School (Clark, 2001)

Dennison On-Line Internet School (Clark, 2001)

Duncanville Independent School District’s Virtual School (Clark, 2001)

eBranch – Spring Branch Independent School District (Clark, 2001)

eEducation (Clark, 2001)

eSchool – Plano Independent School District (Clark, 2001)

Eldorado Academy (Clark, 2001)

Electronic Charter School (Clark, 2001)

Electronic Classroom of Tomorrow (Clark, 2001)

Evergreen Internet Academy (Clark, 2001)

Francis Virtual School (Clark, 2001)

Garden Schools – Branson, MO (Clark, 2001)

Gwinnett County Online Campus (Clark, 2001)

Houston Independent School District’s Virtual School (Clark, 2001)

Indiana University High School (Clark, 2001)

Intelligent Education, Inc. (Clark, 2001)

International High School (Clark, 2001)

Internet Home School.Com – Prescott, AZ (Clark, 2001)

JeffcoNet Academy (Clark, 2001)

Juneau Cyber School (Clark, 2001)

KeystoneVirtual High School (Clark, 2001)

Lancaster-Lebanon Intermediate Unit 13 – Pennsylvania (Clark, 2001)

Monte Vista On-line Academy (Clark, 2001)

Minnesota Distance Learning Academy (Clark, 2001)

NCS Learn (Clark, 2001)

NetSchool – Hillsboro Schools, OR (Clark, 2001)

Northwest Cyberschool (Clark, 2001)

Oak Meadow Online School (Clark, 2001)

Oakland Virtual Connection (Clark, 2001)

Odyssey Charter School (Clark, 2001)

Oklahoma State University Extension, K12 Distance Learning Academy (Clark, 2001)

Regina Coeli Academy (Clark, 2001)

Rock Hill School District #3 Virtual High School (Clark, 2001)

Salem-Keizer Online (Clark, 2001)

Scholar Classical Tutorials (Clark, 2001)

Scholars’ Online Academy – Tucson, AZ (Clark, 2001)

SeeUonline – Matanuska-Susitna Schools, Palmer, AK (Clark, 2001)

Southern Oregon Online School (Clark, 2001)

Southwest Missouri State University eHighSchool (Clark, 2001)

Spring (Texas) Independent School District’s eBranch (Clark, 2001)

Stanford University, Education Program for Gifted Youth (Clark, 2001)

Sycamore Tree Online (Clark, 2001)

Texas Virtual School (Clark, 2001)

The Einstein Academy Charter School (Clark, 2001)

The Potter’s School (Clark, 2001)

The Trent Schools – Bloomington, IN (Clark, 2001)

University of Missouri-Columbia High School (Clark, 2001)

University of Texas High School (Clark, 2001)

Vilas Interactive Long Distance Alternative School

Virtual Greenbush – Kansas (Clark, 2001)

Virtual School @ Liverpool (Clark, 2001)

Virtual High School @ Prince William County Schools (Clark, 2001)

Western Pennsylvania Cyber Charter School (Clark, 2001)

Willoway Cybershool (Clark, 2001)

WISE Internet High School – Richard Milburn School (Clark, 2001)


Colorado Online Learning (Clark, 2001)

Idaho Digital Learning Academy (Watson, Winograd, & Kalmon, 2004)

Maryland Virtual Learning Community (Clark, 2001)


Virtual Schools Pilot – Texas (Watson, Winograd, & Kalmon, 2004)

Pre-2004 (first referenced in a 2004 publication, but could have began operating earlier)

Connections Academy program (x2) – Colorado (Watson, Winograd, & Kalmon, 2004)

Connections Academy program – Wisconsin (Watson, Winograd, & Kalmon, 2004)

Florida Connections Academy (Watson, Winograd, & Kalmon, 2004)

Florida Virtual Academy (Watson, Winograd, & Kalmon, 2004)

Idaho Leadership Academy (Watson, Winograd, & Kalmon, 2004)

Idaho Virtual Academy (Watson, Winograd, & Kalmon, 2004)

Idaho Virtual High School (Watson, Winograd, & Kalmon, 2004)

K12, Inc. program (x3) – California (Watson, Winograd, & Kalmon, 2004)

K12, Inc program – Colorado (Watson, Winograd, & Kalmon, 2004)

K12, Inc program – Wisconsin (Watson, Winograd, & Kalmon, 2004)

Large Unit District Association – Illinois (Watson, Winograd, & Kalmon, 2004)

Ohio Virtual Academy (Watson, Winograd, & Kalmon, 2004)

TRECA – Ohio (Watson, Winograd, & Kalmon, 2004)

Note that I stopped with 2004, as that takes us up to the first Keeping Pace with K-12 Online Learning publication.


Barbour, M. K. (2011a). The promise and the reality: Exploring virtual schooling in rural jurisdictions. Education in Rural Australia, 21(1), 1-20.

Clark, T. (2000). Virtual high schools: State of the states – A study of virtual high school planning and preparation in the United States. Center for the Application of InformationTechnologies, Western Illinois University. Retrieved from

Clark, T. (2001). Virtual schools: Trends and issues – A study of virtual schools in the United States. San Francisco, CA: Western Regional Educational Laboratories. Retrieved from

Darrow, Rob (2010). A comparative study between online charter high schools and traditional high schools in California. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, California State University, Fresno, CA.  Retrieved from

Watson, J. F., Winograd, K., & Kalmon, S. (2004). Keeping pace with K–12 online learning: A snapshot of state-level policy and practice. Naperville, IL: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. Retrieved from

May 27, 2014

Due Friday, May 30: E-Learn 2014 (New Orleans) Call For Presentations

Another item from yesterday’s inbox…

Call for Presentations: May 30
New Orleans, Louisiana
October 27-30, 2014
Now Accepting Submissions for E-Learn 2014!
Join us in the
‘Big Easy’ for
E-Learn 2014 – World Conference on E-Learning.
This international conference serves as a multi-disciplinary forum for exchanging the latest research, developments, and applications of all topics related to e-Learning.
NEW!  Special Interest Groups at E-Learn!
* E-learning in Developing Countries
* E-Learning Trends & Innovations
* Designing, Developing, & Assessing E-Learning
Visit the E-Learn SIGs pageto learn more.  

E-Learn is sponsored by
the Education &
Information Technology
Digital Library.
Conference Proceedings are now available exclusively at
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AACE | | 828-246-9558 | P.O. Box 719 | Waynesville | NC | 28786

[CATE-ACFE] Final Update for CSSE2014

Note that the CSSE conference begins today…

Hello CATE Members,

A final update for all those who are traveling to Brock for CSSE 2014 this weekend. Two minor corrections from the last email to confirm:

1.  Our CATE Dinner will be on Monday, May 26 at Alphie’s Bistro on the Brock University Campus from 6:30 to 8:30 pm following our AGM and Awards Ceremony.  The seating is now full and those who have signed up for the dinner are listed in the attached file.  If for some reason you are unable to attend the dinner, please let Julie know at as we have made a committment for 45 guests.

2.  Our CATE Keynote will be held on Tuesday May 27, 10am in Welch Hall 311.  Jennifer Rowsell is our invited guest speaking Toward Extended Notions of Teacher Education.

3.  Included is an updated overview of the CATE events with any changes highlighted in yellow.  The Program App will be continually updated and can be found:

For iPhone, iPad, and Android devices, please search your App Store for “CSSE 2014″;

For Blackberry and Windows Phone, please point mobile browser to

There is also a Web version available at

Those of you who have pre-ordered print copies will be able to pick them up at registration.  Please remember that the print copy will not be updated as changes happen but daily reports will be available at the CSSE desk on-campus.

Travel safely and I look forward to seeing everyone at Brock!


Julie Mueller, Ph.D.
Faculty of Education
Wilfrid Laurier University
75 University Ave. W.
Waterloo, ON N2L 3C5
(519) 884 – 1970 x 2115
CATE mailing list

Attachment: Overview of CATE Timetable for CSSE 2014

May 24, 2014

Congress Starts On Saturday: Register Today! | Le Congrès débute le samedi : Inscrivez-vous aujourd’hui !

From Wednesday’s inbox…


Having trouble viewing this email? Click here

Congress starts on Saturday!

Registrations for Congress 2014 have almost reached 7,000!

Connect with your Association and come and be part of this extraordinary gathering of scholars, policy-makers and stakeholders in the world-famous Niagara Region.

Getting to and around Congress

Planning a spur of the moment getaway to Congress? No problem!

When you arrive at Brock University, visit the Congress Registration Desk in the Congress Centre located in the Walker Complex. Here you will be able to register and pick up your official access badge.

For more details about arriving at Brock University, please see:

Accommodations and a convenient shuttle service during Congress

Brock University and the many hotels in the greater St. Catharines area are all looking forward to hosting you during Congress 2014 at one of the many on or off-campus accommodations.


Brock University will be providing a daily bus shuttle to and from campus and all the hotels affiliated with Congress in St. Catharines and Niagara Falls. The shuttle service costs $5 per trip and will run in 30 minute intervals.


A great line-up of special programming

Congress offers a range of academic, professional and cultural programming to enrich your experience. These events include those that are open to the public, as well as to all registered attendees.

Be sure to visit the online Calendar of Events for exciting programming brought to you by the Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences, Brock University, Associations and our Congress partners. Highlights include:



The Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences works to promote the value of research and learning in the humanities and social sciences. Created in 1996, its membership comprises over 80 scholarly associations, 79 institutions and six affiliate organizations, representing 85,000 researchers, educators and students across Canada.


With seven faculties, 18,000 full-time students, 13 Canada Research Chairs and nearly 600 professors, Brock is buzzing with activity and welcoming visitors to the St. Catharines campus every day. The university, which is celebrating its 50th anniversary in 2014, is one of only a handful of Canadian universities located in a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve.

Le Congrès débute le samedi ! 
Le nombre d’inscriptions au Congrès 2014 est presque à les
7 000 !Nouez des liens avec votre association et joignez-vous à ce rassemblement extraordinaire de chercheurs, des responsables des politiques et des intervenants dans la région de Niagara de renommée mondiale.

Inscrivez-vous aujourd’hui !

Se déplacer au Congrès  

Vous planifiez un voyage de dernière minute au Congrès ? Aucun problème !

En arrivant sur les lieux du Congrès, rendez-vous au Bureau d’inscription du Congrès situé dans le Centre du Congrès au Walker Complex. Ici vous pouvez vous inscrire et obtenir votre insigne d’accès officiel.

Pour plus de détails sur l’arrivée à la Brock University, veuillez voir :

L’hébergement et un service de navette pratique pendant le Congrès 

La Brock University et les nombreux hôtels de la grande région de St. Catharines attendent avec impatience de vous accueillir à l’un des nombreux hébergements sur le campus ou hors campus.

La Brock University mettra à la disposition une navette quotidienne d’aller et retour entre le campus et les hôtels affiliés au Congrès situés à St. Catharines et à Niagara Falls. Le service de navette coute 5 $ par trajet et s’arrêtera toutes les 30 minutes.

Un programme riche est diversifié 

Le Congrès propose une programmation universitaire, professionnelle et culturelle variée et des plus enrichissantes. Ces événements sont ouverts à tous les congressistes et quelques-uns le sont au grand public.

Visitez régulièrement le calendrier des événements pour découvrir un programme riche et diversifié présenté par la Fédération des sciences humaines, la Brock University, les Associations et nos partenaires du Congrès. Les événements spéciaux incluent :

Le Congrès des sciences humaines 2014 est une initiative de la Fédération des sciences humaines présentée par la Brock University.


La Fédération des sciences humaines œuvre à la mise en valeur de la recherche et de l’érudition dans ces disciplines. Créée en 1996, elle compte au nombre de ses adhérents plus de 80 associations savantes, 79 institutions et six sociétés affiliées représentant quelque 85 000 chercheurs, membres du corps enseignant et étudiants au Canada.

Comptant sept facultés, 18 000 étudiants à temps plein, 13 chaires de recherche du Canada et quelque 600 professeurs, la Brock University bourdonne d’activités et accueille tous les jours les visiteurs sur le campus de St. Catharines. L’université, qui célèbre son 50e anniversaire de la fondation en 2014, fait partie des quelques universités canadiennes désignées Réserve de biosphère par l’UNESCO.

Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences | 275 Bank Street | Suite 300 | Ottawa | Ontario | K2P 2L6 | Canada

May 20, 2014

[CSSE-SCÉÉ] CSSE Conference 2014 Bulletin – App, Programme and AGM | Bulletin du congrès 2014 de la SCÉÉ – Appli, programme et AGA

For my Canadian colleagues…

[Ce message est bilingue.] [Our apologies for any multiple postings.]

Dear CSSE Delegates and Members :

The CSSE App is now functional.  The App can be accessible as follows:

For iPhone, iPad, and Android devices, please search your App Store for “CSSE 2014”;

For Blackberry and Windows Phone, please point mobile browser to

There is also a Web version available at

We have strived to be as accurate as possible with the information but errors will happen for which we apologize.

We wish you an enjoyable and productive conference!

[Veuillez accepter nos excuses pour les postages croisés.]

Chers délégués et membres,

Le nouvelle appli de la SCÉÉ est maintenant fonctionnelle.

Voici comment y avoir accès :

iPhone, iPad et appareils Android : veuillez chercher dans « CSSE 2014 » dans App Store;

Blackberry et Windows Phone, veuillez pointer le navigateur de votre téléphone à

Il y a aussi une version WEB que vous trouverez à

Nous nous sommes efforcés de vous fournir les informations les plus exacts possible, mais il se peut qu’il y ait des erreurs, pour lesquelles nous vous prions de nous excuser.

Bon congrès!

***Messages are posted in the language received.***
***Les messages sont affichés dans la langue dans laquelle nous les avons reçus.***
CSSE mailing list

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